« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
centrated on eugenics have thrown much new light on the problems of inheritance. Educationists will find a particularly helpful summary of the chief conclusions of recent researches on the problems of heredity in a manual recently issued in the volumes of “ Constructive Studies,” of “ The University of Chicago Publications in Religious Education,” edited by Professor Ernest D. Burton, Shailer Mathews and Theodore G. Soares. The work is entitled “ The Third and Fourth Generation," and has been written by Dr. Elliot Rowland Downing, of The School of Education of the University of Chicago. It is published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A., and can be obtained in this country from the Cambridge University Press, Fetter Lane, E.C.1 (price 4s. 6d. net). The editors in their preface make the following striking statement : “The present study is an attempt to consider frankly and seriously the scientific facts regarding the problem commonly called ' eugenics.' The religious significance of a reverent and thoughtful understanding of this highly interesting subject is at once apparent when one thinks of the perfecting of human society as the goal of the divine plan. The scientist, as such, will not, of course, discuss the spiritual significance of the evolutionary goal. That is where faith goes beyond our ascertained knowledge. But faith must not operate apart from knowledge. Nothing can be more important in religious education than to train young people to use the careful methods of science in ascertaining the facts upon which their conclusions, not less in morals and religion than in other fields, are always to be based." The work is one which should be studied by parents as well as by ministers, teachers and others who seek to serve as leaders in human progress. It provides in lucid, non-technical language an up-to-date exposition regarding the known laws of heredity, and the chief facts regarding the inheritance of human characters. The work is attractively got up, and is wellillustrated with figures and diagrams. At the end of each section is a set of summarizing questions particularly suitable for discussion in connection with the work of a reading circle. There is also
a useful select bibliography. The concluding chapter deals with the practical problem of human heredity, and from it we venture to quote the following : “ The young people, who are to be the mothers and fathers of the next generation, have a right to a frank, yet reverent, presentation of reproduction and heredity, at least a presentation sufficient to make them realize that these phenomena are well within the pale of law and order, Now we may not marry into a family with a persistent tubercular history in the blind hope that luck will prevent the reappearance
of the defective tendency in future generations; we know what to expect. We know that insane and feebleminded stock is prone to reproduce insanity and feeble-mindedness, and that, on the other hand, ability mated with ability tends to reproduce ability. . It seems little enough to ask that we should exercise as much good sense in producing children as we do in producing hogs and corn. That does not mean that we can apply the method of the cattle pen to human relations, but merely that we adopt caution and intelligent foresight in founding a family commensurate with that used by the wise breeder of plant or animal stock. Briefly, the knowledge
at our command for this purpose may be summarized as follows : Whenever plants or animals differing from each other in one or more particulars are interbred, the transmission of those factors, whose interplay determines the hereditary characters, is in accordance (generation after generation) with the simple Mendelian laws. Even those cases that are apparent exceptions, like eye colour in the fruit-fly and colour blindness in men, are found to be explicable as Mendelian phenomena when they are considered as sex-linked characters. So far as our accurate data go, they indicate that the inheritance of human physical characters is truly Mendelian, so that, knowing the hair colour, eye colour, height, &c., of the parents, one can predict with accuracy the probable characters of the children. Disease tendencies (but not the diseases themselves) usually behave as Mendelian recessives. Certain diseases primarily affecting the
sex organs, syphilis and gonorrhæa, while not heritable, are communicated from
mother to child at time of birth, and from person to person, largely, but not wholly, by impure sexual relations. These diseases are exceedingly virulent, cause untold misery, are more prevalent and more terrible than tuberculosis, and, while curable in a minority of the cases, are often uncured, and hence a source of contagion to innocent persons, especially to wives and children who come in contact with a diseased man. The facts
to indicate that abnormal conditions of the nervous system, resulting in alcoholic mania, epilepsy, feeble-mindedness and insanity, are also heritable, and probably in Mendelian fashion; at least the evidence is sufficient to induce the cautious individual to base action on such a hypothesis. Similarly, the evidence seems to show that mental ability also is heritable, though so many facts are involved in such a complicated thing as 'ability' that we may make this assertion in a tentative way only. With these facts in mind, what policies may be adopted to guide action that aims at an improvement of a family, a race, or people ? We must bear in mind that improving the environment may enlarge opportunity. Training may develop individual capacity to the limit, but that limit is set by the heredity equipment. The hope of racial improvement is in selective breeding, and this hope must be realized by (1) stimulating reproduction in the best stock, (2) checking it in the poorest.
The same method has been effective in man's improvement of domestic plants and animals.
