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fimplicity and cordiality of affection; proud to give that hofpitality which they had not received, and to humble the perfons who had thought of them with contempt, by fhewing how little they deferved it.

Having been driven from the low countries of Scotland by invafion, they, from time immemorial, thought themfelves intitled to make reprifals upon the property of their invaders; but they touched not that of each other: fo that, in the fame men, there uppeared, to thofe who did not look into the caufes of things, a ftrange mixture of vice and of virtue. For, what we call theft and rapine, they termed right and justice. But from the practice of thefe reprifals, they acquired the habits of being enterprifing, artful and bold.

An injury done to one of a clan, was held to be an injury done to all, on account of the common relation of blood. Hence the highlanders were in the habitual practice of war: and hence their attachment to their chieftain, and to each other, was founded upon the two moft active principles of human nature, love of their friends, and refentment against their enemies.

But the frequency of war tempered its ferocity. They bound up the wounds of their prisoners, while they neglected their own; and in the person of an enemy, respected and pitied the ftranger.


They went always completely armed: a fashion, which by accuftoming them to the inftruments of death, removed the fear of death itfelf; and which, from the danger of provocation, made the common people as polite, and as guarded in their behaviour, as the gentry of other countries. From thefe combined circumftances, the higher ranks and the lower ranks of the highlanders alike joined that refinement of fentiment, which, in all other nations, is peculiar to the former, to that ftrength and hardinels of body, which in other countries, is poffeffed only by the latter.

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To be modeft as well as brave; tą be contented with the few things which nature requires; to act and to fuffer without complaining; to be as much afhamed of doing any thing infolent or injurious to others, as of bearing it when done to themselves; and to die with pleasure, to revenge the affronts offered to their clan or their country: these they accounted their higheft accomplishments.

Their chriftianity was ftrongly tinctured with traditions derived from the ancient bards of their country: for they were believers in ghofts: they marked the appearances of the heavens; and, by the forms of the clouds, which in their variable climate were continually shifting, were induced to guess at prefent, and to predict future events; and they even thought, that to fome men the divinity had communicated a portion of his own prefcience. From this mixture of fyftem, they did not enter much into difputes concerning the particular modes of chriftianity; but every man followed, with indifference of fentiment, the mode which his chieftain had affumed. Perhaps, to the fame caufe it is owing, that their country is the only one in Europe, into which perfecution never entered.

Their drefs, which was the last remains of the Roman habit in Europe, was well fuited to the nature of their country, and still better to the néceffities of war. It confifted of a roll of light woolen, called a plaid, fix yards in length, and two in breadth, wrappęd loofely around the body, the upper lappet of which refted on the left fhoulder, leaving the right arm at full liberty; a jacket of thick cloth, fitted tightly to the body; and a loose short garment of light woolen, which went round the waift and covered the thigh. In rain, they formed the plaid into folds, and, laying it on the shoulders, were covered as with a roof. When they were obliged to lie abroad in the hills, in their hunting parties, or tends ing their cattle, or in war, the plaid

ferved them both for bed and for covering; for, when three men flept together, they could fpread three folds of cloth below and fix above them. The garters of their stockings were tied under their knee, with a view to give more freedom to the limb; and they wore no breeches, that they might climb mountains with the greater eafe. The lightness and loofenefs of their drefs, the custom they had of going always on foot, never on horfeback, their love of long journies, but above all, that patience of hunger, and every kind of hardship, which carried their bodies forward, even after their spirits were exhaufted, made them exceed all other European nations in fpeed and perfeverance of march, Montrose's marches were fometimes 60 miles a-day, without food or halting, over mountains, along rocks, through moraffes. In encampments, they were expert at forming beds in a moment, by tying together bunches of heath, and fixing them upright in the ground; an art, which, as the beds were both foft and dry, preferved their health in the field, when other foldiers loft theirs.

Their arms were a broad fword, a dagger, called a durk, a target, a mufket, and two piftols: so that they carried the long fword of the Celtes, the pugio of the Romans, the shield of the ancients, and both kinds of modern fire-arms, all together. In battle they threw away the plaid and under garment, and fought in their jackets, making thus their movements quicker, and their ftrokes more forcible. Their ad. vance to battle was rapid, like the charge of dragoons: when near the enemy, they ftopped a little to draw breath and difcharge their mufkets, which they then dropped on the ground: advancing, they fired their piftols, which they threw, almost at the fame inftant, againft the heads of their opponents: and then rushed into their ranks with the broad fword, threatening, and fhaking the fword as they ran on, fo as to conquer the enemy's eye, while his bo

dy was yet unhurt. They fought not in long and regular lines, but in feparate bands, like wedges condenfed and firm; the army being ranged according to the clans which compofed it, and each clan according to its families; fo that there arose a competition in va lour of clan with clan, of family with family, of brother with brother. To make an opening in regular troops, and to conquer, they reckoned the fame thing; because in clofe engagements, and in broken ranks, no regular troops could withstand them. They received the bayonet in the target, which they carried on the left arm; then turning it afide, or twifting it in the target, they attacked with the broad fword, the enemy incumbered and defenceless; and, where they could not weild the broad fword, they ftabbed with the durk. The only foes they dreaded were cavalry; to which many causes contributed: the novelty of the enemy; their want of the bayonet to receive the fhock of horfe; the attack made upon them with their own weapon, the broad fword; the fize of dragoon horfes, appearing larger to them, from a comparison with those of their country; but above all, a belief entertained univerfally among the lower clafs of highlanders, that a warhorfe is taught to fight with his feet and his teeth.

