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fr. from the Cadmus bookshape,

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1856, by


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York.

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Purchase of Louisiana-Missouri Territory-Applies for Admission as a State-Gen. Tall-
madge's Restriction on Slavery-Yeas and Nays thereon-Debate by Hon. Messrs. T.
Fuller of Mass., James Tallmadge of N. Y., Scott of Mo., Cobb of Ga., and Livermore
of N. H.-Vote in the Senate-Bill fails by disagreement

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Mr. Collamer's Minority Report,

Congress resumed-Mr. I. P. Walker's proposition-Mr. R. W. Thompson's amend-
ment-Failure in the Senate,

XII. Oregon (Bill to organize as a Territory)

Ordinance of '87 applied-Mr. Douglas moves to extend Missouri Compromise Line to
the Pacific-Senate approves-House rejects Senate recedes-Bill passed,

XIII. The Compromise of 1850

President Taylor's Message-Gen. Houston's Resolves-Mr. Clay's-Mr. John Bell's-
Mr. Clay's plan discussed by Messrs. Foote of Miss., Mason of Va., Jeff. Davis-Mr.
Clay-Mr. Wm. R. King-Mr. Downs of La.-Mr. Butler of S. C.
Select Committee raised by the Senate-Mr. Clay's Report,
Proceedings and votes in Congress thereon,

The Acts of 1850 concerning California, Texas, New-Mexico, and Utah,

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The Toombs Douglas bill,

The Senate on Kansas-Douglas's new proposition-Various amendments rejected-
Bill passed

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HUMAN Slavery, as it existed in the pagan world, and especially in the infancy, vigor, and decline of Greek and Roman civilization, gradually died out in the advancing light of Christianity. When Columbus opened the New World to European enterprise and settlement, the serfdom of Russia and Hungary, and the mild bondage of Turkey -each rather an Asiatic or Scythian than a European power-were the last remaining vestiges of a system which had pervaded, and mastered, and ruined, the vast empires of Alexander and the Cæsars. The few ignorant and feeble dependents elsewhere held in virtual bondage by force rather of custom than of positive law, serve rather to establish than disprove this general statement.

Africa, whom their eternal wars and maraud-
ing invasions were constantly exposing to
captivity and sale as prisoners of war, and
who, as a race, might be said to be inured to
the hardships and degradations of Slavery
by an immemorial experience.
The sugges
tion was unhappily approved, and the woes
and miseries of the few remaining Aborigines
of the islands known to us as "West Indies,”
were inconsiderably prolonged by exposing
the whole continent for unnumbered genera-
tions to the evils and horrors of African slave-
ry. The author lived to perceive and deplore
the consequences of his expedient.

The sanction of the Pope having been obtained for the African slave-trade by representations which invested it with a look of philanthropy, Spanish and Portuguese mercantile avarice was readily enlisted in its prosecution, and the whole continent, north and south of the tropics, became a slave-mart before the close of the sixteenth century.

Lust of gold and power was the main impulse of Spanish migration to the marvelous regions beyond the Atlantic. And the soft Holland, a comparatively new and Proand timid Aborigines of tropical America, testant state, unable to shelter itself from the especially of its islands, were first compelled reproaches of conscience and humanity beto surrender whatever they possessed of the hind a Papal bull, entered upon the new trafprecious metals to the imperious and grasp-fic more tardily; but its profits soon overbore ing strangers; next forced to disclose to those strangers the sources whence they were most readily obtained; and finally driven to toil and delve for more, wherever power and greed supposed they might most readily be obtained. From this point, the transition to general enslavement was ready and rapid. The gentle and indolent natives, unaccustomed to rugged, persistent toil, and revolting at the harsh and brutal severity of their Christian_masters, had but one unfailing resource-death. Through privation, hardship, exposure, fatigue and despair, they drooped and died, until millions were reduced to a few miserable thousands within the first century of Spanish rule in America.

all scruples, and British merchants were not proof against the glittering evidences of their success. But the first slave-ship that ever entered a North American port for the sale of its human merchandise, was a Dutch trading-vessel which landed twenty negro bondmen at Jamestown, the nucleus of Virginia, almost simultaneously with the landing of the Pilgrims of the Mayflower on Plymouth rock, Dec. 22d, 1620.