It is one of Nature's potent methods for the improvement of all living bodies, the elimination of the unfit, the reproduction of the fit."
methods and to bring new conceptions and fresh ideas before educationists. There is much dissatisfaction with existing measures and the principles and practices which have prevailed among educationists in bygone days are constantly being condemned. Destructive criticism is of but little service unless it is followed by a programme of constructive endeavours. The open-minded educationist must ever keep his face towards the dawn ready to catch the first rays of the daybreak of the coming glories which shall scatter the dense darkness which at present encompasses the world. Many valuable works on educational progress are coming to us from our American cousins and colleagues, and reference may here be made to several which have recently reached us and merit the serious study of educationists, “Self-surveys by Colleges and Universities,” by William H. Allen, Ph.D., Director of the Institute for Public Service, New York City, published by the World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, and 2126, Prairie Avenue, Chicago (price $3.00), is the first volume of the promising “ Educational Survey Series.” It is primarily addressed to American citizens, but deserves the consideration of all educationists. The work employs the term “self-survey as expressing the conviction that “the study of higher education, which is most needed to-day, is study by colleges themselves of themselves and by each college of itself." The author claims that “ colleges can helpfully and constructively study college problems only by applying to themselves the principles of scientific analysis and observation that higher education applies to the rest of the universe. General questions must be broken into their elements and each part answered specifically for each individual activity or person concerned.” The book is one which all connected with schools of education and educational establishments of every kind will do well to study in its entirety. An enumeration of the titles of the chief divisions of the work will indicate something of its wide scope : The Survey Movement in Higher Education, Procedure for a Co-operative College Survey, Relation of Trustees to President and Faculty, Executive and Business
Efficiency, Faculty Government, Extracurricular Activities of Students, Courses of Study, Instructional Efficiency, and Relation with College Communities. There are numerous instructive illustrations and diagrams. Scattered through the book are blank pages “For Questions or Notes by the Reader,” a novel and serviceable innovation. The field of educational enterprise covered is immense. Dr. Allen in his Foreword enumerates a little of the wide range of his survey : “ Among subjects which it is hoped will help trustees and students to answer questions that are being widely asked are these : education scapegoats, student cost of living, keeping in touch with alumni, citizen courses, learning by doing, English as taught and practised, analysing student capacity, lecture and over-lecture, personality of instructor, observation of classroom instructor, method of selecting instructors, more experienced teachers for less experienced students, segregation of sexes, national conventions for trustees, academic vocations, methods of appealing and publicity, the teaching load, effect of research upon teaching efficiency, use and non-use of college space, how president and faculty deal with one another, and the effect of foundations upon colleges and universities. Such a glimpse of an ambitious programme should be sufficient to show that this is no ordinary book, and that it is
which constructive educationists cannot afford to pass over.
“Vocational Education,” compiled by Emily Robinson, and published by the H. W. Wilson Company, 958-964, University Avenue, New York City (price $1.50 net), is a member of the useful “ Handbook Series,” a companion set to the well-known “Debaters' Handbook Series.” Vocational education is a subject much to the fore, and all educationists must give it full consideration. Miss Robinson's volume provides material which permits of all aspects of the problem being investigated without prejudice. It supplies in compact and convenient form statements and expressions of opinion from educationists of many and varied schools of thought. The volume will be of special service to those in training for the profession of teaching, and should be studied by all
managers of schools and others responsible for the organization and administration of educational work. The work contains a valuable general bibliography. Miss Robinson's book deals with the question of vocational education as it presents in America, but in view of the development of continuation schools in this country the views and experiences here set forth will be of great value to British educationists. We venture to take the following quotation from Miss Robinson's introduction : “Vocational guidance, which has resulted from the awakened conscience of the community in regard to the welfare of its youth, gives the child at least a little choice in occupation, even though he may have to begin work before he has completed his rudimentary education, and the few hours of continuation school which he may get will do much towards retaining the education already gained and towards seizing the opportunity to learn more and to be employed in better work. The motor-minded boy who stays in school or goes to continuation school has a chance to learn a skilled trade, instead of having to take the first avenue open to him with the chance of finding himself in some 'dead-end' occupation after he is too old to learn a trade easily." The extracts are from the writings of some of America's leading educationists, and are conveniently arrayed under the following sectional headings : “Phases of Vocational Education for Youth,” “ Industrial Education," "Commercial Education,” ' Agricultural Education," “ Household Arts and Vocational Guidance.” A good general index should be provided in the next edition.
SERVICE, The Home Secretary has appointed a Departmental Committee to inquire into the conditions of service of superintendents, teachers, and other officers of reformatory and industrial schools and to make representations as to the number and qualifications of the officers required in the several classes of schools and the appropriate scales of remuneration for such officers and to prepare an estimate of the additional cost to the schools re
sulting from such recommendations. The members are : Dr. A. H. Norris, M.C., H.M. Chief Inspector of Reformatory and Industrial Schools (Chairman); Mr. W. H. Bulley, H.M. Inspector of Reformatory and Industrial Schools; Mr. F. H. B. Dale, C.B., H.M. Chief Inspector of Elementary Schools; Mr. I. Ellis, Superintendent of Hayes Industrial School; Miss, S. Goulding, Superintendent of Coventry Industrial School; Mr. T. W. Hunter, Secretary of the Westminster Diocesan Education Fund; Mr. J. C. Jones, General Secretary of the Association of Teachers of Certified Schools; Mr. A. Maxwell, of the Home Office; and Miss K. T. Wallas, of the London County Council. Mr. Bulley will act as Secretary, and all communications should be sent to him at the Home Office.
the Divine blessing on our just cause." August 4 will be a day set apart for a national service, solemn celebration and prayer in all churches and chapels and schools throughout the British Empire.
