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the trivial name to the species. Lastly, in the Seychelles species (T. corvina) the cock in full plumage not only dons an attire of the richest raven-black, but his median rectrices are developed nearly half as long again as those of the other species, and have their webs enormously broadened.
Of the genus Foudia, Professor Newton was able to show us five species out of six which possibly once existed-for what seems to have been a sixth (the Moidoré of old writers) is said to have formerly inhabited Bourbon, but has not been recognised of late years. The species extant are:-(1) F. madagascariensis of Madagascar, distinguished by the large extent of crimson or scarlet colouring possessed by the cock; (2) F. algonda from the Comorros, a species with a large bill and the head only red; (3) F. sechellarum of the Seychelles which does not seem to assume any red colouring at all, but merely a yellowish or orange gleam upon the forehead (much as is seen in Redpolls that have moulted in captivity); (4) F. erythrocephalus, the indigenous species of Mauritius, with a brilliant carmine head; and (5) F. flavicans of Rodriguez, in which there is no red at all but a bright canarycoloured yellow deepening into orange on the face. The females of all these species were shown to be nearly alike, as we had seen was also the case in those of Terpsiphone. On the other hand, a very curious contrast was exhibited by the two species of the genus Oxynotus, which is peculiar to the islands of Mauritius and Réunion. In them the cocks, which have a general look of an Ash-coloured Shrike (Lanius excubitor), are so much alike that it would be a bold man who would consider them specifically distinct, while the hens presented the greatest difference of coloration that of the Mauritius species being of a bright rufous beneath, and that of the Réunion species having the same parts dull white, closely barred with dusky brown.
Professor Newton further remarked that though what was called "species-mongering" was held in great contempt by a certain class of Naturalists, it was only by "species-mongering "that we could attain a proper notion of the geographical distribution of animals, and of the wonderful deductions which follow from that interesting
study, to say nothing of the fact that it was only "speciesmongers," who had any right to express an opinion on a great question like the Origin of Species-whether it was to be ascribed to Natural Selection or any other cause; and that of course his remarks would be at once seen to bear especially on the not less important subject of Sexual Selection.
Mr. Clark then exhibited to us the fine osteological collection, his explanations being scarcely less interesting than those of Professor Newton. Luncheon was provided in one of the vacant rooms of the museum, when Professors Paget and Babington joined the party, and afterwards a visit was paid to the Geological Museum, where Professor Hughes showed us through the Woodwardian Museum, and taking for his text the axiom, "Things are not always what they seem," exhibited to us a very remarkable series of formations so closely resembling fossils, that the most minute examination was needed to distinguish them from the genuine fossils which were placed by their side. He also showed by a very extensive series of Terebratulæ from the Greensand, that a species is by no means the sharply defined unit which we are too much inclined to regard it. Professor Babington also kindly opened the Herbarium, and a too brief visit to Pepys's library in Magdalen College, and coffee in Professor Newton's rooms, brought to a close a most delightful and instructive day.
On the 26th of June an excursion to the charming district of Seething, Kirstead, and Brooke, was commenced and finished in the rain; fine weather, however, lasted during our long walk from Seething Church through the beautiful woods, park, and quaint gardens to Brooke House. On the 31st of July a large party visited Clyffe House, Corton, near Lowestoft, on the invitation of Mr. J. J. Colman, M.P. Arriving at Corton the party received a hearty welcome from Mr. and Mrs. Colman, and after some refreshment proceeded about a mile along the beach to a spot where a number of men were engaged in clearing away the superincumbent sand in order to expose the black soil, consisting almost entirely of vegetable remains, known as the Forest-bed. Here Mr. F. W. Harmer was to have read a paper (printed in our 'Transactions')
on the strata exposed in, and those immediately underlying the cliff section, but a sharp shower coming on we beat a retreat to the house, and there listened to Mr. Harmer in the drawing. room. The weather having cleared, some time was passed in examining the fine collections contained in Clyffe House, and the adjoining museum, and in strolling over the exquisitely beautiful grounds which surround the house, extending along a lofty cliff commanding magnificent views of the sea studded with passing vessels. A sumptuous cold collation in a marquee upon the lawn, and one more stroll through the beautiful grounds brought all too soon the hour of return, and taking leave of Mr. and Mrs. Colman we proceeded on our way to Lowestoft. Those who know Mr. Colman need not be told, that all that princely liberality and unbounded kindness could do to make the visit to Corton something to be remembered, was done, and it is equally needless to remind those who took part in the excursion how perfectly successful was the result. One more excursion remains to be mentioned. On the 28th of August the weather was so wet, that only a very small party went by rail to Wroxham to visit the remarkable marl pits at Horstead, known (from their singular beauty) as "Little Switzerland." Those who started were rewarded by the weather clearing up, and enjoyed a delightful row along the river, and through the curious cuts which lead up to the pits, and returned by another route, very much delighted with their visit.
