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Commissioner KEPPEL. I can only speak from personal observations in France and Italy. I must qualify it in Spain and others.

To begin with, of course, the relationship of the student to the university, in Western Europe, is fundamentally different than our There is, in our sense, no undergraduate program with this whole resi. dential life that we have become accustomed to. I expect that is great many students have jobs, probably various kinds of civil service and other jobs, and they take, as you know, immensely varying lengtis of time to complete their examinations. ' I would guess there are a lot of them who are working, as they prepare for examinations

. Senator CLARK. How about Great Britain? I imagine it would vary there, if you took Oxford and Cambridge on the one hand, and some of the large universities on the other, but is it customary for a great deal of work to be done to keep yourself going while you are earning your degree?

Commissioner KEPPEL. My impression is that Great Britain woull reveal a rather different scheme. There the undergraduate pattern is more like our own, and I think I am right in saying that in Oxford and Cambridge 60 to 70 percent of the students are on fellowship largely from public funds, with the result that outside work, unde those circumstances and I think that would also be true in Manchester and Leeds--it would be a great deal less.

The pattern of education is much more firmly supported by fellorships and by endowed fellowships, such as Oxford and Cambridge would have available.

Senator Morse. I would rather loan the money to them, and have them pay it back later while getting their education first, than to have them interrupt a good education training program with outside work.

COMBINATION OF STUDENT AID PROGRAMS Commissioner KEPPEL. From my former job and my position in Ilashington now, I have come to the conclusion that the best way to think about this problem of financial aid at the college level is in terms of a combination of ways of going about it.

No single method would seem to me to be suitable to every student.

We have to begin with the variable of family income, as has been shown by these figures. Your second variable is the institution's own funds for scholarships. Third, you have the responsibility for loans, and fourth, if you will, the responsibility for jobs.

The individual student should, I think, depending upon the nature of his program, have to a degree, "a package, if I can use that phra a package approach for his solution to this financial problem. Iris family certainly ought to make an investment. Scholarship aid is appropriate as are loans--though not to the point that we have de scribed, the point which provides too heavy a burden on the back of the man. And finally, work. But it is this combination that makes sense to me.

I think we are developing a different pattern in the United States than in Western Europe or in Great Britain. I think it is a pretty in the sense of loans and to a degree self-investment in the sense of e limited work which you were discussing, Senator Morse.

I think it is a pretty good pattern and a flexible one.

Senator Morse. I agree that you must take a good look at the inIl dividual student. I have a few patronage jobs, due to my Senate

1 x seniority. I use those patronage jobs to put boys through school. nuovi We have worked out an arrangement whereby they can adjust their Ta scholastic schedule downtown with their jobs up on the Hill. I use on my patronage as a form of merit-work scholarships. They are patronFans age jobs; and therefore the boys have to be Democrats, but that is in

the nature of the job.

I don't select the boys in the first place, although I have a part in it.

The organization submits a list of names to me. They must be stuing dents who otherwise, we are satisfied, would not be able to go to

college. They must have good high school academic records.

We need to face up to the realities. I wish we would could get a scholarship for each one of them so that they wouldn't have to work. Since this is not possible, I use these patronage jobs as a type of workscholarship, and I take some, shall I say, emotional or sentimental, satisfaction out of the fact that I can use those jobs for this purpose.

I prefer to use these positions to put students through school; but tre ought to have 300,000 or more available in the country, on such basis.

Commissioner KEPPEL. Thank you, sir.

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RELATIONSILIP TO MAXPOWER PROBLEMS

If I could turn for a moment to the problems of the labor forcesand I do so with some hesitation, Senator Clark, because I know of the studies your subcommittee is making, I think it is important, in considering the educational requirements, to look at some of the statirties that have come from your investigation. We draw particular attention to the growth in the need for highly trained professional

manpower, requiring 16 or more years of eilucation, pointing out that since 1952-that is only 10 years ago-jobs in this category have grown from 11%, to 716 million workers of our total force; and a growth of 10 percent in the technicians and semiprofessional manpower field.

At the other end, I think it must be pointed out, the jobs for those with no secondary education decreased 25 percent in the past decade.

