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at TABLE III.-Annual graduations from higher educational institutions in scientifictechnical fields, 1928-60
Physical sciences and mathematics.
Medicine and pharmacy (including 400,000 physicians).
Total number with scientific or technical training... Professional manpower trained in education, law, economics, humanities, etc...
Industrial, construction, transportation, communications and other organiza
Research and development organizations:
TABLE IV.-Total professional manpower in the U.S.S.R. in 1960 (graduates of higher educational institutions by general field in which education was received)
3, 545, 000 TABLE V.-Distribution of professional engineers in the U.S.S.R., by place of employment, 1955 and 1960
Place of employment
1, 115, 000
124,000 24,000 425,000 264, 000
1, 593, 000
550, 300 85,900
18, 100 74,600
Geological survey organizations
Developmental organizations (design bureaus, etc.).
Total R. & D. (engineers only)..
Agronomists, veterinarians, etc...
Total number with specialized secondary education____
14,700 87,600 54, 900
Educated in other fields: Statistics, pedagogy, trade, library work,
TABLE VI.-Total semiprofessional manpower in the U.S.S.R. in 1960 (graduates of specialized secondary schools)
Educated in technical fields:
32,700 206, 300 147,600
1, 115, 500
1, 931, 000 381,000. 1, 187, 000
1, 740, 000
5, 239, 000
TABLE VII.-Number of individuals holding advanced degrees in the U.S.S.R. in 1960 (holders of Kandidat and Doktor degrees)
In higher educational institutions.
In research insitutions..
Professional scientific supporting personnel.
Total number of individuals holding degrees of kandidat and
TABLE VIII.-Soviet research and development personnel, 1955 and 1960
87,000 15,000 100,000
7,800 18,300 be able
1 The term "scientists" here corresponds to the category "scientific workers" used in Soviet statistis ess those engaged in research and teaching in the social sciences and humanities. The totals given fr This category in Soviet statistics, including social sciences and humanities, are for 1955, 223,893; for 19, £54,158; and for 1961, 404,200.
NOTE. The usefulness of this table is that it shows growth rates within the frame of reference of Soviet statistics. Individual categories cannot be defined clearly enough to warrant comparisons with US figures.
Mr. CANNON. Admiral Rickover, Mr. Fogarty's subcommittee in the 87th Congress had before it Mr. McMurrin, the Commissioner of Education. I must confess I am astonished on reading his testimony to find that he largely agrees with you.
Admiral RICKOVER. Yes he does. I must say I am encouraged when I read what he says. He recently wrote an article in which he raised all the points about American education that have been worry ing me. It's been like a breath of fresh air. The only trouble is that he has this entrenched bureaucracy to deal with.
THE DIFFICULTY OF EFFECTING SCHOOL REFORM IN THE UNITED STATES
As I said, school reforms have had to be undertaken in many coun tries. So that's nothing new. But I don't know of any country where it is so difficult to make a change as in ours where we have this enormous educational establishment. It's no use blinking at the fact that the people who run this establishment have committed themselves repeatedly and volubly to progressive education. They have a vested interest in it. In many cases it is the only kind of education they know or they can handle. And then there are all sorts of other people with a vested interest in the status quo-the National Educa tion Association; school administrators who have never taught a class and who aren't teachers; who wouldn't have their jobs if we the European system of putting well-educated and qualified teachers in charge of the school system and giving them whatever clerical help
they need. Then there are the coaches with a vested interest in continuing athletic spectacles; the textbook publishers with a vested interest in the look-say method of teaching to read. And I suppose once we commit ourselves to machine teaching, the manufacturers of these machines will achieve such a strong vested interest that we shall never be able to reinstate the teacher, even if we should discover that machine teaching isn't as good as teaching by a live human. I am afraid Mr. McMurrin may not stay long enough on the job to make his viewpoint strongly felt.
This is one of our troubles. We shift people around too much. of a We seem to think that a person who has held one administrative position can instantly step into any other administrative position and do useful work. But today all really important jobs require that persons in authority first acquaint themselves with their particular responsibilities and then stay on long enough to put this competence to use. As it is, the men in command of our huge Government bureaucracies wander in and out of top positions, rarely staying long enough to make their nominal command truly effective. To be effective a leader must understand the technical work of the organization he heads. This is where the British have had a great advantage in their efforts to improve public education. From the start, the men who headed the central education authority in London were the very ones who had long agitated for school reform and who were personally involved in getting Parliament to enact the requisite laws. And these people stayed on the job for long periods of time so that they really were able to accomplish something. We don't do that.
We have the same trouble in the Navy. Officers are shifted in and out of the most complex technical jobs every 2 or 3 years. Just about the time they get the hang of a particular job, they are transferred. r's subThe idea back of this is to alternate tours of sea duty and shore duty the Cand also to give officers experience with every type of naval duty so ading they can become versatile. This may have worked in the past when
such versatility had to do with what might be called the strictly naval I qualifications of the naval officer; that is, when this versatility did artinot have to include competence to direct highly technical scientific at bare and engineering work.
