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CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

CHAPTER VII.

Porto Praya - Ribeira Grande - Atmospheric Excursion to St. Fé-Thistle-Beds-Habits or

Dust with Infuscria-Habits of a Sea-slug and

the Bizcacha-Little Owl-Saline Stream

Cuttle-fish-St. Paul's Rocks, non volcanic- Level Plains-Mastodon-St. Fé-Change in

Singular incrustations-Insects the first Colo- Landscape-Geology-Tooth of extinct Horse

nists of Islands, Fernando Noronha - Bahia -Relation of the Fossil and recentQuadrupeds

-Burnished Rocks - Habits of a Diodon- of North and South America-Elects of a

Pelagic Confervæ and Infusoria-Canses of great Drought—Parana-Habits of the Jaguar

discoloured Sea..............

..Page 1 - Scissor-beak — King-fisher, Parrot, and

Scissor-tal – Revolution -- Buenos Ayres —

CHAPTER II.

State of Government ......

123

Rio de Janeiro-Excursion north of Cape Frio

CHAPTER VIII.

- Great Evaporation - Slavery - Botofogo Excursion to Colonia del Sacramiento--Value

Bay-Terrestrial Planarit-Clouds on the

Corcovado- Heavy Rain, Musical Frogs-

of an Estancia-Cattle, how counted-Sin-

Phosphorescent Insects - Elater, springing

gular Breed of Oxen- Perforated Pebbles-

powers of - Blue Haze-Noise made by a

Shepherd-Dogs-Horses broken-in, Gauchos

Butterfly— Entomology, Ants-Wasp Kill-

Riding-Character of Inhabitants --Rio Plata

-Flocks of Butterfl es-Aeronaut Spiders-

ing a Spider-Parasitical Spider-Artifices of

an Epeira-Gregarious Spider-Spider with

Phosphorescence of the Sea-- Port Desire

an unsymmetrical Web ....

Guanaco-Port St. Julian-Geology of Pata-

19

gonia - Fossil gigantic Animal – Types of

CHAPTER III.

Organization constant-Change in the Zoo

logy of America-Causes of Extinction . 142

Monte Video-Maldonado-Excursion to R.

Polanco - Lazo and Bolas-Partridges Ab-

CHAPTER IX.

sence of Trees-Deer-Capybara, or River Santa Cruz—Experlition up the River-Indiana

– Tucutuco - Molothrus, cuckoo-like -Immense Streams of Basaltic Lava- Frag.

habits–Tyrant Flycatcher- Mocking-bird- ments not transported by the River-Exca-

Carrion Hawks-Tubes formed by Lightning vation of the Valley - Condor, habits of

-House struck

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.......

..39 Cordillera - Erratic Boulders of great size-

Indian Relics- Return to the Ship-Falk-

CHAPTER IV.

land Islands-Wild Horses, Cattle, Rabbits-

Rio Negro - Estancias attacked by the Indians

Wolf-like Fox-Fire made of Bones-Man-

-Salt Lakes-Flamingoes-R.' Ne.ro to R.

ner of hunting Wild Cattle – Geology-

Colorado--Sacred Tree - Patagonian Hare-

Streams of Stones-Scenes of Violence-

Indian Families-General Rosas-Proceed to

Penguin-Geese - Eggs of Doris -Compound

Bahia Blanca - Sand Dunes-Negro Lieuto-

Animals.....

nant-Bahia Blanca--Saline Incrustations-

CHAPTER X.

Punta Alta-Zorillo......

Tierra del Fuego, first arrival-Good Success

CHAPTER V.

Bay-An Account of the Fuegians on board

-Interview with the Savages-Scenery of

Bahia Blanca-Geology- Numerous gigantic the Forests-Cape Horn-Wigwam Cove-

extinct Quadrupeds Recent Extinction- Miserable Condition of the Savayes-Famines

Longevity of Species-Large Animals do not - Cannibals—Matricide-- Religious Feelings

require a luxuriant Vegetation-Southern -Great Gale-Beagle Channel-Ponsonly

Africa - Siberian Fossils – Two Species of Sound-Build Wigwams and settle the Fue

Ostrich-Habits of Oven-bird-Armadilloes giansBifurcation of the Beagle Channel-

-Venomons Snake, Toad, Lizard-Hyberna- Glaciers-Return to the Ship-Second Visit

tion of Animals-Habits of Sea-Pen-Indian in the Ship to the Settlement - Equality of

Wars and Massacres–Arrow-head-Antiqua- Condition amongst the Natives ....... 204

rian Relic,.........