Notwithstanding all thefe advanta ges, the victories of the highlanders have always been more honourable for themfelves, than of consequence to others. A river stopped them, because they were unaccustomed to swim: a fort had the fame effect, because they knew not the fcience of attack: they wanted cannon, carriages, and maga zines, from their poverty and ignorance in the arts: they spoke an unknown language; and therefore could derive their refcources only from themselves. Although their refpect for their chieftains gave them, as long as they conti nued in the field, that exact habit of obedience, which only the exceffive rigour

gour of difcipline can fecure over other
troops; yet, as foon as the victory was
gained, they accounted their duty, which
was to conquer, fulfilled, and ran ma-
of them home to recount their fates,
and ftore up their plunder; and in fpring
and harvest, more were obliged to re-
tire, or leave their women and children
to die of famine: their chieftains too
were apt to feparate from the army, up-
on quarrels and points of honour among
themselves and with others.

The King gave this letter to the young woman, without informing her of its contents, and ordered her to deliver it punctually acording to the directions, and not to fail, as it was on an affair of great confequence; he afterwards made her a handfome prefent, and continued his route.

The young woman, who had not the leaft imagination that it was the King that spoke to her, believing it was indifferent whether the letter was deli, vered by another, so it came safe to The MISTAKE. An Anecdote of the hand, made a bargain with an old wolate King of Pruffia. man, whom the charged with the commiffion, laying an exprefs injuction on her to fay that she had it from a man of fuch a garb and mein. The old woman faithfully executed her mesfage. The Colonel, furprifed at the contents of the letter, could not reconcile them with the age and figure of the bearer; yet, the order being peremptory, he thought he could not without danger recede from obeying, and fancied that his mafter wanted to punifh the foldier for fome mifdemeanor by matching him in fo difagreeable a manner. In short the marriage was celebrated before him to the great regret of the granadier,whilft the old woman, exulting with joy, affumed an air of the highest fatisfaction.

Some time after the king, on his return to Berlin, was eager to fee the couple he had ordered to be married. When prefented to him, he fell into a very defperate paffion. The Colonel in vain endeavoured to juftify himself, and the King was implacable till the old woman confeffed the truth, finish ing her tale by raifing her eyes to hea ven, and thanking providence for conferring on her a benefit the more fignal and acceptable to her as unex, pected.


HE late King of Pruffia used to drefs in fo plain a manner, hat, when he travelled about his ftates,fuch of his fubjects as did not know him, treated him with no other respect than they would an ordinary man. Once, as he was riding about Berlin, with out attendants, and very plainly clad, he perceived a young woman digging in the fields, of a gigantic ftature, being near feven feet high. It is well known that the King had a particular predilection for tall men, and as his greateft paffion lay that way, he fpared no expence to procure them from all parts of Europe, for forming, as he did, his regiment of giants and granadiers out of them. At fight of this tall woman, he imagined that a couple of the kind muft produce very large children. He difmounted, and, coming up to the peasant, entered into converfation with her, and was overjoyed to hear that he was but nineteen years old, ftill a virgin, and that her father was a fhoemaker. Hereupon he fat down and wrote the following note to the Colonel of his guards:

• You are to marry the bearer of this note with the talleft of my granadiers. Take care that the ceremony be per formed immediately, and in your prefence. You must be responsible to me for the execution of this order. "Tis

abfolute; and the least delay will make M receipts to deftroy the turnip

R Arbuthnot has tried various

you criminal in my fight.'


To prevent the Turnip-fly: from the farmer's Tour.

fly: but none of them have answered except the following.

He collects all forts of green weeds from hedges, hedge rows, &c. mixes them with ftraw, and lays them on heaps on the wind-ward fide of the field: they are then fet on fire, so that the wind may blow the fmoak over the whole field. But it should be obferved, that the weeds must not be withered too much, as it is the fmothering of the flame that produces the fmoak which is expected to have the defired effect. This drives away the fly at once, and faves the crop: he this year preferved ten acres, on which the fly had begun, by pursuing this method; they were fafe in three or four days. This hint he received from Mr Booth, of Glendon, in Northamptonfhire.

Of transplanting Hedges; from Young's Farmer's Tour.

