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his religion as to ours, is in the first place “caught, as it were, from us. Are we at all times truly reverent in those matters which are connected with the beginning of his religious life?" Mrs. Read Mumford has written several valuable books dealing with problems of child life, and particularly those relating to character and conduct. Her latest work will be invaluable to many parents and teachers, and we would commend it to the consideration of the priests and ministers of all religious bodies. In simple, direct, and explicit language, and with many happy illustrations drawn from actual life, the essentials of religious instruction

forth with literary grace, spiritual insight, and real understanding. There are five chapters, which deal respectively with the following fundamentals : “ The Child's Thought of God," “ The Child's Thought of Death and Suffering," “ The Problem of Prayer, The Child and the Doctrine of the Holy Trinity,” and “A Child's View of the Atonement." These penetrating and truly sympathetic and serviceable studies will guide many perplexed parents into the way of righteousness. We hope Mrs. Mumford will now give us a companion volume on the Religious Life of the Adolescent.


is based on material which has appeared in a monthly correspondence column of the Sunday School Chronicle. The author's standpoint and purpose will be best indicated by a quotation from her introduction : “ The answering of children's questions is indeed a difficult matter, demanding not only a large and deep experience, but an intimate knowledge of the working of the little questioners' minds. No subject is entirely outside their range. Eagerly they strive to pierce the mysteries of life and death, the problems of pain and suffering. They want to know everything '--everything about the world of Nature, everything about God and His methods of working. Their questionings bring us face to face with our own ignorance. Then we realize that we know so little. Compared with the wondering, questioning child, we must confess that we even think so little. And the little which we do know, or think we know, we find it hard to put into words which are suited to the child's comprehension. The result is that we cither confuse the children by our efforts to explain the abstract when they are capable only of picturing the concrete; or we put them off with answers whose superficiality would be evident to the children themselves, were they not by Nature so trustful. At other times we put aside their questions altogether, telling them to wait till they are older and more capable of understanding; thus, in any case, postponing, and often permanently restricting, the very desire to know which at one time is so strong within them. The untruths and half-answers which we

too often palm off the children in

to their questions can have but one result-to sow in them a “harvest of future disillusionment.' What then are we to do, more particularly with regard to the child's religious training ? The foundations of hi ligious life are laid in the emotions he is capable of feeling in response to us long before he is old enough to benefit by definite religious teaching. If, then, we are really to help him, our own religion must needs be real--not a creed, but a life-for teaching in the form of words only is worse than useless. Moreover, we must understand the child. The spirit of reverence, as essential to




STUDIES IN CHILDHOOD. Childhood is a land of limitless possibilities, a region unbounded for exploration and research of every kind. Science and art have made many excursions into this realm of life's greatest realities and much valuable material has been revealed. But this mine of treasures is inexhaustible, and there are no rightsof-way or limitations of tenure which need bar patient, faithful, reverent inquiry. It is good to find that even in

ese sa days of supreme sacrifice writers of distinction are turning to the great Empire of child life for inspiration and direction. Among recent books dealing with the thoughts and ways of childhood there are two to which we desire to direct special attention : “Days of Discovery,'' by Bertram Smith, published by Constable and Co., Ltd., 10, Orange Street, Leicester Square, W.C.2 (price 45. 6d. net), is a book which on no ac


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count must be missed. It is for the most part a collection of remarkable studies, which appeared in the Manchester Guardian. With rare literary skill and exceptional insight the author recalls and relates the imaginings and adventures of early boyhood. The sketches are remarkable for their veracity, detailed accuracy, picturesque presentation, humour, sympathy and clear grasp of child psychology. Here is a work of wisdom which every parent and teacher should read for enlightenment and guidance. It is not often that a man is able to portray he recollections of his mental and moral evolution in early childhood; and it seems given to few women to carry over to adult life and motherhood a clear impression of moods and tempers, joys and fears, aspirations and temptations experienced in girlhood. It is one of the tragedies of growing up that we so easily forget the way by which we have come. But the author of “ Days of Discovery has brought with him something of the glory of boyhood, and in his book he furnishes graphic word pictures of boy life. It is a great book, for it is a true book. We wish space would permit of our presenting many extracts from its revealing pages. We must be content with but a few : “ Though civilization and convention may rule the rest of the household with an iron hand, their sway stops short upon the threshold of the nursery, for the upbringing and development of a small boy are comparable to the progress of the race from the chaos of dark ages to the ordered existence of to-day. In the long run he must adapt himself to the conditions that obtain, he must leave behind his war-paint and the primitive habits and customs of his tribe and clothe himself and learn to behave; and the day comes when he must begin to calculate, to consider and to look ahead. But for the years when he is still able to hold his own against the forces that are to shape his course he has many things in common with certain kindred souls in virgin forest where the white man is unknown. . . . Many other savage customs flourish in the nursery-slavery most obviously, unless it be put down by a superior power. Strangest of all is that callous and barbaric cruelty which seems to crop up sporadically in boys by no