The Dutch slaver had chosen his market with sagacity. Virginia was settled by CAVALIERS-gentlemen-adventurers aspiring to live by their own wits and other men's labor -with the necessary complement of followers and servitors. Few of her pioneers cherA humane and observant priest (Las Casas,) ished any earnest liking for downright, perwitnessing these cruelties and sufferings, was sistent, muscular exertion; yet some exmoved by pity to devise a plan for their ter- ertion was urgently required to clear away mination. He suggested and urged the poli- the heavy forest which all but covered the cy of substituting for these feeble and perish- soil of the infant colony, and grow the Toing "Indians" the hardier natives of Western | bacco which easily became its staple export,

by means of which nearly everything required by its people but food was to be paid for in England. The slaves, therefore, found ready purchasers at satisfactory prices, and the success of the first venture induced others; until not only Virginia but every part of British America was supplied with African


This traffic, with the bondage it involved, had no justification in British nor in the early colonial laws; but it proceeded nevertheless, much as an importation of dromedaries to replace with presumed economy our horses and oxen might now do. Georgia was the first among the colonies to resist and remand it in her original charter under the lead of her noble founder-Governor, General Oglethorpe; but the evil was too formidable and inveterate for local extirpation, and a few years saw it established, even in Georgia; first evading or defying, and at length molding and transforming the law.

It is very common at this day to speak of our revolutionary struggle as commenced and hurried forward by a union of free and slave colonies; but such is not the fact. However slender and dubious its legal basis, Slavery existed in each and all of the colonies that united to declare and maintain their independence. Slaves were proportionately more numerous in certain portions of the South; but they were held with impunity throughout the North, advertised like dogs or horses, and sold at auction, or otherwise, as chattels. Vermont, then a territory in dispute between NewHampshire and New-York, and with very few civilized inhabitants, mainly on its southern and eastern borders, is probably the only portion of the revolutionary confederation never polluted by the tread of a slave.

had them set at liberty. The first Continent-
al Congress which resolved to resist the
usurpations and oppressions of Great Britain
by force, had already declared that our strug-
gle would be "for the cause of human na-
ture," which the Congress of 1776, under
the lead of Thomas Jefferson, expanded into
the noble affirmation of the right of "all men
to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness"
contained in the immortal preamble to the
Declaration of Independence. A like aver-
ment that all men are born free and equal.'
was in 1780 inserted in the Massachusetts Bill
of Rights; and the Supreme Court of that
State, in 1783, on an indictment of a master
for assault and battery, held this declaration
a bar to slaveholding henceforth in the state.

A similar clause in the second Constitution
of New-Hampshire, was held by the courts
of that State to secure freedom to every child,
born therein after its adoption. Pennsylvania,
in 1780, passed an act prohibiting the further
introduction of slaves and securing freedom
to all persons born in that State thereafter.
Connecticut and Rhode Island passed similar
acts in 1784. Virginia, 1778, on motion
of Mr. Jefferson, prohibited the further
importation of slaves; and in 1782, re-
moved all legal restrictions on emancipa-
tion: Maryland adopted both of these in 1783.
North Carolina, in 1786, declared the intro-
duction of Slaves into that state" of evil con-
sequences and highly impolitic," and imposed
a duty of £5 per head thereon. New-York
and New-Jersey followed the example of
Virginia and Maryland, including the domes-
tic in the same interdict with the foreign slave
trade. Neither of these States, however, de-
clared a general emancipation until many
years thereafter, and Slavery did not wholly
cease in New-York until about 1830, nor in
New-Jersey till a much later date.
distinction of free and slave States, with the
kindred assumption of a natural antagonism
between the North and South, was utterly
unknown to the men of the Revolution.


The spirit of liberty, aroused or intensified by the protracted struggle of the colonists against usurped and abused power in the mother country, soon found itself engaged in natural antagonism against the current form of domestic despotism. "How shall we complain of arbitrary or unlimited power Before the Declaration of Independence, exerted over us, while we exert a still more but during the intense ferment which preceddespotic and inexcusable power over a de- ed it, and distracted public attention from pendent and benighted race?" was very fair- everything else, Lord Mansfield had rendered ly asked. Several suits were brought in his judgment from the King's Bench, which Massachusetts-where the fires of liberty expelled Slavery from England, and ought to burnt earliest and brightest-to test the legal have destroyed it in the colonies as well. right of slaveholding; and the leading Whigs The plaintiff in this famous case was gave their money and their legal services to James Somerset, a native of Africa, carsupport these actions, which were generally, ried to Virginia as a slave, taken thence on one ground or another, successful. Efforts by his master to England, and there infor an express law of emancipation, however, cited to resist the claim of his master to failed even in Massachusetts; the Legislature, his services, and assert his right to liberty. doubtless, apprehending that such a measure, by alienating the slaveholders, would increase the number and power of the Tories; but in 1777, a privateer having brought a lot of captured slaves into Jamaica, and advertised them for sale, the General Court, as the legislative assembly was called, interfered and

In the first recorded case, involving the
legality of modern slavery in England, it
was held (1697) that negroes, "being usual-
ly bought and sold among merchants as mer-
chandise, and also being infidels, there might
be a property in them sufficient to maintain
trover." But this was overruled by Chief Jus





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