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CHILD WELFARE AND THE WORK

WORK OF NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS.

During this period of supreme testing our journal will endeavour to render every possible assistance to

National Associations and Societies, Hospitals, Homes and Orphanages, and all agencies working for child welfare and desirous of publishing particulars regarding their plans, purposes and activities for rendering special assistance to childhood and youth in these days of stress and strain. Particulars should be sent, in as clear and condensed a form as possible, to the Editor, with copies of any publications, appeals, &c., which are being issued to the public.

They will not be dressed as freaks or oddities. In the poorest districts the people like to be in the fashion; it is cruel to make children look dowdy or queer. The poorest resent it.” It is intended that nurse-teachers shall be taught the art of making clothes designed by artists. The Edu-craft work is under the personal direction of Mrs. L. L. GlasierFoster. It is hoped that the New Needlecraft will form an integral part of the New Educational System that is going to supplant the old.

THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDLE

CRAFT ASSOCIATION. Under the designation of "Edu-craft.” there has recently been established the Educational Needlecraft Association, with showrooms at 307, Evelyn Street, Deptford, London, S.E. The promoters of this interesting enterprise are Miss Margaret McMillan, C.B.E., and Mrs. L. L. Glasier-Foster. The Association adopts new and improved methods in furthering the designing and manufacture of wearing apparel, &c. The ideal of the workers and promoters of the Association is to lead the way to a real and popular reform movement in dress, and to substitute for the shoddy, machine-produced garment so much in use to-day, artistic and inexpensive clothing. Edu-craft garments are made by skilled handcraftsmanship, and combine a studied tastefulness in design and colour-blending, with economy of labour and durability of all fabrics and materials used.. The Educraft work, whilst adapting itself to prevailing and ever-changing fashion modes, has a distinction of its own that appeals to the cultured. Inspection is invited at the new showrooms at Deptford, where Edu-craft garments and articles of household use

can be seen. The Edu-craft movement aims high. Its object is no less than to put an end to rags and to dress-ugliness of all kinds. It is going to clothe the children of the first nurseries and nursery schools beautifully. Love and an artist are to design the embroideries and choose the colours. The materials will be strong and durable. The dyes and cutting-out will be as fair and as smart as is possible. The Association is not merely an æsthetic school. The supporters claim, “ We are going to be “in the fashion. No one shall say of our children, How queer they look!

THE ORDER OF WOODCRAFT

CHIVALRY. The Woodcraft Chivalry Movement will interest educationists and all who strive to arouse in youth love of Nature and respect for all that is beautiful, serviceable and righteous. The Movement encourages self-government among children with adult assistance, and in order to expound its principles and practices is issuing a series of publications under the general title of “The Woodcraft Ilay in Education," the editors being Ernest Westlake, F.G.S., F.R.A.I., and Aubrey T. Westlake, B.A., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. lle have received four of these suggestive pamphlets. No. 1 is “Woodcraft," by Ernest Thompson Seton, who is Chief of the Woodcraft League and Grand Chieftain of the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry. The woodcraft boy is thus described : “ He is physically strong and a trained athlete, dignified, courteous, selfcontrolled, happy in helping, equipped for emergencies, wise in the ways of the woods, in touch with the world of men and affairs; not specializing, but of -uch all-round development that he can quickly be made a specialist in any needy place, and filled with a religion that

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consists not of mere observance, but a well-considered plan of life that makes him desired and helpful here to-day.” The editors also contribute an introduction in which the aims of the series are explained.

The Theory of Woodcraft Chivalry,” is a short statement prepared by Margaret A. Westlake in collaboration with the Editors. It indicates the “Woodcraft way” in physical manhood and womanhood, craftesmanship and learning, social life and citizenship, and art and religion. No. 3 explains The Order of Woodcraft Chivalry : Its Aims, Ideals and Methods.” “Primitive Occupations as a Factor in Education,” by the Editors, is a highly suggestive study of the value of primitive occupations in a child's educational development. The prices of these pamphlets are 4d., 6d., 6d., and 4d. respectively. They are published at the London office of the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry, 4, Fleet Street, E.C.4. The head office of the Movement is at Fordingbridge, near Salisbury, and the Central Camp is at Godshill, New Forest, Hants.

