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difier Educational policy is inexorably linked to equality of opportunity, p your seto full employment, to economic growth, to international trade, to on it. "foreign policy. For the Federal Government to neglect the instruting u yment of society best adapted to develop its greatest resource—that is, e in our the intelligence of its people would be as foolhardy as to neglect its the responsibility in national security. The Government must have a increase policy and a program; as I say, the question is not whether to have echnolo them but what policy and what program should be adopted, pointed the policy should be in his words, "selective, stimulative, and where

possible transitional.”

S. 580 is the result of an assessment of the present state of education

in meeting the Nation's needs. It is based on the dual assumptions mbodia'' that the national interest requires the maximum development of e soluta human potential, and that the personal interest of every citizen re

quires equality of opportunity. ch of the In contrast, the facts are that our educational institutions and our o the States, despite valiant efforts, are not meeting the standards set by of our : these dual assumptions. ming

, & If I may, I should like to pick a few of those. Thirty percent of educate the high school seniors in the 80-90 academic percentile of their

class and 43 percent of the 70–80 percentile fail to enter college. I a few pe repeat, sir, 43 percent of the 70–80 percentile fail to enter college. derin

. One out of every 10 workers who failed to finish elementary school there is is unemployed today, as compared to 1 out of every 50 college these graduates. ism i Nearly 75 percent of the young white population have graduated ication from high school but only about 40 percent of our nonwhite popula

tion have completed high school. mint . Senator CLARK. Mr. Keppel, could you give us a little fuller definim 2 tion of what the standard is for determining whether a student is in mto the 80-90, 40–50 percentile of his class? Is this on the basis of grade -piper or is it aptitude tests? What is it? om oft Commissioner KEPPEL. It is a combination, sir, of school grades

and scores on national aptitude and ability tests.

Senator CLARK. Do you have some confirmation of its accuracy?

Commissioner KEPPEL. Within a variable of, say, 15 or 20 percent. I am sure that men might be put in a grade above or below. I am quite sure that they would not go, let's say, another standard down.

Senator CLARK. Thank you.

Commissioner KEPPEL. If you look at the adult population on the same general question of schooling, of the adult population 25 years and over, 6.2 percent of whites and 22.1 percent of nonwhites have completed less than 5 years of school.

As you know, sir, 11 percent of the total population is Negro. Yet, Negroes make up only 3.5 percent of all professional workers.

DEFINITION OF “PROFESSIONAL WORKERS" Senator RANDOLPH. Would you clarify “professional workers” ?

Commissioner KEPPEL. This is the definition-if I may, Senator, I would like to check with my colleague, Dr. Muirhead, but I believe

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Dr. MUIRIIEAD. That's right. The definition which we are using a here, as the Commissioner has pointed out, is the one that is used by the census and usually requires a college education for inclusion as a professional worker.

Senator CLARK. That doesn't quite do it; does it, Mr. Commissioner! Does this mean that you can't be a professional worker unless you have a college degree?

Commissioner KEPPEL. I think Dr. Muirhead's response was "1-1ally means a college degree." I don't think, as I read the figures, but I will be pulling it out of my memory, that it requires one. Senator Clark. Actually, you could break it down into lawyers

, doctors, dentists, and the like.

Commissioner KEPPEL. Yes.


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Senator MORSE. These are very interesting figures. They bear upon another observation which has been made in these hearings, about which you may have read, that there are more Negro doctors, lawyers dentists, and Ph. D.'s than there are negro plumbers and electricians. The implications of the statistical data that you are giving us bear also on what is happening to our Nation's economy.

Some of us in the historic civil rights debate now starting in this country believe that, as a nation, we have never really given the Negroes of America economic freedom. They are not economicallı free.

The test of whether an individual is economically free, is whether or not he has an equal economic opportunity.