These seems to be the forces that must be born in mind as we look at the overall educational pattern. I think, as you well know, Senator, pour bill, S. 580, is an attempt to move directly and sharply into these central issues,

In the light of the President's message of June 19 on civil rights and job opportunities, I would like to give special attention to the impact of the proposed educational program upon our No. 1 domestic problem-equal rights and equal opportunities for all our citizens.

is the President pointed out the enjoyment of civil rights is largely a function of employment opportunities, while the availability of employment opportunities is largely a function of educa

To quote the President:

There is little value in a Negro's obtaining the right to be admitted to hotels and restaurants, if he has no cash in his pocket and no job.

But the exceedingly high rates of Negro unemployment-more than twice that of white workerscannot be substantially reduced until Negro educational opportunities are massively expanded and Negro manpower skills are drastically upgraded to meet modern technologi cal requirements.

In this context, we are hopeful that the Congress will give special attention to the administration's January 29 proposal and last week's amendments, which propose to (1) modernize and expand the Nation's vocational education programs and (2) launch a Federal-State eo operative venture to eliminate the scourge of adult illiteracy.

EDUCATION AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY

common.

We ask this not merely in the name of equal rights and equal op portunities for our Negro citizens, but in the name of every taxpayer and citizen who desires to see his country both strong and prosperous

. Senator MORSE. I would like to interrupt. We all have the responsibility of making the best printed record we can on this vital subject I would like to add to your discussion just given on the dropout problem, the latest information I have seen from the July 1963 Special Labor Force's Report of the Department of Labor.

These are some very surprising figures. The report says:

The rate of unemployment for 1962 school dropouts in October was 29 percent, about twice as high as the rate for the June high school graduates, despite the higher proportion of dropouts in farm areas, where unemployment is less

(This ratio also held true when the comparison was limited to white dropouts and graduates or to men.) The total number of unemployed dropouts 16 to 24 years old, irrespective of the year they left school, was 430,000, repre senting about two-fifths of all the unemployed in this age group and one-half of all jobless persons in these ages who were not in school.

And then there are certain other figures on this point:

The limited success which dropouts achieve even after an extended time in the labor market is dramatically illustrated in the chart which shows that in October 1962 young men who had dropped out of school in 1960 fared worse in the labor market than young men who graduated two years later-only 4 months before the survey. This conclusion holds in comparison of unemployment

. shortened workweeks, in occupational levels. In addition, a greater proportion of the dropouts were neither in the labor force nor attending special schools.

Then one more statement: Nonwhite graduates and dropouts: Results of this survey give further evi. dence of the unfavorable position of young nonwhites with respect to educational and economic attainment-despite their advances in these areas in recent years. As mentioned previously, nonwhites comprised one out of four of the 1962 school dropouts, about twice their proportion of the June 1962 graduates. Among both high school graduates and dropouts in the labor force in October 1962, non• whites were much more likely to be in less skilled and less desirable occupations and more of them, partly as a result of their occupations, were unemployed. Of those persons who graduated between 1960 and 1962, about one-half of the nonwhite graduates, but only one-fifth of the white graduates, were in a service occupation (including private household) or were farm or nonfarm laborers Among dropouts, fully three-fourths of the norwhite youths, compared with twofifths of the white youths, were in these occupational groups. The unemplos

ates, but among dropouts, rates were about equally high for both white and non

white youths to be adem job

I wanted to pin this down in the record at this point, because it

amplifies and supports the conclusion of your excellent testimony this ployment: atially medias

morning. It shows again, in part, what this whole problem is all

about, involving, as it does, the race issue in the United States. The xpandi

study from which I have just read was written by Jacob Schiffman modeme

of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. It will be included in the hearings

record at this point. ess kille (The study referred to follows:) expand te (From the Monthly Labor Review, July 1963, US Department of Labor, Preprint No. 2414,

of

osal and.