No. 4,

an adequate course of historical study, looking to the fact that the majority of intermediate pupils leave school at this age. (3) To indicate such a scope of work as could be covered and revised in a three years' course of 11 hours per teaching week. (4) To leave to the teacher complete liberty in the treatment of his subject and in the expression of his own individuality. The scheme has been well thought out and judiciously elaborated. Teachers of history will be specially grateful for the serviceable · Reference List of Books."

The National League for Health, Maternity and Child Welfare, which now includes the National League for Physical Education and Improvement (Incorporated), the National Association for the Prevention of Infant Mortality, and the Association of Infant Welfare and Maternity Centres, with headquarters at 4, Tavistock Square, London, W.C.1, announce that the American Red Cross has not only allocated £5,000 to the National League for Health, Maternity and Child Welfare to establish and maintain infant welfare institutions for a year, but has also given that body £10,000 with which to provide maternity hostels where they are most needed. It is hoped to establish one in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and London respectively, in addition to opening a number of antenatal clinics and factory crèches in various parts of the country, for all of which applications may now be sent to the Secretary at 4, Tavistock Square, London, W.C.1. An emergency home for babies and two day nurseries for children of the professional classes, whose mothers are obliged to work to supplement their Army and Navy allowances, are also to be established in London. Offers of empty houses would be most gratefully received.

" To Save Waste of Life," by F. Marie Imandt, issued by the Great Northern Central Hospital, Holloway, N.7, is a dainty illustrated booklet which tells in cffective words of the fine service which is being carried out in this progressive London hospital.

NOTA BENE.

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University College, Reading, has arranged for a one-year course in physical training for certificated women teachers, and it is being organized with approval of the Board of Education.

The National Clean Milk Society (Incorporated), 2, Soho Square, W.1, have just issued an informing leaflet, “ How to find out whether the Milk you Buy is Clean and Wholesome."

"A Syllabus for the Intermediate History Course in Scottish Schools” has been issued by the Educational Institute of Scotland, 34, North Bridge, Edinburgh (price 6d. net). It is a novelty which teachers will know how to approve. The Sub-Committee responsible for its preparation have sought the following aims : (1) To exhibit in outline the development of the country's history. (2) To insure that the patient has been taken through

BOOKS AND PERIODICALS.

Reviews and Noticos of Books and Journals dealing with all subjects relating to Child Life appear

under this heading.

“The Baby.”. By Sophia Seekings, M.D., B.S., D.P.H., Assistant Medical Officer of Health, Tottenham. Pp. 63, with illustrations. London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 68, Haymarket, S.W. 1. 1918. Price 9d

This practical little volume is one of the serviceable “Manuals of Health” edited by Dr. E. Barclay-Smith, Professor of Anatomy in the University of London. Dr. Seekings expresses her aim as being the discussion of “some of the vastly important rules of hygiene and laws of health in the hope of helping mothers who want to do their best for their little ones.” The prevention of infant mortality is a question of pressing importance, as the author explains in her preface : “In 1915 out of every 1,000 babies born in England 110 died before they reached twelve months of age. In some of the manufacturing and mining districts in the North, out of every 1,000 babies born 172 die before they are twelve months old, whilst out of every 1,000 babies born to doctors' wives only 40 die." Dr. Seekings's manual opens with an appealing introduction : "The right to be well born," and then follow chapters on “ Infant Management," Baby's Toilet," "General Hygiene," and lastly, a section is devoted to common ailments. There is a useful appendix, which includes directions for the knitting of a baby's first vest. The manual will be of service to those who conduct maternity and infant welfare centres or who are instructing girls in schools and women in centres for mothers how best to safeguard childhood by an intelligent provision for and protection of infancy.

of Cleveland. Cleveland employs sixteen physicians, one oculist, and twenty-seven nurses to care for the health of its school children, and $36,000 are spent annually on this service. There are eighty-six school dispensaries and clinics available. And “ Cleveland is making this heavy investment because she finds it pays.” The argument is clearly stated : “ Medical inspection is an extension of the activities of the school in which the educator and the physician join hands to insure for each child such conditions of health and vitality as will best enable him to take full advantage of the free education offered by the State. Its object is to better health conditions among school children, safeguard them from disease, and render them healthier, happier, and more vigorous. It is founded upon a recognition of the intimate relationship between the physical and mental conditions of the children, and the consequent dependence of education on health conditions." This record merits the careful study of all interested in the establishment of an efficient municipal school medical service. It contains full particulars regarding the aims, equipment, staff, and results of the work in Cleveland. It is a record of which all who have participated may well be proud. We wish it were possible to publish a similar survey for every large town. The illustrations alone point lessons of much practical value.