The data which you have presented this morning ought to be considered most carefully by those on both sides of the historic debate. As you

know, Commissioner, I am an alderman. I have been one for years, in the District of Columbia. I am a member of the District of Columbia Committee.

Almost 84 percent of the boys and girls in the public schools in the District of Columbia are colored. Where are the white ones? Perhaps a percentage of them are being educated in private schools. That 84-percent statistic, however, has some bearing upon the educational prospects of the District of Columbia. It sheds light on a great many aspects of the economic problem of the District. It may even bear a cause-and-effect relationship as to why it is so hard to get money for public schools in the District of Columbia. We have, as you know, a shocking denial of self-government, for the residents of the District of Columbia, the majority of whom are now colored.

I am glad you put these statistics in the record for they point up a cause-and-effect relationship in my judgment. We must either give the Negroes their full constitutional rights, which white people have denied them since the Emancipation Proclamation, or Vegroes will continue to demand these rights, learing us to continue to present another image of the “Ugly American to the world, in the field of foreign relations.

We who are white, need to face up to the fact that we cannot justify


You have presented cold figures, which are nevertheless, throbbing

with human life and human rights. I thank you for them, because fa: I shall plagiarize them on the floor of the Senate, in a series of

speeches. No matter what the consequence of this fight may be to

any of us who are in politics, some of us must be willing to challenge to the low level of citizen statesmanship, of millions of white people in

the United States. The denial of these constitutional rights is the respons bility of the citizens of the United States. The politicians, in the long run, will respond to what our citizens demand.

We have the responsibility of getting such figures as you have presented to us this morning, to the American people. Again, I thank you for them.

Commissioner KEPPEL. Thank you, sir.

Senator MORSE. My colleagues didn't know they were going to listen to a speech over here, as well as on the floor of the Senate. My excuse is that you have given us some very vital information.

Sonator (LiRK. I concur with what Senator Morse said and I think these figures ought to be so important and so striking that we ought to be perfectly sure as to their source. I think it is very important

that we should have in this record, before it closes, where these figures 1 come from, so that we can be assured that we can rely on their accu


Commissioner KEPPEL. We will, of course, be happy to do so, sir.

Senator Morse. You can have the memorandum filed with your in statement this morning documented.

Commissioner KEPPEL. Yes, sir. It will be a pleasure.


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TITLE I: COMMENTS ON COSTS OF COLLEGE ATTENDANCE I think, on the economic side, Senator, considering all groups in in the United States, which have to do with college costs and family

income, may be extended to the kind of thinking that we have been engaged in. We note that the median family income is now $5,700. The average annual cost of attending college are apparently esti

mated at about $1,048 for the public institutions—that is total costsop and $2,024 for private institutions.

The cost of one student in a college, for a median family, will then require over 25 percent of the whole family's income per year; and I

think, in this connection, it is worth taking a look here at the problems SPPR involved in the growth.

Several sets of statistics are given about the growth in colleges, colhare lege population, an estimate of nearly 3 million more students in higher ster's education by 1970, and an estimated expenditure per annum of $2.3 alores billion to reach that level in facilities alone; $2.3 billion being about a CM Willion dollars more than we are now expending for the purpose of

expanding higher education.

Senator Clark, Mr. Commissioner, in connection with that median 17" annual family income, would that exclude anything the student might

arn while at college!
Commissioner KEPPEL. Yes, sir; it would.

Senator Clark. So that to the extent that a student is able to earn part of his way in college, that would be added to the median family income?


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Commissioner KEPPEL. Yes, sir, that would be added.

Senator RANDOLPH. It is my understanding that student income is dropping rather precipitously each year. In other words, there are fewer college students who find it possible to hold part-time jobs; also, the part-time jobs are not in as available a supply as they were a few years ago.

Would you comment on this?

Commissioner KEPPEL. I would like to study it further, Senator, to see if we have figures that would be national in scope.

I have heard comparable information, similarly with regard to the difficulty of college students obtaining employment that is readily available, that is close to where they are, of a character that makes sense in connection with the academic program.


sorry, sir.