CHAPTER XI.

CHAPTER WI.

Strait of Magellan--Port Famine-Ascent of

bet out for Buenos Ayres-Rio Sauce-Sierra Mount Tarn - Forests – Elible Fungus--

Ventana - Third Posta - Driving Horses - Zoology-Great Sea-weed - Leave Tierra del

Bolas-Partridges and Foxes - Features of the Fuego-Climate-Fruit Trees and Produc-

Country-lony-legged Plover— Teru-tero- tions of the Southern Coasts-Height of

Hailstorm-Natural Enclosures in the Sierra Snow-line on the Cordillera - Descent of

Papalguen-Flesh of Puma-Meat Diet- Glaciers to the Sea-Icebergs formed – Trans

Guardia del Monte-Efects of Cattle on the portal of Boulders - Climate and Produc-

Vegetation-Cardoon- Buenus Ayres-Cor. tions of the Antarctic Islands-Preservation

ml where Cattle are slaughtered ....... 106

of Prozen Carcasses-Recapitulation ... 231

...... 177

..... 63

..... 91

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CHAPTER XN.

CHAPTER XVII.

Palpaaie Excursion to the Poot of the Andes Galapagos. schipelago–The whole group sub

Structure of the land-- Ascend the Bell of

canic-Number of craters-Leatl's Lashes

Quillota-Shattered Masses of Greenstone-

Colony at Charles Island-Jamee Island

Immense Valleys-Mines-State of Miners

Salt-lake in crater-Natural History of the

- Santiago--Hot-baths of Cauquenes-Guld- group-Ornithology, curious finchés, Rep-

mines–Grinding-mills-Perforated Stones tiles-Great tortoises, habits of- Marine li.

-Habits of the Puma-El Turco and Tapa-

zard, feeds on sea-weed-Terrestrial lizari,

colo-Humming-birds

252

burrowing habits, herbivorous - Importance

of reptiles in the Archipelago-Fishi, shells,

CHAPTER XIII.

insects - Botany-American type of organi.

zation-Differences in the species or races on

Chiloe - General Aspect-- Boat Excursion-

diflerent islands-Tameness of the birls-

Native Indians - Castro-Tame Fox-Ascend

San Pedro-Chunos Archipelago --Peninsula

Fear of man, an acquired instinct...... 372

of Tres Montes - Granit.c Range - Boat.

CHAPTER XVIII.

wrecked Sailors-Low's Harbour - Wild l'o- Pass tlirough the Low Archipelago-Tahiti-

tato – Formation of Peat - Myopotamus, Aspect - Vegetation on the Mountains-View

Otter and Mice-Cheucau and Barking-bird of Limeo-Excursion into the InteriorPro-

-Opetiorhynchus_Singular Character of 07. found Ravines-Succession of Waterfalls-

nitholo:y-Petrels..

Number of wild useful Plants—Temperance

of the Inhabitants --Their moral staie-Par.

CHAPTER XIV.

liament convened-New Zealand-Bay of

San Carlos, Chiloe-(sorno in eruption, con- Islands—Hippals-Excursion to Waimate-

temporaneously with Aconcagua and Cose-

Missionary Establishment-English Weeds

now run will Waiomio - Funeral of a New

gnina-Ride to Cucao-Impenetrable forests

-Valdivia - Indians - Earthquake--Concep-

Zealand Woman--Sail for Australia.... 402

cion-Great earthquake--Rocks fissured-

CHAPTER XIX.

Appearance of the former towns. The sea Sydney–Excursion to Bathurst-Aspect of the

black ani boiliny-Direction of the vibra-

Woods-Party of Natives-iradual extinc.

tions-Stoncg twisted round-Great Wave

tion of the Aborigines--Infection generated

Permanent elevation of the land--Area of

by associated men in health--Blue Moun.

volcanic phenomena-The connexion be-

tains_View of the grand gulf-like Valleys-

tween the elevatory and eruptive forces -

Their origin and formation-Bathurst, gene-

Cause of earthquakes-Slow elevation of

ral civility of the lower orders - State of So-

Mountain-chains

291

ciety-Van Diemen's Land-Hobart Town

CHAPTER XV.

