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..39 Cordillera - Erratic Boulders of great size-
Indian Relics- Return to the Ship-Falk-
land Islands-Wild Horses, Cattle, Rabbits-
Rio Negro - Estancias attacked by the Indians
Wolf-like Fox-Fire made of Bones-Man-
-Salt Lakes-Flamingoes-R.' Ne.ro to R.
ner of hunting Wild Cattle – Geology-
Colorado--Sacred Tree - Patagonian Hare-
Streams of Stones-Scenes of Violence-
Indian Families-General Rosas-Proceed to
Penguin-Geese - Eggs of Doris -Compound
Bahia Blanca - Sand Dunes-Negro Lieuto-
nant-Bahia Blanca--Saline Incrustations-
Tierra del Fuego, first arrival-Good Success
Bay-An Account of the Fuegians on board
-Interview with the Savages-Scenery of
Bahia Blanca-Geology- Numerous gigantic the Forests-Cape Horn-Wigwam Cove-
extinct Quadrupeds Recent Extinction- Miserable Condition of the Savayes-Famines
Longevity of Species-Large Animals do not - Cannibals—Matricide-- Religious Feelings
require a luxuriant Vegetation-Southern -Great Gale-Beagle Channel-Ponsonly
Africa - Siberian Fossils – Two Species of Sound-Build Wigwams and settle the Fue
Ostrich-Habits of Oven-bird-Armadilloes giansBifurcation of the Beagle Channel-
-Venomons Snake, Toad, Lizard-Hyberna- Glaciers-Return to the Ship-Second Visit
tion of Animals-Habits of Sea-Pen-Indian in the Ship to the Settlement - Equality of
Wars and Massacres–Arrow-head-Antiqua- Condition amongst the Natives ....... 204
Strait of Magellan--Port Famine-Ascent of
bet out for Buenos Ayres-Rio Sauce-Sierra Mount Tarn - Forests – Elible Fungus--
Ventana - Third Posta - Driving Horses - Zoology-Great Sea-weed - Leave Tierra del
Bolas-Partridges and Foxes - Features of the Fuego-Climate-Fruit Trees and Produc-
Country-lony-legged Plover— Teru-tero- tions of the Southern Coasts-Height of
Hailstorm-Natural Enclosures in the Sierra Snow-line on the Cordillera - Descent of
Papalguen-Flesh of Puma-Meat Diet- Glaciers to the Sea-Icebergs formed – Trans
Guardia del Monte-Efects of Cattle on the portal of Boulders - Climate and Produc-
Vegetation-Cardoon- Buenus Ayres-Cor. tions of the Antarctic Islands-Preservation
ml where Cattle are slaughtered ....... 106
of Prozen Carcasses-Recapitulation ... 231
JOURN A L.
Porte Praya—Ribeira Grande-Atmospheric Dust with Infusoria—Habits
of a Sea-slug and Cuttle-fish-St. Paul's Rocks, non volcanic-Singular Incrustations - Insects the first Colonists of Islands, Fernando Noronlia - Bahia-Burnished Rocks-Habits of a Diodon-Pelagic Confervæ and Infusoria-Causes of discoloured Sea.
ST. JAGO-CAPE DE VERD ISLANDS.
AFTER having been twice driven back by heavy south-western gales, Her Majesty's ship Beagle, a ten-gun brig, under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N., sailed from Devonport on the 27th of December, 1831. The object of the expedition was to complete the survey of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, commenced under Captain King in 1826 to 1830—to survey the shores of Chile, Peru, and of some islands in the Pacific—and to carry a chain of chronometrical measurements round the World. On the 6th of January we reached Teneriffe, but were prevented landing, by fears of our bringing the cholera : the next morning we saw the sun rise behind the rugged outline of the Grand Canary island, and suddenly illumine the Peak of Teneriffe, whilst the lower parts were veiled in fleecy clouds. This was the first of many delightful days never to be forgotten. On the 16th of January, 1832, we anchored at Porto Praya, in St. Jago, the chief island of the Cape de Verd archipelago.