As you know, sir, one of the reasons why the administration proposal includes a work-study plan is to encourage the expansion of the present program.

I believe the colleges and universities today are handling, as far as their students are concerned, about a hundred million dollars-is it not, Mr. Muirhead-about a hundred million dollars of earnings of college students today.

This represents, of course, a substantial portion of the financing of a great many students, and the proposal that we presented to you for consideration is to expand that amount. I don't have readily available, however, any estimate of the trends here. I wish I did. I am

Senator MORSE. I recognize the problems that the Senator from West Virginia has raised. As you say, there is an attempt being made to expand employment opportunities. The factual situation being what it is, I certainly would join in doing whatever could be done to help expand such employment opportunities. However, as an old college administrator, I would rather decrease them than to expand them, if it were possible, while still keeping students in college. I have yet to see the first college student who was benefited by employment

, as far as the wisest and best use of his time is concerned. I have never thought it was good for students to work their way through college. I speak as one who had to do it, himself.

A student is much better off if he spends his time in the laboratory, in the library, or behind his study desk, than in a restaurant doing any of the menial jobs which he has to do in order to earn a few dollars to stay in college.

From the standpoint of the economic welfare of the country, it would be better that he stayed in the laboratory, in the library, behind his study desk, because he would become a better physicist, a better doctor, or a better historian. He would be better disciplined. However, you would be surprised at what you run into, on the political front in Congress, when you try to pass educational bills which provide for scholarships, or even those which would provide for a decent loan program.

I don't want you to think I am just making a statement about this

studen: work 1-tin: 6 there

from Pennsylvania leaned over and suggested. I said, “That is
exactly what I intended to do."

I now ask you, What is your view on this problem?
Commissioner KEPPEL. On the work-study question?
Senator MORSE. Yes.
Commissioner KEPPEL. I think, Senator, we may illustrate the habit
of former deans engaging in an argument.




on doll

the fact

It has been my experience, at any rate in recent years, that such Icter the programs make sense under two controls: first, the number of hours

a week; second, the kind of work.

There is in the present world of higher education, in our judgment, a lot of work that relates to the intellectual purpose and program of the student in the library and in laboratories, such as a reader of papers. I think I know of no way, no better way of learning a subject, than to read papers and mark them.

Senator Clark. Tutoring? adling. A

Commissioner KEPPEL. Yes, sir. I think, under those two controls, I would say that this kind of work-study, where the student does earn some money, doesn't detract from his educational plans and programs, but if anything, can help it.

Senator Morse. As the dean of a law school, I used to beg the memented may bers of the legal profession of the city in which the law school was ve me located, and in nearby cities, to employ needy law students, to help sh 1 bit them with their research and to help them with their briefing. In

fact, I am proud of the fact that we set up quite a program of student assistance to lawyers, in helping them with their research. The same

can be said in regard to the premedical students in connection with situate hospitals.

I do not consider such jobs as falling under the classification of

my statement; namely, the so-called menial jobs, such as working in than to restaurants, tending furnaces, and so forth.

In fact, I can make quite a case, I think, for dormitory advisers, breme jobs where students get their board and room for services. What I i I bie object to is the case where a young man or a young woman has to hromedia work long hours, in addition to carrying on schoolwork, in order to

eke out enough to stay in college. I think that is a waste of talent. It results in their getting less education than they otherwies would get. It is for this reason that I am such a strong advocate of loan programs and scholarship programs.

Commissioner KEPPEL. We are in entire agreement on that, sir,

and I think it is possible to control it by time and by nature of work, librand the kind of work-study that makes sense in our society.

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EUROPEAN STUDENT AID PROGRAMS Senator Clark. What is the present practice in Western Europe de for den with respect to work-study programs and the extent to which indi

viduals so working for, first, the undergraduate, and, later, the gradu

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