-Aborigines all banished - Mount Welling-

ton-King George's Sound-Cheerless aspect

Valparaiso - Portillo pass- Sayacity of mules - of the Country-- Bald Head, calcareous casts

Mountain torrents-Mines, how discovered

of branches of trees-Party of Natives, Leave

- Proos of the gradual elevation of the Cor.

Australia ....

431

dillera-Elect of snow on rocks - Geological

CHAPTER XX.

structure of the two main rangesTheir dis-

tinct origin and upheaval-Great subsidence

Keeling Island-Singular appearance - Seanty

--Red snow-Winds-Pinnacles of snow

Flora--Transport of Seeds -- Biris and Insects

Dry and clear atmosphere--Electricity-

- Ebbing and flowing Wells - Fields of

Pampas - Zoology of the opposite sides of the

dead Coral-Stones transported in the routs

Andeg -- Locusts - Great bugs-- Mendoza-

of trees -- Great Crab - Stinging Corals -

Uspallata Pass -Silicitied trees buried as

Coral eating Fish - Coral Formations-la-

the grew-Incas Bridge-Badness of the goon Islands, or Atolls-Depth at which reef.

building Corals can live-Vast Areas inter-

passes exaggerated -- Cumbre - Casuchas –

Valparaiso

313

spersed with low Coral Islands–Subsidence

of their foundations-Barrier Reefs- Fring

CHAPTER XVI.

ing Reefs Conversion of Fringing Reefs into

Barrier Reefs, and into Atolls - Evidence o.

Comall-road to Coquimbo-Great loads carried

changes in Level-Breaches in Barrier Reefs

hy the miners-Coquimbo-Earthquake-

Maldira Atolls; their peculiar structure

Step-formed terraces-Ahsence of recent de.

Dead and subrneryeri Reefs-Areas of subsi.

posits - Contemporaneousness of the Tertiary

denceand elevation-Distribution of Volcanos

formations- Excursion up the valley-Road

to Guasto-Deserts-Valley of Copiapó,

-Subs dence slow, and vast in amount..452

Rain and earthquakesIlydrophobia- The

CHAPTER XXI.

Thespobladom Indian Ruins--I'rolable change Mauritius, beautiful appearance of Great cra-

of climate--River-hed arched by an earth- teriform ring of Mountains-lindoos -St

quake--Cold gales of wind-Noises from a Helena-History of the changes in the ve

Hill - Iquique – Sult alluvium - Nitrate of tation-Cause of thie extinction of land-shelle

Bola-lima-l'nhealthy country- Ruins of - Ascension - Variation in the imported ratu

Callao, overtlipun by an earthquake--Recent -Volcanic Bombs-Beds of infusoria - Bahia

fuhsidence - Elevateil shells on San Lorenzo, --Brazil-Splendour of tropical scenery - Per

their decomposition Plain with embedded nambuco-Singu’ar ReefSlavery-Return

sliells and fruments of pottery--Antiquity to England-Retrospect on our voyage.. 483

of the Indian Race

337

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JOURN A L.

CHAPTER I.

Porte Praya—Ribeira Grande-Atmospheric Dust with Infusoria—Habits

of a Sea-slug and Cuttle-fish-St. Paul's Rocks, non volcanic-Singular Incrustations - Insects the first Colonists of Islands, Fernando Noronlia - Bahia-Burnished Rocks-Habits of a Diodon-Pelagic Confervæ and Infusoria-Causes of discoloured Sea.

ST. JAGO-CAPE DE VERD ISLANDS.

AFTER having been twice driven back by heavy south-western gales, Her Majesty's ship Beagle, a ten-gun brig, under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N., sailed from Devonport on the 27th of December, 1831. The object of the expedition was to complete the survey of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, commenced under Captain King in 1826 to 1830—to survey the shores of Chile, Peru, and of some islands in the Pacific—and to carry a chain of chronometrical measurements round the World. On the 6th of January we reached Teneriffe, but were prevented landing, by fears of our bringing the cholera : the next morning we saw the sun rise behind the rugged outline of the Grand Canary island, and suddenly illumine the Peak of Teneriffe, whilst the lower parts were veiled in fleecy clouds. This was the first of many delightful days never to be forgotten. On the 16th of January, 1832, we anchored at Porto Praya, in St. Jago, the chief island of the Cape de Verd archipelago.