means heartless or unfeeling. Once let him get his enemy in his power and the boy will often distress Those in Authority, and even amaze himself, when he comes to reflect upon it, by an action of instinctive brutality. ... The boy maintains the same primitive and barbaric attitude in his dealing with the Goddess of Fortune, his traffic with luck and chances, Luck is a vital element in his life; he is surrounded by unseen forces, ordering and controlling the events of every day. ... From the moment when it begins seriously to ape and imitate the behaviour of those who are grown up childhood loses its savour of spontaneity and surrenders its precious point of view.

.. For the guiding principle of boyhood is a wide freedom from all order, conventionality, tradition; a rooted determination not to tread the beaten track, to choose its pursuits for itself and evolve its interests for itself. A boy may be kept within a fairly rigid programme of daily habit in the outward practical life. But all that is to him no more than the inevitable and monotonous framework of his existence. In the chosen enthusiasms that consume his strange, eager little heart he cannot be coerced. He will royally disregard elaborate arrangements for his entertainment, however carefully they may have been prepared, in favour of some queer and seemingly futile occupation of his own, that he had thought of himself, that belonged to himself.

.. The prehistoric man within us dies slowly. With some of us he is never wholly dead, but still may make his pleading heard, calling us back to the time when the instincts of the savage played no small part in guiding our activities." One word of praise and thanksgiving must be added for the clever “Map of the Old Garden," which lines the inside covers of the book and, if we mistake not, is the work of “ White Fox," Mr. John Hargrave, the author of “At Suvla Bay."

" Assets of Empire," by R. A. Balbirny, published by W. Westall and Co., 8, Adam Street, Adelphi, W.C.1 (price 55. net), is another book which should not be missed by students of child life and workers for child welfare.

It was written in pre-llar days, but it deals with questions of vital consequence to the

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Empire in these times of unexampled .conflict. In the form of a novel and with much well-arranged and cleverly presented conversations, the essential points relating to maternity and infant welfare are attractively discussed. The author claims for his book that it is one which * discusses in happy vein the future of the race," and this is truly so, for in the light and pleasing form of a continuous story the great principles and evolutionary practices making for the upbuilding of a people are set forth.

The author's plan of presentation is certainly a novel one, and it is carried out with discernment, knowledge and skill. There is 'but little doubt that the book will accomplish a valuable service in bringing information to many who need enlightening in a form which will be welcomed and may, it is to be hoped, prove profitable. There are many women of the middle classes, and perhaps the majority of those who consider themselves members of society, who, while anxious that the best should happen for their children, will not go out of their way to secure for themselves such knowledge as shall guide their own steps along the path of wisdom. This book is clear, written with a very definite and praiseworthy purpose and, if we mistake not, it should accomplish valuable results. War is teaching us all that the children of the Empire are our greatest asset, and Mr. Balbirny's cleverly constructed novel will bring home this great truth even to the most frivolous and thoughtless. We venture to suggest that “ Assets of Empire” might well be followed by a sequel dealing with the present-day problems of parenthood, maternal betterment, infant protection, child welfare, and the safeguarding of adolescence, as viewed from the standpoint of a war-worn people.

of lectures for maternity and child welfare workers commences on October 1. Particulars may be obtained on application to the Secretary, 90, Buckingham Palace Road, S.W.1.

The Shaftesbury Society and Ragged School Union, the headquarters of which are at 32, John Street, Theobald's Road, W.C.1, have organized a series of gatherings to celebrate Sir John Kirk's Jubilee of Service with the Society. On Monday, October 1, at 3.30 p.m., Sir John Kirk will deliver the first “Shaftesbury Lecture" on “ This Way and That Way; a Backward and Forward Look at the Problems and Progress of Child Welfare among the Poor," in the Kingsway Hall, the Earl of Shaftesbury presiding. On Wed. nesday, October 3, at 3 p.m., an important meeting will be held at the Mansion House, under the presidency of the Lord Mayor, to further the work of the S.S. and R.S.U. and to celebrate the completion of the fifty years of service for the Society rendered by Sir John Kirk. All friends of work for necessitous children should participate in these important meetings.