2 Federal

It illitenSPECIAL LABOR FORCE REPORT No. 32-EMPLOYMENT OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES

AND DROPOUTS IN 1962

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Population and occupation changes expected in the 1960's warrant a close of ereria analysis of the early job market experience of young people recently out of ng and pes school. Sharp increases due in the numbers of young people reaching working is hare it age, whose unemployment rates are typically bigh, will probably exert an

upward pressure on the already high levels of total unemployment. Also,

because of the growing need for a better trained, better educated labor force, the drop it is necessary to examine the starting jobs of young workers and their progress Jur l' in moving into more skilled jobs. The extent to which they can move into

expanding, higher level occupations will, in turn, have an important bearing

on the amount of unemployment to which they will be subjected in the coming DIT SIFS' gears.

The information in this article was obtained from the October 1962 regular al gratis monthly labor force survey, the fourth annual survey providing special informa,

tion on the labor market experience of young high school graduates and school dropouts. Information obtained for each of these groups included data on unemployment, part-time work, and occupation and industry of those employed. High school graduates not attending college and school dropouts were both identified by the year they last attended school in order to measure the job progress they had made since leaving school.

October

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JUNE 1962 HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATEA

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The high school graduating class of June 1962 numbered about 1,850,000.' A slightly higher proportion of the graduates were women (53 percent) than

men. In October 1962, half the graduates were enrolled in college (55 percent -12.11 of the men and 43 percent of the women) and 8 percent in technical, secretarial,

and other special schools (table 1). Over one-fifth of those in college were in pater fit the labor force-that is, working or looking for work.

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of the Division of Employment and Labor Force Analysis, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Previous survey findings were published in the Monthly Labor Review issues of May 1960, 1961, and 1962 and reprinted with additional tabular material and special explanatory notes as Special Labor Force Reports Nos. 5, 15, and 21, respectively. Since the estimates resulting from this survey are based on a sample, they may differ from the figures that would have been obtained from a complete census. The sampling variability may be relatively large in cases where the numbers in each group are small

. Therefore, smaller estimates, or small differences between estimates, should be interpreted with caution.

Data presented in this report relate to persons 16 to 24 years of age in the civilian noniostitutional population in the calendar week ending Oct. 13, 1962. All members of the Armed Forces and inmates of institutions are excluded. Estimates of June graduates shown in these reports may differ from figures of the Office of Education because of these exclusions, the age limitation, and other minor differences in measurement.

The proporton of graduates entering college may also disagree with Office of Education estimates based on first-time college enrollments in 1 year as a percent of the estimated number of high school graduates for the previous school year because of differences in measurement; for example, first-time enrollments relate to the entire school year and include some persons graduating in an earlier class whose college entrance was postponed. The number of school dropout: in 1962 includes only those who left school between January and October, the TABLE 1.-- College enrollment and labor force status of June 1962 high school graduates in the citilian noninstitutional population, October 1962

(Thousands of persons 16 to 24 years of age]

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1 Percent not shown where hase is less than 100,000.
2 Includes widowed, divorced, and separated women.
NOTE.--Because of rounding, sumns of individual items may not equal totals.

Nine out of ten of the 400,000 male graduates who did not enter college were in the labor force in October; the proportion was smaller (7 out of 10 for the 550,000 women not enrolled in college, partly because of the number who had already married and were out of the labor force because of household re sponsibilities. Of the graduates not in college (hereafter referred to simply as graduates) and in the labor force in October, 14 percent were unemplored (table 2), reflecting the difficulties usually encountered by relatively inesperi enced and untrained jobseekers. In addition, a relatively large proportion (10 percent) of those at work in nonfarm jobs worked only part time (less than 35 hours) during the survey week, because of slack work, inability to find fulltime work, and other economic reasons.

The somewhat improved economic situation in October 1962 over 1961 resulted in a slightly lower unemployment rate for the June 1962 graduates (14 percent) than for their counterparts a year earlier (18 percent). There was no clear indication, however, that the 1962 graduates were able to obtain better starting jobs. In each year, roughly one-third of the men were operatives and another third were either farm or nonfarm laborers; and approximately two-thirds of the women were in clerical and sales occupations. As usual, very few of the 1861 or 1962 graduates were in professional, technical, or managerial work be cause of the education and training necessary in most of the jobs in this broad

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