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O voice once heard

And equal to reduce me to my dust,

Unhappily deceiv'd! Thy suppliant Desirous to resign, and render back

I beg, and clasp thy knees. Bereave me not All I receiv'd.

(Whereon I live ;) thy gentle Jooks, thy aid,

Thy counsel in this utterinost distress, He immediately after recovers from his

My only strength, and stay! Forlorn of thee, presumption, owns his doom to be just, and Whither shall (betake me! where subsist ? hegs that the death which is threatened him

While yet we live (scarce one short hour perhaps)

Between us two let there be peace.' &c. may be inflicted on him: -Whv delays

Adam's reconcilement to her is worked His hand to execute what his decree

up in the same spirit of tenderness. Eve Fix'd on this day? Why do I over-live? Why am I mockid with death, and lengthend out

afterwards proposes to her husband, in the To deathless pain? How gladly would I meet

blindness of her despair, that to prevent Mortality my sentence, and be earth

their guilt from descending upon posterity; Insensible! how glad would lay me down,

they should resolve to live childless; or, if As in my mother's lap! There should I rest And sleep secure; his dreadful voice no more

that could not be done, they should seek Would thunder in my ears: no fear of worse their own deaths by violent methods. To me, and to mv offspring, would torment me As these sentiments naturally engage the With cruel expectation.'

reader to regard the mother of mankind This whole speech is full of the like emo- with more than ordinary commiseration, tion, and varied with all those sentiments they likewise contain a very fine moral. which we may suppose natural to a mind so The resolution of dying to end our miseries broken and disturbed. I must not omit that does not show such a degree of magnanimity generous concern which our first father as a resolution to bear them, and submit to shows in it for his posterity, and which is so the dispensations of Providence. Our auproper to affect the reader:

thor has, therefore, with great delicacy, reHide me from the face

presented Eve as entertaining this thought, Of God, whom to behold was then my height

and Adam as disapproving it. Of happiness! yet well, if here would end The misery: I deserved it, and would bear

We are, in the last place, to consider the My own deservings: but this will not serve; imaginary persons, or Death and Sin, who All that I eat, or drink, or shall beget. Is propagated curse.

act a large part in this book. Such beautiDelightfully, “ Increase and multiply:"

ful extended allegories are certainly some Now death to hear!

of the finest compositions of genius; but, as In me all Posterity stands curst! Fair patrimony,

I have before observed, are not agreeable That I must leave ye, sons! () were I able

to the nature of a heroic poem. This of Sin To waste it all myself, and leave you none !

and Death is very exquisite in its kind, if So disinherited, how would you bless

not considered as a part of such a work. Me, now your curse! Ah, why should all mankind, For one man's fault, thus guiltless be condemnd

The truths contained in it are so clear and Jf guiltless? But from me what can proceed open, that I shall not lose time in explainBut all corrupt ?"

ing them; but shall only observe, that a Who can afterwards behold the father of reader, who knows the strength of the mankind, extended upon the earth, utter- English tongue, will be amazed to think ing bis midnight complaints, hewailing his how the poet could find such apt words and existence, and wishing for death, without phrases to describe the actions of those two sympathizing with him in his distress?

imaginary persons, and particularly in that Thus Adam to himself lamented loud

part where Death is exhibited as forming a Through the still night; not now (as err man fell) bridge over the chaos; a work suitable to Wholesomne, and cool, and mild, but with black air, accompanied with damps and dreadful gloom;

the genius of Milton. Which to his evil conscience represented

Since the subject I am upon gives me an All things with double terror. On the ground

opportunity of speaking more at large of Outstretch'd he lay; on the cold ground! and oft

such shadowy and imaginary persons as Curs'd his creation; death as oft accus'd of tardy execution.

