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of his employment, and is capable, in the opinion of the appropriate school authorities, of maintaining good standing in his vocational education program while employed under the workstudy program;

(3) provide that no student shall be employed under such work-study program for more than fifteen hours in any week in which classes in which he is enrolled are in session, or for compensation which exceeds $45 in any month or $350 in any academic year or its equivalent, unless the student is attending-a school which is not within reasonable commuting distance from his home, in which case his compensation may not exceed $60 in any month or $500 in any academic year or its equivalent

(4) provide that employment under such work-study program shall be for the local educational agency or for some other public agency or institution;

(5) provide that, in each fiscal year during which such programm remains in effect, such agency shall expend (from sources other than payments from Federal funds under this section) for the employment of its students (whether or not in employment eligible for assistance under this section) an amount that is not less than its average annual expenditure for work-study programe of a similar character during the three fiscal years preceding the fiscal year in which its work-study program under this section is approved. (e) Subsections (b), (c), and (d) of section 505 (pertaining to the approval of State plans, the withholding of Federal payments in case of nonconformity after approval, and judicial review of the Con missioner's final actions in disapproving a State plan or withholding payments) shall be applicable to the Commissioner's actions with respect to supplementary plans under this section.

(t) From a State's allotment under this section for the fiscal veat ending June 30, 1964, and for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1945 the Commissioner shall pay to such State an amount equal to the amount expended for compensation of students employed pursuant to work-study programs under the State's supplementary plan approved under this section, plus an amount, not to exceed 1 per centur of such allotment, expended for the development of the State's supplementary plan and for the administration of such plan after its approva. by the Commissioner. From a State's allotment under this sectior for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966, and for each of the two succeeding fiscal years, such payment shall equal 75 per centum ol the amount so expended. No state shall receive payments under this section for any fiscal year in excess of its allotment under subsectior (b) for such fiscal year.

(g) Such payments (adjusted on account of overpayments or under payments previously made shall be made by the Commissioner in Advance on the basis of such estimates, in such installments, and at such times, as may be reasonably required for expenditures by the States of the funds allotted under subsection (b).

(h) Students employed in work-study programs under this section shall not by reason of such employment be deemed employees of the

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Over 23 million Americans 18 years of age and older have completed * than 8 years of schooling. Included in this figure are some 8 million adus aged 25 and older who have completed less than 5 years of schooling."

Only 43 percent of our adults have completed high school and only & perce have completed college."

Thirty percent of the high school seniors in the 80 to 90 academic pereenca: of their class and 43 percent of the 70 to 80 percentile fail to enter college."

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Nearly 70 percent of the young white population have graduated from his school, but only about 40 percent of our uonwhite population have comples high school. To put it another way, 30 percent of the whites and 60 percent the nonwhites are “school dropouts.

Of our adult population, 25 years and older, 6.2 percent of whites and percent of nonwhites have completed less than 5 years of school (1962)."

Almost 12 percent of youug white adults (age 25 to 29) have completed colle while only 5.4 percent of this age group in the nonwhite population have dot

11 SO.

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While 11 percent of the total population is Negro, Negroes make up art 3.5 percent of all professional workers. 12 IV. ON TIIE SOCIAL COSTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND LOW EDUCATIONAL ATTAINUOSI

One of every 10 workers who failed to finish elementary school is unemployed today, as compared to l out of 50 college graduates, 13

In March 1902, persons of 18 years and older who had not completed hizi school made up 46 percent of the total labor force. Such persons, howerer comprised 64 percent of the unemployed."

A 1961 national study of families receiving aid for dependent children (AFTIC! payments showed :

Sixty-two percent of the jobless AFDC fathers had no education besond wirter elementary school.

of those AFDC fathers who were incapacitated, 83 percent had no educ: tion beyond elementary school, 42 percent had been in school less than a years, and only 6 percent had been graduated from high school.

This study also indicateul that of all women in the 20-to-75 age group with less than 5 years of schooling, 1 in 14 was on AFDC. Of all who (oupleted elementary school, 1 in 34 was receiving such assistance. Of ad high school graduates who did not go on to college, 1 in 1:53 was supported

by AFDC. But of all college graduates, only 1 in 1,765 was on AFDE. Almost a fifth of New York mothers on the aid-to-dependent children (ANC) rolls (1957) had not completed the fifth grade and, among families receitie: general assistance, half the family heads had completed only 6 years of schou. iny."

Tilinois reported (1960) that a fifth of their ADC mothers had not gone beyond the sixth grade."

& U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; 1960. Report, series 10. Table No, 173, p. 1-404. 7 Same as footnote 6.