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" Health Work in the Public Schools.'' By Leonard P. Ayres and May Ayres. Pp. 59, with 8 full-page illustrations and 2 diagrams. Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. : The Survey Committee of the Cleveland Foundation. 1915. Price 25 cents.

This informing and suggestive little volume is one of the twenty-five sections of the Report of the Education Survey

· Examinations and their Relation to Culture and Efficiency." By P. J. Hartog, C.I.E., M.A., B.Sc. With a Speech by the late Earl of Cromer, O.M., G.C.B. Pp. xviii + 145. London : Constable and Co., Ltd. 1918. Price 3s. 6d. net.

This is a work which we earnestly commend to the serious study of schoolmasters and schoolmistresses and all responsible in any way for the organization and conduct of our present method of intellectual testing by examinations. Mr. Hartog's book is the outcome of a lecture the same precise significance as professional examinations.” The volume contains a highly suggestive and stimulating introduction, extracts from the Fourth Report of the Royal Commission on the Civil Service (Majority Report), 1914, Report of the Treasury Committee on Civil Service, Class I Examination, 1917,

note on the connotation of the word “Culture," a communication on “Kultur and Culture," a summary of the results of Professor Edgeworth's investigations on the Statistics of Examinations, and notes on Knowledge Tests and Memory Tests, and on the use of the term “ Order of Merit.”

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which he delivered to the Royal Society of Arts in January, 1911. The lecture is here reproduced with some slight revisions. This is followed by a report of the speech delivered by the Chairman, the late Earl of Cromer. In March, 1912, a Royal Commission was appointed with Lord MacDonnell as Chairman, “To inquire into and report on the methods of making appointments to and promotions in the Civil Service, including the Diplomatic and Consular Services and the legal departments; To investigate the working and efficiency of the system of competitive examination for such appointments, and to make recommendations for any alterations or improvements in that system which may appear to be advisable; and to consider whether the existing scheme of organization meets the requirements, of the Public Service, and to suggest any modifications which may be needed therein.” In April, 1914, the Commission published its Fourth Report, but the War seems to have arrested their further activities, and the problem is still unsolved, and the position left obscure and undefined. It is hopeless to expect any satisfactory reconstruction or readjustment in our educational life until this very practical matter of examinations and all connected therewith are straightened out. Mr. Hartog's work is opportune, and will accomplish a national service if it succeeds in awakening parents and educationists and public opinion generally to the urgent need for reform in our existing system. The second paper, now reproduced in this volume, originally appeared in the Times Educational Supplement of May 10, 1917, and led to considerable discussion. It is an able disquisition on “: The Theory of Examinations." We venture to quote the concluding sentences : “A systematic investigation (including statistical investigation) of the method and results of examinations is urgently needed. A great advance would be effected if examining bodies could be induced to express in words (1) the purposes of their various examinations, and (2) as exactly as possible what the 'passing' of a particular examination means in terms of what all the successful candidates could certainly do at the time of the examination-in other words, nonprofessional examinations should be given

“The Dramatization of Bible Stories." An Experiment in the Religious Education of Children. By Elizabeth Erwin Miller, of the School of Education, University of Chicago. Pp. xiv + 162, with 27 figures. Chicago, III., U.S. A, The University of Chicago Press, 5750-58, Ellis Avenue ; London and Cambridge: The Cambridge University Press. 1918. Price $1.00.