may be introduced into heroic poems, I The part of Eve in this book is no less ter which is curious in its kind, and which

shall beg leave to explain myself in a matpassionate, and apt to sway the reader in her favour. She is represented with great certain Homer and Virgil are full of ima

none of the critics have treated of. It is tenderness as approaching Adam, but is spurned from him with a spirit of upbraid- ginary persons, who are very beautiful in ing and indignation, conformable to the na- poetry, when they are just shown without ture of man, whose passions had now gained mer, indeed, represents sleep as a person,

being engaged in any series of action. Hothe dominion over him. The following pas- and ascribes a short part to him in his Iliad; sage, wherein she is described as renewing but we must consider, that though we now her addresses to him, with the whole speech regard such a person as entirely shadowy that follows it, have something in them ex- and unsubstantial, the heathens made staquisitely moving and pathetic:

tues of him, placed him in their temples, He added not, and from her turn'd: but Eve,

and looked upon him, as a real deity. When Not so repuls'd, with tears that ceas'd not flowing,

Homer makes use of other such allegorical And tresses all disorder'd, at his feet Fell humble; and embracing them besought persons, it is only in short expressions, His peace, and thus proceeded in her plaint:

which convey an ordinary thought to the · Forsake me not thus, Adam! Witness Heav'n

mind in the most pleasing manner, and may What love sincere, and rev'rence in my breast I bear we and unweeting have offended,

rather be looked upon as poetical phrases,

Hor. Od. xii. Lib. 4. ult.

than allegorical descriptions. Instead of glaring of her eyes might have scattered telling us that men naturally fly when they infection. But I believe every reader will are terrified, he introduces the persons of think, that in such sublime writings the Flight and Fear, who he tells us, are in- mentioning of her, as it is done in Scripture, separable companions. Instead of saying has something in it more just, as well as that the time was come when Apollo ought great, than all that the most fanciful poet to have received his recompence, he tells could have bestowed upon her in the richus that the Hours brought him his reward. ness of his imagination.

L. Instead of describing the effects which Minerva's ægis produced in battle, he tells us that the brims of it were encompassed No. 358.] Monday, April 21, 1712. by Terror, Rout, Discord, Fury, Pursuit, Massacre, and Death. In the same figure

-Desipere in loco. of speaking, he represents Victory as fol- 'Tis joyous folly that unbends the mind.- Francis. lowing Diomedes; Discord as the mother

CHARLES LILLY attended me the other of funerals and mourning; Venus as dressed by the Graces; Bellona as wearing Terror day, and made me a present of a large and Consternation like a garment. I might

sheet of paper, on which is delineated a give several other instances out of Homer, as pavement in Mosaic work, lately discover well as a great many out of Virgil. Milton who has so much the gift of speech as Mr.

ed at Stunsfield near Woodstock. † A person has likewise very often made use of the Lilly, and can carry on a discourse without same way of speaking, as where he tells us that Victcry sat on the right hand of the casion to expatiate upon so fine a piece of

a reply, had great opportunity on that ocMessiah, when he marched forth against the rebel angels; that, at the rising of the antiquity. Among other things, I rememsun, the Hours unbarred the gates of light; from the ornaments of the work, that this

ber he gave me his opinion, which he drew that Discord was the daughter of Sin. Of the same nature are those expressions, and Concord. Viewing this work, made

was the floor of a room dedicated to Mirth where, describing the singing of the nightingale, he adds, "Silence was pleased;" and my fancy run over the many gay expresupon the Messiah's bidding peace to the contained invitations to lay aside care and

sions I have read in ancient authors, which chaos, Confusion heard his voice.' I might anxiety, and give a loose to that pleasing add innumerable instances of our poet's forgetfulness wherein men put off their writing in this beautiful figure. It is plain characters of business, and enjoy their very that these I have mentioned, in which per-selves. These hours were usually passed sons of an imaginary nature are introduced, in rooms adorned for that purpose, and set are such short allegories as are not designed out in such a manner, as the objects all to be taken in the literal sense, but only around the company gladdened their hearts; to convey particular circumstances to the reader, after an unusual and entertaining which, joined to the cheerful looks of wellmanner. But when such persons are intro- chosen and agreeable friends, gave new duced as principal actors, and engaged in a lof the modest, and gave grace to the slow

vigour to the airy, produced the latent fire series of adventures, they take too much upon them, and are by no means proper for humour of the reserved. A judicious mixan heroic poem, which ought to appear lets of flowers, and the whole apartment

ture of such company, crowned with chapcredible in its principal parts. I cannot forbear therefore thinking, that Sin and glittering with gay lights, cheered with a Death are as improper agents in a work of profusion of roses, artificial falls of water, this nature, as Strength and Necessity in and intervals of soft notes to scngs of love one of the tragedies of Æschylus, who re

and wine, suspended the cares of human presented those two persons nailing down life, and made a festival of mutual kindPrometheus to a rock; for which he has