The President of the Local Government Board, the Rt. Hon. W. Hayes Fisher, M.P., has accepted the invitation of the Willesden Urban District Council to open the Willesden Municipal Clinic, 379 and 381, High Road, Willesden Green, on Thursday, August 1, at 3.30 p.m. One of these freehold properties, namely, 381, High Road, Willesden Green, was presented as a gift to the Council for purposes of a clinic by Dr. and Mrs. Acworth in Baby Week, 1917.
During August and September number of summer schools and holiday
are being held. References to many of these have already appeared in our previous issues.
Glamorgan County Council is holding their thirteenth Summer School for educational handwork, art, Welsh, Nature study, hygiene and physical training, plain needlework, art needlework, dressmaking, practical geography, gardening, &c., at the County Schools, Barry, up to August 24. There is a Camp for Women in the grounds of the Training College, Barry, which is adjacent to the County Schools. A limited number of students are thus able to spend a month under
BABY WELFARE AND A HEALTH
The National Baby Week Council have adopted the following resolution : “ That the National Baby Week Council, while approving the objects of the Maternity and Child Welfare Bill, deplores the continued sacrifices of the nation's present health and future life to departmental vested interests, and calls upon the Government to establish a Ministry of Health without further delay, and at no distant date; that the Council approach the affiliated organizations with a view to a full discussion of this important subject, and to carry on a coordinated propaganda campaign in favour of a Ministry of Health during the coming autumn."
At Bedford College for Women (University of London), a Summer School in Psychology for teachers and others interested in psychology will be held from August i to io inclusive. The course will comprise morning lectures and informal conferences on general problems of psychology, experimental methods, mental tests, &c. In the afternoon opportunities will be given for individual work in the laboratory and for the discussion of practical problems. The lecturers will include Miss Edgell, M.A., Ph.D.; F. C. Bartlett, Esq., M.A.; Miss V. Hazlitt, M.A.; Professor P. Nunn, D.Sc.; and Lieut.-Col. C. S. Myers, F.R.S., M.D. The fee for the course in one guinea. Further particulars may be obtained from the Principal, Bedford College, Regent's Park, N.W.1.
GREAT THOUGHTS ON CHILD LIFE AND
Under this heading are gathered quotations from the works of those who have tormed ideals or dealt
with actualities relating to child life and child welfare. It is hoped that many of our readers will assist in the compilation of this page by sending any helpful thoughts which they may have found of service in their own experience or discovered in the course of their general reading.
“ If thou shouldst never see my face again, Pray for my soul. More things are wrought by
prayer Than this world dreams of. Wherefore, let
thy voice Rise like a fountain for me night and day. For what are men better than sheep and goats That nourish a blind life within the brain, If, knowing God, they lift not hands of prayer Both for themselves and those who call them
friends ? For so the whole round earth is every way Bound by gold chains about the feet of God."
I have had playmates, I have had companions, !n my days of childhood, my joyful schooldays."
“O sleep, sweet infant, for we all must sleep And wake like babes, that we may wake
with Him, Who watches still His own from harm to keep, And o'er them spreads the wings of Cherubim."
Child, child, child I
What have they done with thee ? Where is the little child
Who laughed upon my knee ? My son is straight and strong,
Ready of lip and limb; 'Twas the dream of my whole life long
To bear a son like him. He has grief I cannot guess,
He has joys I cannot know ; I love him none the less ;
With a man it should be so. ' But where, where, where
Is the child so dear to me, With the silken-golden hair, Who sobbed upon my knee?"
Only the childless see the full tragedy of mothers and daughters, so constantly repeated, so almost inevitable. These two lives begin at baby's birth with bright hopes of future companionship on the mother's part, only to be -shattered as the baby creature develops a character and its own little personality emerges; then ensues a clash of wills, often a complete divergence of interests. And all the time the two poor female natures are tossed to and fro, worried on the mother's side by the fret and soreness of real though misapplied affection, and on the daughter's by a sense of frustrated ambitions and an exasperated feeling that filial gratitude ought to be forthcoming, but somehow is altogether nonexistent. I don't see any remedy for this state of things, except perhaps to face facts with greater honesty and less of that pitiful determination to be devoted to each other at all costs, in defiance of natural inclination. The greater bond does not always include the less, and to be in the relaition of mother and daughter does not in itself ensure tender intimacy and an ideal of ambitions."
MRS. HENRY HEAD.
• The great thing in this world is not so much 'where we stand, as in what direction we are moving. To reach the port of Heaven, we must sail sometimes with the wind and sometimes against it; but we must sail and not drift, nor lie at anchor."
O. W. HOLMES.
"Strange that such feeble hands and feet as these Have sped the lamp-race of the centuries !”