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meantime some middle place be not found out and agreed on, which may be commodious for all the jurisdictions.

7. It is further agreed, that at each meeting of these 8 Commissioners, whether ordinary or extraordinary, they or 6 of them agreeing as before, may choose their President out of themselves whose office and work shall be to take care and direct for order and a comely carrying on of all proceedings in the present meeting: but he shall be invested with no such power or respect, as by which he shall hinder the propounding or progress of any business, or any way cast the scales otherwise than in the precedent article is agreed.

8. It is also agreed, that the commissioners for this confederation hereafter at their meetings, whether ordinary or extraordinary, as they may have commission or opportunity, do endeavor to frame and establish agreements and orders in general cases of a civil nature, wherein all the plantations are interested, for the preserving of peace among themselves, and preventing as much as may be all occasion of war or differences with others; as about the free and speedy passage of justice, in every jurisdiction, to all the confederates equally as to their own; not receiving those that remove from one plantation to another without due certificate; how all the jurisdictions may carry it towards the Indians, that they neither grow insolent, nor be injured without due satisfaction, lest war break in upon the confederates through such miscarriages. It is also agreed that if any servant run away from his master into any other of these confederated jurisdictions, that in such case, upon the certificate of one magistrate in the jurisdiction out of which the said servant fled, or upon other due proof, the said servant shall be delivered, either to his master, or any other that pursues and brings such certificate or proof. And that

upon prisoner whatsoever, or fugitive for any criminal cause, whether breaking prison, or getting from the officer, or otherwise escaping, upon the certificate of 2 magistrates of the jurisdiction out of which the escape is made, that he was a prisoner, or such an offender at the time of the escape, they magistrates, some of them of that jurisdiction where for the present the said prisoner or fugitive abideth, shall forthwith grant such a warrant as the case will bear, for the apprehending of any such person, and the delivery of him into the hands of the officer or other person who pursues him. And if there be help required, for the safe returning of any such offender, then it shall be granted to him that craves the same, he paying the charges thereof.

the escape

of any

9. And for that the justest wars may be of dangerous consequence, especially to the smaller plantations in these United Colonies, it is agreed that neither the Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, nor New Haven, nor any of the members of them, shall at any time hereafter begin, undertake, or engage themselves, or this confederation, or any part thereof in any war whatsoever (sudden exigencies, with the necessary consequents thereof excepted, which are also to be moderated as much as the case will permit) without the consent and agreement of the forementioned 8 commissioners, or at least 6 of them, as in the sixth article is provided And that no charge be required of any of the confederates, in case of a defensive war, till the said commissioners have met, and approved the justice of the war, and have agreed upon the sum of money to be levied, which sum is then to be paid by the several confederates in proportion according to the fourth article.

10. That in extraordinary occasions, when meetings are summoned by three magistrates of any jurisdiction, or 2 as in the 5. article, if any of the commissioners come not, due warning being given or sent, it is agreed that 4 of the commissioners shall have power to direct a war which cannot be delayed, and to send for due proportions of men out of each jurisdiction, as well as 6 might do if all met; but not less than 6 shall determine the justice of the war, or allow the demands or bills of charges, or cause any levies to be made for the same.

11. It is further agreed that if any of the confederates shall hereafter break any of these present articles, or be any other way injurious to any one of the other jurisdictions; such breach of agreement or injury shall be duly considered and ordered by the commissioners for the other jurisdictions, that both peace and this present confederation may be entirely preserved without violation.

12. Lastly, this perpetual confederation, and the several articles and agreements thereof being read, and seriously considered, both by the General Court for the Massachusetts, and by the commissioners for Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven, were fully allowed and confirmed by three of the forenamed confederates, namely, the Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Haven; only the commissioners for Plymouth having no commission to conclude, desired respite until they might advise with their General Court; whereupon it was agreed and concluded by the said Court of the Massachusetts, and the commissioners for the other two confederates, that, if Plymouth consent, then the whole treaty as it stands in these present articles is, and shall continue, firm and stable without alteration. But if Plymouth come not in, yet the other three confederates do by these presents confirm the whole confederation, and all the articles thereof; only in September next when the second meeting of the commissioners is to be at Boston, new consideration may be taken of the 6. article, which concerns number of commissioners for meeting and concluding the affairs of this confederation to the satisfaction of the Court of the Massachusetts, and the commissioners for the other 2 confederates, but the rest to stand unquestioned. In the testimony whereof, the General Court of the Massachusetts, by their Secretary, and the commissioners for Connecticut and New Haven, have subscribed these present articles this 19. of the third month, commonly called May, Anno Dom: 1643.

At a meeting of the commissioners for the confederation held at Boston the 7. of September, it appearing that the General Court of New Plymouth and the several townships thereof have read, considered, and approved these Articles of confederation, as appeareth by commission of their General Court bearing date the 29. of August, 1648, to Mr. Edward Winslow and Mr. William Collier, to ratify and confirm the same on their behalf. We therefore, the commissioners for the Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Haven, do also for our several Governments subscribe unto them.

JOHN WINTHROP, Governor of the Massachusetts,



A Typical Early Indian Treaty 1645

A Treaty and agreement betwixt the Comissioners for the United Colonies of New England on the one part And Pessecus Mexanno eldest of Canownacus Sonns Jannemo (als) Nenegelett and Wipetamock and others Sagamores of the Narrohiggansets and Nyantick Indians on the other part made and concluded at Bostone in the Massachusetts the xxviith of the sixth month 1645.

1. A Warr being raised and persecuted by the Narrohiggansets and Nyantick Indians against Uncas Sagamore of the Mohegans contrary to former treaties and their expresse engagements therein, the English Colonies were first put upon charg and inconvenience in sending men for the defence of Uncas, then they sent Messengers to the Narrohiggansets and Nyantick Sagamores to stay their warr till the English according to former covenant and agreement had heard their greevances but without successe: And lastly were forced to prepare an offensive warr against them. Yet the Comissioners before the warr began sent other Messengers to the Narrohigganset Sagamores to offer them peace upon due satisfaccion for what was past and other just termes for the future.

2. Pessecus and Mexanno with other Captaines and Counsellors of the Narrohiggansets and one Deputie for the Nyanticks being come to Bostone, and joyntly affirmeing they had comission to treate and conclude not onely for the Narrohiggansett but for the Nyantick Indians, and engageing themselves one for another were after a large debate and conferrence about greevances betwixt themselves and Uncas, and a due Consideracon of former Treaties and agreements with the English convinced and

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