Such parties of pleasure as these, been justly censured by the greatest critics and the reports of the agreeable passages I do not know any imaginary person made in their jollities, have in all ages awakened use of in a more sublime manner of thinking mirth and good humour, without capacity

the dull part of mankind to pretend to than that in one of the prophets, who, de- for such entertainments; for if I may be scribing God as descending from heaven, and visiting the sins of mankind, adds that allowed to say so, there are a hundred men dreadful circumstance, “Before him went

fit for any employment, to one who is capathe Pestilence. It is certain this imaginary ble of passing a night in company of the person might have been described in all first taste, without shocking any member her purple spots. The Fever might have of the society, over-rating his own part marched before her, Pain might have stood of the conversation, but equally receiving at her right hand, Phrensy on her left, and

* The original motto to this paper was the same as Death in her rear. She might have been that now pretixed to No. 279. introduced as gliding down from the tail of

Reddere personæ scit convenientia cuique. a comet, or darted upon the earth in a flash of lightning. She might have tainted the To each character he gives what best befits. atmosphere with her breath. The very See Gouglis British Topograpby, vol. ii. p. 89.


Hor. Ars Poet. v. 316.


and contributing to the pleasure of the grateful but where it is regarded by him whole company. When one considers such who possesses it in the second place. The collections of companions in past times, and best man that I know of, for heightening such as one might name in the present age, the revel gaiety of a company, is Estcourt, with how much spleen must a man needs whose jovial humour diffuses itself from reflect upon the awkward gaiety of those the highest person at an entertainment to who affect the frolic with an ill grace! I the meanest waiter. Merry tales, accomhave a letter from a correspondent of mine, panied with apt gestures and lively reprewho desires me to admonish all loud, mis- sentations of circumstances and persons, chievous, airy, dull companions, that they beguile the gravest mind into a consent to are mistaken in what they call a frolic. be as humourous as himself, Add to this, Irregularity in itself is not what creates that when a man is in his good graces, he pleasure and mirth; but to see a man, who has a mimickry that does not debase the knows what rule and decency are, descend person he represents; but which, taking from them agreeably in our company, is from the gravity of the character, adds to what denoininates him a pleasant compa- the agreeableness of it. This pleasant felnion. Instead of that, you find many whose low gives one some idea of the ancient mirth consists only in doing things which pantomime, who is said to have given the do not become them, with a secret con- audience, in dumb-show, an exact idea of sciousness that all the world knows they any character or passion, or an intelligible know better: to this is always added some- relation of any public occurrence, with no thing mischievous to themselves or others. other expression than that of his looks and I have heard of some very merry fellows gestures. If all who have been obliged to among whom the frolic was started, and these talents in Estcourt will be at Love passed by a great majority, that every man for Love to-morrow night, they will but should immediately draw a tooth: after pay him what they owe him, at so easy a which they have gone in a body and smoked rate as being present at a play which noa cobler. The same company, at another body would omit seeing, that had, or had night, has each man burned his cravat; not, ever seen it before.

T. and one perhaps, whose estate would bear it, has thrown a long wig and hat into the same fire. Thus they have jested them- No. 359.] Tuesday, April 22, 1712. selves stark-naked, and run into the streets

Torva leæna lupum sequitur, lupus ipse capellam; and frighted women very successfully. Florentem cytisum sequitur lasciva capella. There is no inhabitant of any standing in