A three-term Evening and Post-graduate School of History is to be held at University College, Gower Street, W.C., for the benefit of teachers, authors, civil servants and others who find necessary a more extensive acquaintance with history than they acquired in their school or university career. The inaugural meeting, at which prospective students are requested to attend, will be held on Monday, October 1, at 6 p.m.

A one year's course of training for factory welfare supervisors, lady superintendents, has been arranged in connection with the Household and Social Science Department of King's College. During the first six months about twothirds of the students' time will be devoted to work at the College, and onethird to practical work. During the latter months the work will be almost entirely of practical nature. The work at the College will consist of short courses in physiology and hygiene, economics, factory legislation and general industrial conditions, experience in canteen cookery, first aid and home nursing. A short course on social philosophy will also be held at the School of



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Economics. The practical work during the winter, which will, as far as possible, be adapted to meet the requirements, or to supplement the previous work, of individual candidates, will include visits to factories, experience in club work, and the various forms of general social work; during the latter months eight weeks will be devoted to work either in a Charity Organisation Office or in an almoner's office, four weeks to work in a casualty department of a hospital, the remainder being apportioned to further practical work as considered most suitable for the particular candidate. The session will begin on October 2. Further details can be obtained on application to the Secretary, Household and Social Science Department, King's College for Women, Campden Hill Road, W.8.

The Ratan Tata Department of Social Science and Administration in the University of London announces a special course of training for welfare supervisors. The course, in which the Health and Welfare Section of the Ministry of Munitions will co-operate, is to be held at the London School of Economics and will extend over a period of nine months. The theoretical instruction will be arranged under the following heads : Industrial and Social Life, General Conditions for the Maintenance of Health, Industrial and Social Organization in Detail, Special Conditions upon which the Maintenance of Health in Factory and Home Depends, and the Duties of a Lady Superintendent or Welfare Supervisor. The practical work will include experience outside the factory and experi. ence inside the factory. The fee for the course is twelve guineas. Intending students are invited to communicate with the Head of the Ratan Tata Department at the London School of Economics. The course commences in October and extends to next June.

The Society for the Study of Orthopsychics, the President of which is Dr. W. H. B. Stoddart, exists to further the study of human character, social and individual, and of the conditions of its proper development and control, and the Council have organized a general course of instruction, commencing in October and extending over two years. A prospectus may be obtained on application

to the Secretary, 30, Brunswick Square, W.C.1.

Arrangements have been made University College, London, for postgraduate courses in German under the direction of Professor R. Priebsch, for the benefit of students, including in particular teachers who, having already taken a course in German, wish to read for the M.A. Degree in German. The special subject which will be taken will be the Old Saxon Text of the Heiland. The class for the study of this text will

on Thursdays at 12, during the First and Second Terms, but if a sufficient number of teachers desire it, the hour may be altered to an evening hour. Intending students should communicate with the Provost of University College as soon as possible.

The University of London announces the following arrangements under its Extension Lectures Scheme. A course of twenty-five lectures on “ The History of Ancient Greece and Rome,” by Professor A. G. de Burgh, M.A., at 2.30 p.m., on Thursdays, at the Institute of Journalists,

and 4, Tudor Street, New Bridge Street, E.C. The first lecture is on October 4, at 3 p.m. A course of twentyfive lectures on “ Italian Art” (illustrated by lantern slides), by Percival Gaskell, Esq., R.B.A., R.E., at 3 p.m., on Thursdays, beginning October 4, in the Lecture Theatre of the Victoria and Albert Museum. A course of twenty-four lectures on “ Ancient Architecture," by Banister Fletcher, Esq., F.R.I.B.A., at 6 p.m., on Thursdays. This began on September 27 in the Lecture Theatre of the L.C.C. Central School of Arts and Crafts, Southampton Row, W.C. A course of twenty-five lectures on “ The Development of Literatures,” by William H. Hudson, Esq., at 8 p.m., on Thursdays, beginning October 4, at the Passmore Edwards Settlement Centre, Full information and tickets for these lectures may be obtained on application to the. Registrar of the University Extension Board, University of London, South Kensington, S.W.7.