I cannot dismiss the subject of excursions without expressing our great indebtedness to Mr. Orfeur, the Excursion Secretary, for the excellence of the arrangements which, though entailing upon himself an amount of labour which we cannot all fully appreciate, have tended so greatly to our comfort, and to the success of our expeditions.
It is customary for your President, at the conclusion of his term of office, to add to a brief review of the proceedings of the Society, some remarks upon a branch of natural science with which he is supposed to be specially acquainted. I regret to say, that my pursuit of science may be more aptly characterized by the seemingly
purposeless flight of the butterfly as it flits from flower to flowerresting awhile, then passing to fresh forms of beauty-than by the busy bee which plods industriously along, dipping deep into each nectar-laden blossom, and extracting thence its store of sweets, to be treasured up for future use. Such being the case, I do not feel competent to address you upon any special branch of science, but am compelled to select a wider field; and it has occurred to me, that we may employ the brief period allotted to us not altogether unprofitably, in considering a subject, which to me, at least, is of intense interest, viz. :-The extinction of native races, brought about in recent times by the advent of civilized man in countries and places where he was before unknown.
The subject is a very large one, and naturally divides itself into two sections: first, changes brought about by the direct influence of man, that is to say, by his direct personal acts, such as may arise in the struggle for existence when a superior race seeks to establish itself in the home of an indigenous inferior, or, the extermination of a species by the hunter; secondly, by the indirect acts of man, such as bush burnings, the destruction of forests, spread of cultivation, or the introduction of rapacious animals before unknown, as the Pig, Cat, Rat, etc., supplemented, it may be, by careless and untimely hunting, but not wholly due to that As it would be impossible to do anything like justice to the whole subject in the limits of time and space at my disposal, I shall confine myself to the first section, selecting a few type cases, and referring to others less in detail.
Wherever the foot of civilized man has been planted on the earth's surface, from the pole to the equator, there has he carried his work of destruction; and his advent has been the precursor of the rapid extinction not only of many of the members of the indigenous fauna, but too often even of the weaker races of his own species which have barred his progress. I am not alluding to the wars of early historic times when conquest signified slavery or annihilation, nor to such cruel conquests as that carried on by Spain in South America, but will only refer to our own system of colonization, which is as just and humane as any such system of
ejection can be. It seems a law of nature that the primitive uncivilized races should disappear before the restraints, diseases, and must I say it, vices of civilization. Nor does this apply only to degraded races, such as the former inhabitants of Tasmania, but with equal force to the far more advanced Red Indians of America, the Maoris of New Zealand, and even to the natives of Hawaii, who have taken so readily to European and American customs and institutions, and are still under native government of a very advanced form; even these people have not been able to stand the shock of encounter with European civilization, and free and enlightened as they are, will soon disappear from the face of the earth. The first regular census of the Hawaiian Islanders was taken in 1832, at which time the population was found to be 130,000. At the present time it is reduced to 60,000. I need not speak of the North American Indians, who, like the Bison which formed their chief support, are retreating before the advance of a civilization to which their nature will not permit them to conform ; nor will I dwell upon the inevitable fate which awaits the aborigines of Australia. or the splendid Maori natives of New Zealand, now rapidly becoming extinct, but will sketch as briefly as possible the rapid and complete extinction of a whole race of men almost within our own times.
I have condensed the following particulars from Prof. Flowers' paper "On the Native Races of the Pacific Ocean," read before
The following paragraph which appeared in the 'Standard' for 7th of August, 1879, clearly shows the rapidity with which the Maori race is dying out:
"We gather from the 'Sydney Morning Herald' of 19th June, that the Maori population [in 1878] was found to be 42,819; in 1874 it was 46,016, making a decrease in four years of 3197. As is usual in these returns, the males considerably exceed the females, the former being 23,533, and the latter only 19,286. But the most characteristic feature of these estimates for many years is the enormous disparity in the proportion of adults and children. Of the total of 42,819 souls last year, no less than 14,533 were males over fifteen years, and females of the same age, 11,802. In European countries the men usually average a fifth or sixth of the population, while at present among the Maoris they constitute a third."