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2. The storm ceased, but the vessel was lost.

3. Thomas walked, Carl rode his wheel, and Edith rode in the carriage with her father.

4. The hour for sailing had arrived, everything on board was in trim condition, the anchor was weighed, and the huge steamer started on her homeward journey.

5. The way was long, the wind was cold, The minstrel was infirm and old.

6. Thick clouds of dust afar appeared,

And trampling steeds were faintly heard. 7. The air was mild, the wind was calm,

The stream was smooth, the dew was balm. 8. The castle gates were open flung,

The quivering drawbridge rocked and rung,
And echoed loud the flinty street

Beneath the courser's clattering feet.

9. The lion perceiving this, made a prodigious leap, but the dog was happily beyond his reach.

10. "It is true," said Sancho, "that I once did keep swine, but I was only a boy then."

11. The pastor came; his snowy locks

Hallowed his brow of thought and care;
And calmly, as shepherds lead their flocks,
He led into the house of prayer.

12. The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,

The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea
13. Then shook the hills with thunder riven;
Then rushed the steed to battle driven.
14. It is a beauteous evening, calm and free,
The holy time is quiet as a nun

Breathless with adoration; the broad sun
Is sinking down in its tranquillity.

We have now briefly studied the parts of sentences. However much we may read or write, we shall find no elements of sentences not already mentioned.

The parts of sentences are words, phrases, and clauses.

The main parts of a compound sentence are coördinate


We shall study these parts more fully as we proceed.


As we have already seen, every sentence contains a subject and a predicate.

The subject is the word, or words, that name the thing about which something is asserted.

The predicate is the word, or words, that express what is asserted about the thing named by the subject. The subject of a sentence may be: 1. A noun; as, Birds have feathers. 2. A pronoun; as, They went home.

3. A phrase; as, To see the sun is pleasant. 4. A clause; as, What he said was true.

The predicate of every sentence is a verb or contains a verb; for the verb, as we have seen, is the part of speech which is used in making assertions.

Point out the subjects in the following sentences:

1. Truth crushed to earth will rise again. 2. Good books are worthy companions.

3. The love of money is the root of all evil.

4. How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank.

5. They are slaves who dare not be

In the right with two or three.

6. To be ready for storm is the duty of the sailor.

7. Whatever he did was misunderstood.

8. The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals has done much good by its teachings.

9. To pay his bills promptly is characteristic of an honest


10. The messenger said that the news was received at eight


11. The result of the examination was not yet known.

12. All the talents and all the accomplishments developed by liberty and civilization were now displayed.

13. There were seated around the queen the fair-haired daughters of the house of Brunswick.

14. He had the stout heart which leads the forlorn hope unhesitatingly.

15. To exercise power over another unlawfully is tyranny. 16. The rays of the evening sun came solemnly through the painted windows above his head and fell in gorgeous colors on the opposite wall.

17. That which is truly characteristic of man is known only to God.

18. There, across the great rocky wharves, a wooden bridge goes, carrying a path to the forest.

19. At every new question put to him this nephew burst into a fresh roar of laughter.

20. By and by there was brought to me the fragrant tea, and big masses of scorched and scorching toast.

21. At last a soft and solemn-breathing sound

Rose like a stream of rich distilled perfumes.


1. The boy walks.

2. The rain falls.

In these sentences each of the verbs walks and falls, is of itself the complete predicate of the sentence.

Verbs which may be used as predicates, without the aid of other words, are called verbs of complete predication. 1. The boy is sick. 3. The dog seems cross.

2. The man looks tired.

4. Hungry wolves are voracious. Here the verbs is, look, seems, and are, require the use of other words in order to form complete predicates.

Verbs which thus require the help of other words to form predicates are called verbs of incomplete predication. The words sick, tired, cross, and voracious are the complements of the verbs with which they are used.

Words used with a verb of incomplete predication to complete the predicate are called the complement of the verb. 1. We are happy. 2. Mary became a scholar.

Here, happy, the complement of the verb are, is an adjective modifying we, the subject; and scholar, the complement of the verb became, is a noun meaning the same as Mary, the subject.

Adjectives like happy, used to complete the predicate, are called predicate adjectives.

Nouns like scholar, used to complete the predicate, are called predicate nouns.

1. The cross dog bit me.

2. The cook cut the bread. 3. The hungry cat caught the mouse,

In these sentences the word me tells whom the dog bit, the word bread tells what the cook cut, and the word mouse tells what the cat caught.

Me, bread, and mouse are the complements of the verbs bit, cut, and caught, as they denote the things that received the actions expressed by the verbs.

Nouns and pronouns used in this way are called the objects of the verbs.

Thus it appears that there are two kinds of verbs of incomplete predication :

1. Those whose complements are predicate adjectives or predicate nouns.

2. Those whose complements are objects of the verb.

1. The dog was in the house.

2. He seems to be well.

3. I think you told the truth.

In these sentences, the phrases in the house and to be well, and the clause you told the truth, are complements of the verbs was, seems, and think.

It thus appears that not only adjectives, nouns, and pronouns, but phrases and clauses, may be the complements of verbs of incomplete predication.

Point out the complements of the verbs in the following sentences, and tell whether they are words, phrases, or clauses: 1. The book was interesting.

2. John was in the country.

3. The cloud seems to be moving.

4. The old blacksmith bought a horse.
5. Did you call me?

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