This remarkable little volume is a member of the “Principles and Methods of Religious Education " series issued in connection with the collection of “ The Cniversity of Chicago Publications on Religious Education," edited by Professors Ernest D. Burton, Shailer Mathews, and Theodore G. Soares. It is intended that the works of this collection, while thoroughly scientific in characters, shall be popular in presentation, and suited to the needs of pastors and Church and Sunday school workers. Miss Miller's book is the record of actual experiments. It is a comparatively new field that has been explored, and the results have abundantly justified the adventure. doubt ancient, puritanical, non-progressive minds will look askance at the introduction of dramatic expression into the realm of religious education, but an unprejudiced consideration of the situation as revealed in this book should reassure the timid and doubtful. We venture on the following brief quotation from the Introduction contributed by Dr. Edward S. Ames: “ This experiment is founded upon the powerful dramatic impulse of children and upon the educative value of the national expression of that impulse under the mutual self-criticism of the

No profit by experienced gardeners. The numerous illustrations add much to the practical value of the manual.

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participating group. The function of the leader has been that of an unobtrusive member of the group contributing such suggestions from a wider experience and deeper insight as would naturally elicit and guide that criticism. That this fine art of teaching has been realized with unusual skill in this experiment will be apparent to the discerning readers of this record, as it has been by those who have watched the progress of the work itself.”. Something of the aim and scope of the effort will be indicated by an enumeration of some of the subjects selected for dramatization and here described: t'haraoh's Court, David and Goliath, Esther' and Mordecai, The Wise and Foolish Virgins, The Good Samaritan, Costumes, and the use of such weapons or instruments as Slings, Sickles, Sceptres, Shields, Trumpets, Signet Rings, Lamps, Helmets and Crowns, Water Jugs, and clay utensils. The numerous illustrations are interesting and instructive.

An Elementary History of India for the Junior Classes of High Schools.' By Michael Prothero. Pp. 176, with map and illustrations. London: Blackie and Sons, Ltd., 50, Old Bailey, E.C.4. 1917.

British children should understand the fundamentals in the history and geography of our Overseas Dominions and Possessions, and they may well be taught the essential facts regarding the forms of government in Britain's Overseas States, and the life of the people in the various districts of the world over which the British flag Aies. And of all countries under British rule India should be given first consideration. The appearance of Mr. Prothero's able primer is most opportune. The book is one which should be used in many high schools, and we commend it to the attention of grown-ups, who will find it of exceptional interest and most informing. The book provides an admirable introduction to the study of the history of India, and the importance of a consideration of geographical features is well brought out. We would suggest that in the next edition it would be advantageous to provide a coloured folding-out map of modern India, which could be kept open when reading each page. An index should certainly be added.

• Garden Steps : A Manual for the Amateur in Vegetable Gardening."., By Ernest Cobb. Pp. xii + 226, with illustrations. Boston, Mass, U.S.A: Silver, Burdett and Company, 221, Columbus Avenue. 1918. A world famine threatens us.

No wonder that British and American boys and girls are keen to do their bit in providing food for all. Mr. Cobb's practical manual shows the way. It is a book for the times. Parents, teachers and all who are in touch with youth will do well to secure a copy.

It is written primarily for American readers, but will be of service to patriots on both sides of the Atlantic. The author sets forth the results of his own experience and experiments in a particularly attractive and appealing manner. The problem of rearing food products is explained in detail, and the cultivation of all important elements in the vegetable garden is traced from seed to storehouse. There are also sections on preparation of the ground, garden plans, fertilizers, sprays and poisons for fighting pests, tools, and canning and drying. The book can be studied by children and may be read with

The Pedagogical Seminary. An International Record of Educational Literature, Institutions and Progress. Edited by G. Stanley Hall, Ph.D., LL.D., President of Clark University and Professor of Psy. of Pedagogy, Clark University. Published chology and Education, with the assistance of William H. Burnham, Ph.D., Professor Quarterly by Florence Chandler, Worcester, Mass., U.S.A. Single Number $1.50. Annual Subscription $5.00.

The current issue of this justly valued quarterly contains the following articles : “Old and Young Teachers,” by Helen M. Downey'; “Ambidexterity and Delayed Speech Development," by Margaret Norse Vice; “School Children and Food Production," " The Public Schools and Food Conservation,” by Ping Ling; “ The Pre

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