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education ; Projet Talent, Project 226, chart, Mar. 5, 1962,

"U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; “Current Population Reports." Feb. 7. 1963,

I'. 20, No. 12, talles 2, 3, pp. 8, 9. 10 Same as footnote 9,

11 U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; 1960 Report, series 10, table 173, p. 1-406.

12 U'.s. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; 1960 Report, series 10, tatie
158, p. 1-359, table 257, pp. 1–717, 1-719.
13' US Department of Labor, "Manpower Report of the President,” March 1963, p. 41

14 US Department of Labor'; Monthly Labor Review, March 1942: "Educational attain ment of Workers," p. 507.

15 U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Welfare Administration, Bureny of Family Services ; Press Release, Feb. 20. 1963 (IEW-W63). Report to be published Us Department of Health, Education, ansl Welfare. Welfare Administration. Bureau of Family Services; Press Release, Feb. 7, 1963 (HEW-W48). 18 U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Office of Education ; reprint from

( Report to be published) April 1962, Indicators : “Limited Educational Attainment; Extent and Consequences," p. .



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In Louisiana (1954), half the ADC mothers and three-fourths of the fathers in the home had received only a fifth-grade education or less. 18

Of all persons on Arkansas welfare rolls, 89.4 percent had less than a fourthgrade education,

Of the unemployed in Louisiana, 72 percent had less than a sixth-grade education ; 96 percent of this group had not completed high school.20

Commissioner Keppel also provided the Senate Subcommittee on Education with a new State-by-State breakdown of "functional illiteracy”-educational underattainment characterized by failure to complete at least 5 years of schooling:

In the Nation as a whole (1960), 23.5 percent of nonwhite adults 25 years of its age or older had completed less than 5 years of school compared with 6.7 percent

of white adults. The range in the States was as much as 41.2 percent and as little as 8.1 percent for nonwhites and as much as 13.5 percent and as little as 1.3 percent for whites.21

Senator Morse. Our time is yours. I want to say to you, Mr. Keppel, that I have presided over educational hearings for the past several years.

We have always made what I consider to be outstanding records in

the formal hearings. This subcommittee is proud of its hearing recact ord. In my judgment, however, we have made a record this year

that surpasses in quality and importance the previous record.

If I were back teaching, I would assign for at least a master's thesis, an analysis of this record.

I would like to suggest that there is a good book to be written on this record by some Ph. D. candidate.

I cannot evaluate the record more favorably than the words I have just uttered; and, as I have thumbed through your testimony this

morning in the prepared documents that you have filed with the subthe committee, I want to say that they constitute an excellent closing chapbuceta ter to these hearings.

You may proceed in your own way. lima



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Commissioner KEPPEL. Thank you very much, Senator. I am jealous of the value of the subcommittee's time, and I would like your approval, if I may, sir, to draw your attention to certain particular parts of the testimony. I hope that the subcommittee will

be willing to let me try to answer any questions that arise in connection *** either with these particular parts or the additional material that, I los believe, is also available to you.

I am, of course, very grateful for the opportunity to appear before this subcommittee on the National Education Improvement Act of 1963. I also agree most heartily with what you said, Senator, about the record that has been developed. It is a record of first importance,

14 Same as No. 16. * Statement of T. J. McLernon, assistant director of Adult Education Service, National Education Association, before the General Subcommittee on Labor and Select Subcommittee on Edncation of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 87th Cong, Feb. 14, 1962, p. 83.

2 Same is No. 19.

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I think, in contemporary American history, and if I were back in my position at Harvard, I think I would take up your suggestion that some student be given the job of writing a thesis on it.

It seems to me that the challenges confronting us today are the results of rapid changes that have taken place in our society in the last few decades and even, sir, in the last few months.

The need for more and better education grows increasingly apparent : with every fresh breakthrough in research and technology, with every social and economic change, and, as you yourself pointed out, sir, with every new international development.

INTERRELATED PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING S. 580 I am personally convinced that the proposals embodied in S. 580 are directed to meeting educational needs basic to the solution of one individual and national problems.

I believe it should be emphasized, sir, that each of the proposals which the subcommittee has studied is related to the other. Each will contribute to a strengthening and expansion of our schools, our colleges, our universities, and other centers of learning, our libraries and laboratories; each will lead to an extension of educational opportunities to additional numbers of students.

I hope, Senator, that you will permit me to read a few pages in an effort to state what I sense to be the policy that undergirds the proposals that the subcommittee has been considering these past weeks

It seems to me that this policy has to be seen in the setting of our unique educational structure and tradition. Pluralism is a national habit, sir. It is a national habit of mind. In education, it is embodied in our institutions.

There is consensus that our schools and colleges must be strong enough financially and intellectually to be free from any kind of political or social domination. Though we want them to be responsive to the requirements and wishes of the clientele they serve, we want above all to be sure that they preserve and foster freedom of thought and speech in faculty and students.

We well know that such pluralism brings variety and, at any given moment, produces differences in goals and standards.

Believing in the free marketplace of ideas, we welcome and encourage differences of opinion and variations in institutional strle As far as I can sense our national mood, there are few who believe that we should give up our decentralized pattern of education. There may be debate on what part the Federal Government should play in education, there is no debate on whether it should direct what is taught to whom and by whom. Such direction we simply do not want and will not permit.

However, the goal of pluralism, however, that I have been dis cussing, with its related limitation on direction of curriculums or personnel, does not remove responsibility for education from the Fedteral Government. It only sets boundaries within which it must work. In a complex technological society that lives and grows by innovation. education cannot be considered solely as a service to the individual in the cultivation of his talents and his intellect. It is also an area of

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