R Hall has a method of fenc

Ming, in which I apprehend he is

perfectly orginal, as I have never heard of any perfon that practifed it. He tranfplants white thorn hedges, of any growth, even to 30 or 40 years old. In winter, he grubs up the old hedge, after cutting, in the common manner, and without giving any unufual attention to the manner in which it is done. The ftubs are not at all tender, or liable to fail of growing; he has known them left out of the ground a week, without any damage; and, if there is a little water at the bottom of the ditch he apprehends they would lie there fafely a month, but the best way, undoubtedly,in fuch cases,is to move them from one hedge to the other, as foon as is convenient. The bank, or place, where the new hedge is to be made, fhould be marked out with a line, and a proper trench cut to set the stubs in: they fhould be buried rather deeper

than they were in the earth before. Mr Hall has found, that not one stub in an hundred will fail of growing, and the fhoots are fo vigorous, that a new hedge is formed much quicker than in any other method.

I viewed a very long hedge of this gentleman's, tranfplanted fix years ago, when 30 years old. In five years it fprouted 14 feet in many places, and 12 feet on an average. It was then cut and plashed, and is now as thriving and fine a hedge as can be feen. Another hedge, planted in the common manner, 15 years ago, did not equal this when only five years old.

This difcovery is very important, for I have more than once known old hedges grubbed up and levelled, and new ones planted with great care and attention, to raise a fence as foon as poffible; by which conduct ten years are abfolutely loft in height, and many more in ftrength. In the grubbing up of old hedges, planted with various forts of wood, it is very ufeful to know, that the white thorn ftubs be may preferved to plant in the gaps of other hedges. The whole procefs of the work alfo is fo extremely plain and easy, that none can find any difficulty in executing it.

Let me here likewife obferve, that Mr Hall is remarkably attentive to all his hedges, he keeps them quite clean from weeds, and trims the horizontal fhoots off in fuch a manner, that the hedge is left wide at bottom, and narrowed gradually to the top, that the latter may not drip on the reft, and deftroy or damage it. The hedge, alfo, by this means is rendered ftronger, and no land is loft by the fhade; but the fhoots, that grow up in the center, are not fhortened: they rife their natural height.

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*The Rev. Mr. Hall at Swaith near Barnfley in Yorkshire.

hofpital of Bedlam. Those who were employed to gather this money came to a small house in the city of Lodon, the door of which was half open; from the entry they over-heard an old man fcolding a fervant maid, who having made ufe of a match in kindling the fire, had afterwards indifcreetly thrown it away, without reflecting that the match, having ftill the other extremity dipped in fulphur, might be of further fervice. After diverting themselves a while with the difpute, they knocked, and prefented themselves before the old gentleman. As foon as they told him the cause of their coming, he went into a closet, from whence he brought four hundred guineas, and reckoning the money in their prefence, he put it into their bag. The collectors being aftonished at this generofity, which they little expected, could not help teftifying their furprize, and told the old fellow what they had heard. "Gentlemen, faid he,your furprize is occafioned by a thing of very little confequence. I keep house, and fave or fpend money my own way; the one furnishes me with the means of doing the other, and both equally gratify my inclinations. With respect to benefactions and donations, always expect moft from prudent people, who keep their own accounts." When he had fpoken this he turned them out of his houfe without ceremony, and shut the door, not thinking half so much of the four hundred guineas, which he had just given away, as of the match that had been thrown into the fire.

To the PRINTER of the PERTH MAGAZINE. A foolish tongue without remeed Brings mifchief on the owner's head; It is a peftilentious clout, Caufing contagion all about. It raifes Jealoufies and fears. And fets good neighbours by the ears, Colvil's Scots hudibras.. and a Batchlor, and another Bat

chelor, and a married man all in defence of the Ladies! well done-keep it up.

-I with all the Batchelors in the country would appear for them, and fhow their regard not in words only, but in DEED, Mr Printer.-Deed shows proof fays the proverb, and till fuch proofs appear, your correfpondents may cry up the fweet creatures for goddesfes as long as they please, and alas! they will be but virgins after all !— no difhonourable appellation by the bye, Mr Printer. It may fometimes be a misfortune, but it can be no reproach Sir,till the fashions alter fo far that the Ladies go a wooing;-Whenever that becomes the prevailing tafte, then old maids will have as good cause to blush as old Batchlors have now. I fay old Batchlors Mr Printer, for till a man turn rather oldish, I would never give over hopes of him,—and tho' I dare not fay a Batchlor is a fool at forty, yet I cannot help thinking he is rather a pitiable object by that time: amidst all his forrows, he has none to comfort him, and in his pleasures he has no partaker,-in fickness, he has none to help him, and in health he comes and goes with none to rejoice at his prefence, or wish for his return;-cold and liftlefs pass his joyless days, and his nights are all wearifome ones;no fmiling wifeno prattling little ones ever welcome or wifh his ap proach; all his little pleasures are center'd in his narrow felf-the heart felt joys of life he can have no idea of, as he can be no partaker in them dreary drowfy mortal-living in a conftant war with nature-the pity of the wife-the jeft of the young-the dull companion of his neighbours (when they have liefure)-and the fcorn of every female that he fees, who must confider him either as an enemy to the sex in general, or as a creature nearly allied to the Opera-house-I should be forry to fuppofe any thing worse. His houfe is a continual fcene of confufion-here lies his empty bottles -- and porter mugs and news papers-and duft

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