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Sp dramatically their lack of breadth and depth. To add to this situaion, a recent survey made by the American Library Association in ach State showed that out of 2,000 library buildings on our college Kampuses, less than 100 were adequate.

If this is true now, what will the situation be when college enrollnent grows from the present 4 million to the predicted 7 million in 1970? Title II, part D, which would provide grants to institutions of higher learning for both library buildings and materials offers a stimulus which will help institutions not only to meet the current crisis but also through increases in their own expenditures to plan a future of greater promise to their students.

ALORS

Because of the Library Services Act, members of this committee are acquainted with the concentrated and as congressional sponsors with no small pride-successful effort to bring library service to rural areas. Successful, yes, as far as it has gone. Those fortunate enough to taste good library service once, perhaps through the benefits of the Library Services Act, develop an appetite that seeks further satisfaction wherever it may be found.

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Thus both students and adults who have needs beyond the abilities of their rural bookmobile or suburban branch to supply range far afield to find the special items, the varied selection, the greater depth in research materials, the broader range of opinion to be found in the larger library.

URBAN PROBLEM

Library impoverishment is not a rural problem only. There are 60 million people living in urban areas who have inadequate library service or none at all who also must seek it elsewhere. This desire on the part of both urban and rural residents for more information and wider knowledge is heartwarming but it has its problems. In his descent upon the larger library the borrower makes use of, and frequently depletes, a collection which has no claim upon his financial support.

Surveys reported to you in previous hearings have shown the percentage of nonresidents using metropolitan libraries. On the other hand. the smaller library cannot duplicate the metropolitan collection nor should it try to. The solution is to extend the services of the urban library to the smaller community. At present, there is no incentive for the urban library to join a system and by contractual or other arrangements to make its facilities available to a broader area. The proposal in title VI-C to remove the population limitation of 10,000 will provide that incentive and should lead to cooperative arrangements to make the best use of materials by the largest number.

NEED FOR FACILITIES, MATERIALS, AND PERSONNEL

Title VI also provides matching funds for public library construction. Like the first graduating class of an institution, many public library buildings are reaching old age all at once. Their median age is 53 years. Built in the early days of the 20th century or even before, they are ill equipped to meet the demands that new types of materials, new patterns of service, and, finally sheer numbers of users have

In stressing the importance of these sections of S. 580 to education g generally, I point out that you cannot have a library without books Neither can you have one without a building, but both books and building mean little without the librarian who uses them to meet the need of a questing mind.

Librarians are a key factor in the educational process. They star the high school student on his first steps toward research, showing him the uses of recorded thought. Through indexes, catalogs, bibl ographies, and similar materials they show him how to unlock the record.

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Good librarians are also needed to build the collection suited to the community, the school, the college or university. They aid the scholar in his pursuit of an idea. But basic to the educational proces and to our hopes for the improvement of the educational level in this country is a librarian's role in awakening the desire to read, to study, and to use books.

Today it is estimated that libraries need at least 100,000 additional professional librarians to carry on this vital role adequately. The average annual number of graduates from our library schools is 2000 a pitiful few in the light of these reported shortages. Like teachers and other professional workers, librarians find it difficult to finance the graduate study a library degree requires.

Once in the field, librarians also need assistance to keep abreast of current development. Only by such refreshment can they, like their colleagues in other professions, chart new paths in an age of space and a world of automation. Institutes and specialized training as provided for in title III, parts A and C, as well as the provisions for loans and fellowships in title I, parts A and D, promise help in meeting the present personnel problem.

ROLE OF LIBRARIES IN EDUCATION

The bill before you has as its concern our country's greatest resource the minds of its citizens. We realize, I think, more clearly each day that this resource is the foundation of our Nation's well-being. If we are to continue to lead in the world of ideas, whether they are scientific, political, or humanistic, we must cultivate our intellectual resources assiduously.

The deepening, broadening, and strengthening of American educa tion is essential. Let me point out, however, that education results in the ability and the desire to investigate, to compare, to weight, and to judge. It is a process which does not end with the acquisition of a diploma. Rather, as the formal educational process improves, the de sire for lifetime education-formal and informal-must follow inevi tably. In both processes, libraries are essential. Their excellence will be evidence of the excellence of our educational system, just as their use will be evidence of the vitality of our intellectual resources.

In the early days of this country people built their own roads to reach their farms, their neighbors, their villages. As the Nation grew, State and Federal cooperation were needed to build a system of highways to facilitate travel and communication. Federal interest and Federal encouragement were needed to find a nationwide solution.

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eled along a narrow path. The enactment of S. 580 would encourage system of mental freeways to liberate ideas, to facilitate mental exchange, and to bring knowledge to every man's door.

I thank you, Mr. Chairman, and members of the subcommittee.
Senator PROUTY. Thank you, Dr. Mumford.

Senator Yarborough?

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Senator YARBOROUGH. Dr. Mumford, we have waited late and you have testified last. Your statement was worth waiting for. We have enjoyed it, and I congratulate you on it.

Mr. MUMFORD. Thank you, Senator.

Senator YARBOROUGH. You have packed so much-10 million public school students in America with no school libraries, 18 million Americans who have no library at all—you have packed so much in here that I could not begin to ask you all the questions I might have on it. I thank you for what you have presented here. Mr. MUMFORD. Thank you, Senator.

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Senator PROUTY. Senator Pell?

Senator PELL. Thank you, Mr. Mumford. I can add nothing to what you have said in your statement and I am most grateful to you for it.

Senator PROUTY. I can add "Amen" to what has already been said. We appreciate your testimony here this morning. It has been most helpful.

SHIPPING OF OLD BOOKS TO NEEDY NATIONS

Senator YARBOROUGH. I would like to tell you of a little problem that perhaps you can draw on your wealth of knowledge and make a suggestion as to how this might be remedied. Last year, in Peru, teachers told me of classes there where the only book in the room would be the book that the teacher owned. No student had ever owned a book, no person in any student's family had ever owned a book; the only book in the class was that owned by the teacher.

Books in Texas are ground up into pulp paper and burned, when they get greasy or tattered or out of date. They do it by law, because they don't want books sold on the open market.

Some of these people want books sent there, Peruvians and Americans, for distribution. True, they are in the English language and they are teaching in Spanish in Peru, but being in the Latin alphabet and having pictures, they think that it would mean much more for the children to own books.

I found this true in a different degree in Ethiopia, where all instruction beyond the sixth grade is in the English language. I found this in Pakistan last fall. A number of these countries, as in Pakistan-the instruction has been in English, a lot of it, but I think that they are trying to switch over. But in Nigeria-I was not there, but I talked to people-I was in Ghana the year before last and I talked about Nigeria when I was in Ghana.

In many places, they have no books for students. I am trying to talk to people to work out some system to get these discarded textbooks from the grade schools shipped over to those countries for

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I realize there are a lot of hurdles to overcome. These are idens coming from the schoolteachers, not from the government. There may be governmental obstacles. But out of your wealth of books and 1.110 libraries and people around the world, I would like to ask think of this, along with your other problems, and give me your advice.

Mr. MUMFORD. I shall be very happy to think about it and discus: it with you further, Senator. Offhand, I can see that it will pose problems with the many legal jurisdictions that will be involved. But perhaps something will be worked out. I shall be very happy to talk with you further. Senator YARBOROUGH. Thank you.

1 Senator PROUTY. Thank you again, sir. The subcommittee stands adjourned. (Whereupon, at 12:30 p.m., the subcommittee adjourned sine die.)

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