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In these sentences the nouns William Brown, brother, and author are in the same case as the nouns they explain. William Brown, brother, and author are here said to be appositives.

An appositive agrees with its subject in case.

Name the cases of the nouns in italics in the following sentences, and apply the rule in each case.

1. Lochiel, Lochiel, beware of the day

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When the Lowlands shall meet thee in battle array! 2. Come back, come back, he cried in grief, Across this stormy water;

And I'll forgive your Highland chief,

My daughter, O my daughter!

3. Washington was first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.

4. Mr. Hardy, the artist, sailed for Europe yesterday.

Write sentences using predicate nouns both with finite verbs and with infinitives; write other sentences using appositives and nouns in direct address.

Tell in each case which of these relations you have used.



1. This book is the one you sent for.

2. These books are what you wished.

3. This kind of thing cannot go on.
4. These kinds of grains are raised easily.
5. That kind of conduct destroys all discipline.

6. Those kinds of trees are ornamental.

It is easily seen that this and that are used with nouns in the singular, and these and those with nouns in the plural number.

Avoid the common error of using these or those with a singular noun.

Adjectives that express number agree with their nouns in number.

Write sentences using this and that, these and those, with kind, kinds, sort, sorts, sample, samples, lot and lots. (See pages 73, 74.)

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Observe that the pronouns in italics agree in person, number and gender with the nouns for which they stand.

1. I have bought you a book; it is " Bird-Life," by Frank M. Chapman.

2. I met a little cottage girl; she was eight years old, she said.

3. The boy stood on the burning deck

Whence all but him had fled.

4. Men may work hard all their lives, yet they may die poor, because of their habits.

5. Ye crags and peaks, I'm with you once again;

I hold to you these hands to show they still are free. 6. Every one must do his own thinking on this subject. 7. I, who speak to you, am he.

8. The stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner.

9. Take the books that interest you most.

In these sentences it is easy to see the agreement of the pronoun in person, number, and gender with its antecedent, or the noun which it represents. This agreement applies to all pronouns. Carelessness in regard to this agreement is responsible for many mistakes in the use of English.

A pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person, number and gender.

Write sentences using pronouns of the first person, of the second person, and the third person, using both singular and plural numbers.

Write sentences using relative pronouns. Tell in each case the antecedent, and show that the pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person, number, and gender.


Observe the tenses of the verbs in the clauses:

1. I will send you the keys, if I can find them.

2. I should sing, if you asked me.

3. I should have gone to the seashore with you, if I could have arranged to leave my business.

4. If I had the money, I would lend it to you.

5. If I had owned the boat, I would have lent it to you gladly.

It is apparent that the tenses of the verbs in these clauses are governed by the tenses of the verbs in the principal statements.

The verb in a clause should take the form required by the tense of the verb in the principal statement.



1. They knew not that thence would come a better wisdom than could be learned from books, and a better life than could be molded on the defaced example of other lives.

2. Then the wind waves the branches; and the sun comes out, and turns all these myriads of beads and drops to prisms, that glow and flash with all manner of colored fires, which change and change again with inconceivable rapidity, from blue to red, from red to green, and green to gold.

Notice the agreement in mode and tense of the verbs in italics. Verbs connected by coördinate conjunctions usually agree in mode and tense.


We express the fact that the objective case follows prepositions and transitive verbs by the following rules: The object of a transitive verb is in the objective case. The object of a preposition is in the objective case.


The student of good English must have observed that there is a certain fairly well defined order of using words. In general those words should be used, and that order followed, which will best convey the thought of the speaker or the writer. A few of the most common rules of order are:

1. That which comes first in time should be stated first. 2. The things thought of together should be closely connected.

3. A subject precedes its predicate.

4. The modifiers of the subject immediately precede or follow it.

5. The direct object follows the transitive verb.

6. The complement of a predicate follows the incomplete verb.

7. An adjective modifier is placed as near as possible to the noun or pronoun it modifies.

8. An adverbial modifier should be placed as near as possible to the word it modifies.

9. When two words are used correlatively each should be followed by the same part of speech.

10. Prepositions should be placed as near as possible to the words they govern.

11. Every pronoun should have a distinct antecedent.

NOTE. – The antecedent of the pronoun it, when used with impersonal verbs, cannot always be determined.

In poetry and impassioned prose these rules of order are often changed for effect.

Apply these rules of order to several of the best prose selections with which you are acquainted.


That orbed maiden, with white fire laden,
Whom mortals call the moon,

Glides glimmering o'er my fleece-like floor,
By the midnight breezes strewn ;
And wherever the beat of her unseen feet,
Which only the angels hear,

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