The neighbourhood of Porto Praya, viewed from the sea, wears a desolate aspect. The volcanic fires of a past age, and she scorching heat of a tropical sun, have in most places rendered the soil unfit for vegetation. The country rises in successive steps of table-land, interspersed with some truncate conical hills, and the horizon is bounded by an irregular chain of more lofty mountains. The scene, as beheld through the hazy atmosphere of this climate, is one of great interest ; if, indeed, a person, fresh fro:n sea, and who has just walked, for the first time, in a grove of cocoa-nut trees, can be a judge of anything but his own happiness. The island would generally be considered as very uninteresting; but to any one accustomed only to an English landscape, the novel aspect of an utterly sterile land possesses a grandeur which more vegetation might spoil. A single green leaf can scarcely be discovered over wide tracts of the lava plains ; yet flocks of goats, together with a few cows, contrive to exist. It rains very seldom, but during a short portion of the year heavy tor nts fall, and immediately afterwards a light vegetation springs out of every crevice. This soon withers; and upon such naturally formed hay the animals live. It had not now rained for an entire year. When the island was discovered, the immediate neighbourhood of Porto Praya was clothed with trees, * the reckless destruction of which has caused here, as at St. Helena, and at some of the Canary islands, almost entire sterility. The broad, Aat-bottomed valleys, many of which serve during a few days only in the season as watercourses, are clothed with thickets of leafless bushes. Few living creatures inhabit these valleys. The commonest bird is a kingfisher (Dacelo lagoensis), which tamely sits on the branches of the castor-oil plant, and thence darts on grasshoppers and lizards. It is brightly coloured, but not so beautiful as the European species : in its flight, manners, and place of habitation, which is generally in the driest valley, there is also a wide difference.

One day, two of the officers and myself rode to Ribeira Grande, a village a few miles eastward of Porto Praya. Until we reached the valley of St. Martin, the country presented its usual dull brown appearance; but here, a very small rill of water produces a most refreshing margin of luxuriant vegetation. In the course of an hour we arrived at Ribeira Grande, and were surprised at the sight of a large ruined fort and cathedral. This little town, before its harbour was filled up, was the principal

* I state this on the authority of Dr. E. Dieffenbach, in his German trauslation of the first edition of this Journal.

1832.)

RIBE!RA GRANDE-ST. DOMINGO.

place in the island : it now presents a melancholy, but very pic. turesque appearance. Having procured a black Padre for a guide, and a Spaniard who had served in the Peninsular war as an interpreter, we visited a collection of buildings, of which an ancient church formed the principal part. It is here the governors and captain-generals of the islands have been buried. Some of the tombstones recorded dates of the sixteenth century.* The heraldic ornaments were the only things in this retired place that reminded us of Europe. The church or chapel formed one side of a quadrangle, in the middle of which a large clump of bananas were growing. On another side was a hospital, containing about a dozen miserable-looking inmates.

We returned to the Vênda to eat our dinners. A considerable number of men, women, and children, all as black as jet, col. lected to watch us. Our companions were extremely merry ; and everything we said or did was followed by their hearty laughter. Before leaving the town we visited the cathedral. It does not appear so rich as the smaller church, but boasts of a little organ, which sent forth singularly inharmonious cries. We presented the black priest with a few shillings, and the Spaniard, patting him on the head, said, with much candour, he thought his colour made no great difference. We then returned, as fast as the ponies would go, to Porto Praya.

Another day we rode to the village of St. Domingo, situated near the centre of the island. On a small plain which we crossed, a few stunted acacias were growing; their tops had been bent by the steady trade-wind, in a singular manner-some of them even at right angles to their trunks. The direction of the branches was exactly N.E. by N., and S.W. by S., and these natural vanes must indicate the prevailing direction of the force of the trade-wind. The travelling had made so little impression on the barren soil, that we here missed our track, and took that to Fuentes. This we did not find out till we arrived there ; and we were afterwards glad of our mistake. Fuentes is a pretty village, with a small stream ; and everything appeared to prosper well, excepting, indeed, that which ought to do so most -ils

* The Cape de Verd Islands were discovered in 1449. There was a tombstone of a bishop with the date of 1571; and a crest of a hand and dagger, dated 1497.

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