A course of twelve lectures on “The Ideal and the Actual in Present-day Education” is being held at the College of Preceptors, Bloomsbury Square, London, W.C., on Thursday evenings, by

John Adams, M.A., B.Sc., LL.D.,

, F.C.P., Professor of Education in the University of London The first lecture was delivered on September 27, and the lectures will be continued up to Decem

ber 13.



George S. Gibb, LL.B., on Wednesday, October 10, at 6.30 p.m.; Sir Hugh Bell, Bart., in the chair. Under the general title of “ The Empire, its Commerce and Commercial Requirements,” a course of public lectures has been arranged in furtherance of the aims of the Imperial Studies Committee of the University, on Fridays, at 5 p.m., beginning October 12. Admission will be by ticket, which may be obtained on application to the Secretary.

The Charity Organisation Society have, in conjunction with Bedford College, arranged for a year's scheme of training for social work. The course com m'ences on October 5, when the inaugural lecture will be given by Dr. Bernard Bosanquet at 3 p.m. at Bedford College, Regent's Park. Candidates should arrange for an interview with the Hon. Tutor, Miss Edith Pearson, at the offices of the Society by letter. The inclusive fee for the whole course-five sets of lectures (eighty-three in all) and personal tuition is twelve guineas, payable in advance. For all further details application should be made to the Secretary, Charity Organisation Society, 296, Vauxhall Bridge Road, S.W.1.

The English Folk Dance Society, the Hon. Director of which is Mr. Cecil J. Sharp, have arranged for classes to be held at Reeve Hall, 70, East Street, W. (near Baker Street Station), from October 6 to December 10. Particulars may be obtained on application to the Secretary, 73, Avenue Chambers, Vernon Place, Bloomsbury, W.C.1.

The London County Council have pub. lished a handbook of Classes and Lectures for Teachers for the session 19171918. Comprehensive courses have been arranged in domestic subjects, economics, English, geography, history and law, mathematics, modern languages, music, pedagogy, phonetics, physical education and hygiene, and all branches of science, Special attention is called to a series of single lectures dealing with the application of particular sciences to the problems of national life and industry, given by such distinguished authorities as Professor A. E. Shipley, A. D. Hall, Esq., Professor W. J. Pope, Professor E. B. Poulton, Dr. H. H. Thomas, Professor T. B. Hood, and Sir Richard Glazebrook.

The Polytechnic, 307-311,

Regent Street, W.1, announce series of instructive lectures and demonstrations. A booklet containing particulars may be obtained on application to Major Robert Mitchell, Director of Education.

Lectures on Physiology and Hygiene are being given during the winter at the South-Western Polytechnic Institute, Chelsea, S.W.

Classes for Country, National and Fancy Dancing will be held on Thursdays, commencing October 4, St. Bride Institute, Bride Lane, Fleet Street, E.C. Particulars may be obtained on application to Miss E. Murphy, 66, Hermon Hill, Eji.

Professor Pollard will continue his public lectures on “ The War,” at University College, London, on October 4, at 5.30 p.m. Applications for tickets should be made to the Secretary, University College, Gower Street, W.C.1.

Dr. Markham Lee commences a course of University Extension Lectures 66 Makers of Modern Music” at Ashburton Hall, 28, Red Lion Square, W.C., on October 4.

The London School of Economics and Political Science (University of London), Clare Market, Portugal Street, Kingsway, W.C.2, have arranged for the following public lectures : “The Authority of the House of Commons,” by the Right Hon. Herbert Samuel, M.A., M.P., Thursday, October 4, at 5 p.m.; the Right Hon. John H. Whitley, M.P., in the chair. “ The Future of Social Training," by E. J. Urwick, M.A., Tooke Professor of Economic Science and Statistics, King's College, University of London, on Friday, October 5, at 5 p.m.; L. T. Hobhouse, .M.A., Martin White Professor of Sociology in the University of London, in the chair. “ The Coming World Shortage,” by Sidney Webb, LL.B., Professor of Public Administration in the University of London, on Monday, October 8, at 8 p.m.; Mr. Hartley Il'ithers, Editor of the Economist, in the chair.

" The Science of Transportation," by Sir



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