The neighbourhood of Porto Praya, viewed from the sea, wears a desolate aspect. The volcanic fires of a past age, and she scorching heat of a tropical sun, have in most places rendered the soil unfit for vegetation. The country rises in successive steps of table-land, interspersed with some truncate conical hills, and the horizon is bounded by an irregular chain of more lofty mountains. The scene, as beheld through the hazy atmosphere of this climate, is one of great interest ; if, indeed, a person, fresh fro:n sea, and who has just walked, for the first time, in a grove of cocoa-nut trees, can be a judge of anything but his own happiness. The island would generally be considered as very uninteresting; but to any one accustomed only to an English landscape, the novel aspect of an utterly sterile land possesses a grandeur which more vegetation might spoil. A single green leaf can scarcely be discovered over wide tracts of the lava plains ; yet flocks of goats, together with a few cows, contrive to exist. It rains very seldom, but during a short portion of the year heavy tor nts fall, and immediately afterwards a light vegetation springs out of every crevice. This soon withers; and upon such naturally formed hay the animals live. It had not now rained for an entire year. When the island was discovered, the immediate neighbourhood of Porto Praya was clothed with trees, * the reckless destruction of which has caused here, as at St. Helena, and at some of the Canary islands, almost entire sterility. The broad, Aat-bottomed valleys, many of which serve during a few days only in the season as watercourses, are clothed with thickets of leafless bushes. Few living creatures inhabit these valleys. The commonest bird is a kingfisher (Dacelo lagoensis), which tamely sits on the branches of the castor-oil plant, and thence darts on grasshoppers and lizards. It is brightly coloured, but not so beautiful as the European species : in its flight, manners, and place of habitation, which is generally in the driest valley, there is also a wide difference.
One day, two of the officers and myself rode to Ribeira Grande, a village a few miles eastward of Porto Praya. Until we reached the valley of St. Martin, the country presented its usual dull brown appearance; but here, a very small rill of water produces a most refreshing margin of luxuriant vegetation. In the course of an hour we arrived at Ribeira Grande, and were surprised at the sight of a large ruined fort and cathedral. This little town, before its harbour was filled up, was the principal
* I state this on the authority of Dr. E. Dieffenbach, in his German trauslation of the first edition of this Journal.
RIBE!RA GRANDE-ST. DOMINGO.
place in the island : it now presents a melancholy, but very pic. turesque appearance. Having procured a black Padre for a guide, and a Spaniard who had served in the Peninsular war as an interpreter, we visited a collection of buildings, of which an ancient church formed the principal part. It is here the governors and captain-generals of the islands have been buried. Some of the tombstones recorded dates of the sixteenth century.* The heraldic ornaments were the only things in this retired place that reminded us of Europe. The church or chapel formed one side of a quadrangle, in the middle of which a large clump of bananas were growing. On another side was a hospital, containing about a dozen miserable-looking inmates.
We returned to the Vênda to eat our dinners. A considerable number of men, women, and children, all as black as jet, col. lected to watch us. Our companions were extremely merry ; and everything we said or did was followed by their hearty laughter. Before leaving the town we visited the cathedral. It does not appear so rich as the smaller church, but boasts of a little organ, which sent forth singularly inharmonious cries. We presented the black priest with a few shillings, and the Spaniard, patting him on the head, said, with much candour, he thought his colour made no great difference. We then returned, as fast as the ponies would go, to Porto Praya.
Another day we rode to the village of St. Domingo, situated near the centre of the island. On a small plain which we crossed, a few stunted acacias were growing; their tops had been bent by the steady trade-wind, in a singular manner-some of them even at right angles to their trunks. The direction of the branches was exactly N.E. by N., and S.W. by S., and these natural vanes must indicate the prevailing direction of the force of the trade-wind. The travelling had made so little impression on the barren soil, that we here missed our track, and took that to Fuentes. This we did not find out till we arrived there ; and we were afterwards glad of our mistake. Fuentes is a pretty village, with a small stream ; and everything appeared to prosper well, excepting, indeed, that which ought to do so most -ils
* The Cape de Verd Islands were discovered in 1449. There was a tombstone of a bishop with the date of 1571; and a crest of a hand and dagger, dated 1497.