Today design and construction of nuclear ships as well as the design of modern weapons, such as missiles, has become so complex and difficult a job that to allow technically untrained officers to exercise authority over this work during brief tours of duty must lead to inefficiency and sometimes to extremely serious errors.
where blinking o
ken Even the operation of modern warships becomes daily more of a of technical job. These ships now are comparable to our most advanced industrial plants. To run them is essentially an engineering rather than a naval job. Even their use in naval combat now requires scientific and engineering skill rather than the skills of a professional naval officer. Theoretically, a competent team from General Electric or
e all sor
kind Westinghouse could operate a nuclear submarine or launch a missile. el now in civilian hands. On the other hand, a naval officer cannot,
In fact, the important and difficult aspects of missile launchings are
ever ta jobs # qualit terer
without extensive training, take charge of a nuclear ship. Without this training it is doubtful he would be competent to make wise decisions as to how best to use these entirely new types of warships, how operate them to assure maximum safety, or whether it is expedient
for these ships to enter foreign ports. Untrained officers do not seem to realize the disastrous consequences that might follow wrong decisions made by persons who do not fully comprehend the danger potestial of nuclear power.
I mention this by way of illustration that we can no longer assume, as we did in the past, that anybody can do anything. This was part of the Jacksonian creed. Indeed, in pioneer days Americans were jacks. ?54 of-all-trades and remarkably skillful in most. But today the require ments have risen. It would seem advisable that we take account of this fact and manage our public business so as to give people in authority a chance not only to become competent on the job but also 21 to make full use of this new-won competence before being moved to 2 another position.
I hope Mr. McMurrin will stay on long enough to get his ideas translated into practice. But, in any event, it is encouraging that for the first time in many decades there is someone at the head of the Office of Education who does not have the National Education Associe 1 tion viewpoint. I should like to take this as a sign that at long last we are beginning to throw off the incubus of progressivism and that we shall now get busy undoing the errors of the progressives that have done so much harm to our children and to our Nation.
It has been said that it takes 50 years for half the educators to adopt & manifestly good new idea. But today we don't have 50 years tolerance and I hope Mr. McMurrin can help to reduce this time drastically.
Mr. CANNON. We have reason to be concerned about our system of education. The future of our country and the future of the world rests on the way in which we train the next generation,
For instance, I notice you said just now, and I notice that Commis. sioner McMurrin said:
The quality of teaching generally is lower by far than it should be and lower too than it need be. It is here that we confront our greatest failure in matters pertaining to education.
Then you said a while ago, and he said in corroboration:
In the future every effort must be made to identify persons of highest intel lectual competence and talent in the art of teaching and to attract them to t teaching profession, and standards of our colleges and education must be made to exclude those who do not have real promise.
Commissioner McMurrin is at the head officially, as far as the Gore ernment is concerned, of our educational system, and he seems to agree with your criticism.
ASPECTS OF ENGLISH EDUCATION WHICH SHOULD BE STUDIED
EFFICIENT UTILIZATION OF TIME AND MONEY Now, you have been studying this for 2 years. What is there in the English system we could adopt with profit? Admiral RICKOVER. I will be glad to answer that, sir.
There are several aspects of English education I believe could be profitably studied by us. First, the efficiency of her present-day school system in terms of utilization of time and money. As I saad before, in this respect English education is not quite as advanced as education in some continental countries but it is closer to ours, so we might find it easier to adopt some of her practices. English children
of all aptitudes move ahead faster than our children and, therefore,
complete their school courses earlier. In view of the population be in pressure on our teacher resources and school facilities it is highly
sdvisable that we give consideration to England's more efficient way !
of doing the education job. TEST
As on the Continent, English schools concentrate on basic education, leaving other aspects of education to home, church, and community. They do, however, put somewhat more stress than some continental school systems on developing the pupil's character and
his physical fitness. This also brings them closer to our own educa* tional goals. Unlike our schools, however, the English do not treat
character development as a course subject. They seek to develop
school sports that are also a feature of present-day continental schools. 18 England pioneered these. These competitions are exclusively for the 302 benefit of the children. They are wholly amateur in character. The ste schools do not stage semiprofessional athletic spectacles for the enter
tainment of grownups. They have no coaches whose chief responsibility is to train star athletics and win sports shows. Students do not gain admittance to a school or college because of athletic ability, as is unfortunately sometimes the case in our country. There are no athletic scholarships; no one goes about the land recruiting promising young men for the football squad as do many of our colleges, and of course Annapolis, West Point, and the Air Force Academy. Schools do not depend on winning games in order to obtain adult approval and to induce alumni to make money donations.
They do not choose school heads for their skill in collecting funds to do bep keep the institutions going. No school or university has public rela
tions staffs. Indeed, the very idea seems preposterous to the English as to Europeans in general. The financial precariousness of higher education in our country is virtually unknown abroad.
DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM
A second aspect of English education of interest to us is the way her 81 82 Present-day public school system came into being. It is useful for be us to become familiar with this because a century ago the English
were under outside pressure to upgrade education, quite similar to the pressure on us today. They responded to that pressure then much as we do today. We can learn from English educational history what not to do, for England was slow to bring her school system up to the scholastic levels of schools in countries on the Continent with whom she was competing economically and politically. From first proposal to final enactment of parliamentary legislation, it took the British 50 Fears to set up a tax-supported elementary school system, and nearly 100 pears to provide tax-supported secondary education. She was in both cases more than a century behind her chief continental rival,
I greatly doubt we will be allowed that much time to bring ourselves educationally up to par with our chief rivals--the totalitarians and the new united Europe.
audrey O OST