Virg. Ecl. vi. 63 Covent Garden, but can tell you a hun- Lions the wolves, and wolves the kids pursue, dred good humours, where people have The kids sweet thyme,--and still I follow you. come off with a little bloodshed, and yet scoured all the witty hours of the night. I As we were at the club last night, I obknow a gentleman that has several wounds served that my old friend Sir Roger, conin the head by watch-poles, and has been trary to his usual custom, sat very silent, thrice run through the body, to carry on a and, instead of minding what was said by good jest. He is very old for a man of so the company, was whistling to himself in much good humour; but to this day he is a very thoughtful mood, and playing with seldom merry but he has occasion to be a cork. I jogged Sir Andrew Freeport, valiant at the same time. But, by the fa- who sat between us; and, as we were both vour of these gentlemen, I am humbly of observing him we saw the knight shake opinion, that a man may be a very witty his head, and heard him say to himself, man, and never offend one statute of this · A foolish woman! I can't believe it.' Sir kingdom, not excepting that of stabbing. Andrew gave him a gentle pat upon the

The writers of plays have what they call shoulder, and offered to lay him a bottle of unity of time and place, to give a justness wine that he was thinking of the widow. to their representation; and it would not My old friend started, and, recovering out be amiss if all who pretend to be compa- of his brown study, told Sir Andrew, that nions would confine their actions to the once in his life he had been in the right. place of meeting; for a frolic carried far- In short, after some little hesitation, "Sir ther may be better performed by other Roger told us in the fulness of his heart, animals than men. It is not to rid much that he had just received a letter from his ground, or do much mischief, that should steward, which acquainted him that his old denominate a pleasant fellow; but that is rival and antagonist in the country, Sir Datruly frolic which is the play of the mind, vid Dundrum, had been making a visit to and consists of various and unforced sallies the widow. • However,' says Sir Roger, of imagination. Festivity of spirit is a very | 'I can never think that she will have a uncommon talent, and must proceed from man that's half a year older than I am, and an assemblage of agreeable qualities in the a noted republican into the bargain.' same person. There are some few whom Will Honeycomb, who looks upon love I think peculiarly happy in it, but it is a as his particular province, interrupting our talent one cannot name in a man, especially friend with a jaunty laugh, “I thought, when one considers, that it is never very knight,' said he, thou hadst lived long




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enough in the world not to pin thy happiness one which I made some years since upon upon one that is a woman and a widow. I an old woman, whom I had certainly borne think that, without vanity, I may pretend away with flying colours, if her relations

I to know as much of the female world as had not come pouring in to her assistance any man in Great Britain; though the from all parts of England; nay, I believe I chief of my knowledge consists in this, that should have got her at last, had not she they are not to be known.' Will imme- been carried off by a hard frost.' diately, with his usual fluency, rambled As Will's transitions are extremely quick, into an account of his own amours. • I am he turned from Sir Roger, and, applying now,' says he, upon the verge of fifty.' himself to me, told me there was a passage (though by the way we all knew he was in the book I had considered last Saturday, turned of three-score.) “You may easily which deserves to be writ in letters of gold: guess,' continued Will, that I have not and taking out a pocket Milton, read the lived so long in the world without having following lines, which are part of one of had some thoughts of settling in it, as the Adam's speeches to Eve after the fall. phrase is. To tell you truly, I have several

-Oh! why did our times tried my fortune that way, though I Creator wige! that peopled highest heaven cannot much boast of my success.

With spirits masculine, create at last

This novelty on earth, this fair defect I made my first addresses to a young Of nature, and not fill the world at once lady in the country; but, when I thought With men, as angels, without feminine ?

Or find some other way to generate things were pretty well drawing to a con

Mankind ? This mischief had not then befallin, clusion, her father happening to hear that

And more that shall befall, innumerable I had formerly boarded with a surgeon, the Disturbances on earth, through female snares, old put forbade me his house, and within a

And straight conjunction with this sex: for either

He shall never find out fit mate; but such fortnight after married his daughter to a

As some misfortune brings him, or mistake; fox-hunter in the neighbourhood.

Or whom he wishes most shall seldom gain, I made my next application to a widow,

Through her perverseness; but shall see her gain'd and attacked her so briskly, that I thought

By a far worse : or, if she love, withheld

By parents; or his happiest choice too late myself within a fortnight of her. As I Shall meet, already link'd and wedlock bound waited upon her one morning, she told me,

To a fell adversary, his hate or shame :

Which infinite calamity shall cause that she intended to keep her ready-money To human life, and household peace confound.' and jointure in her own hand, and desired me to call upon her attorney in Lyon's-Inn,

Sir Roger listened to this passage with who would adjust with me what it was comb to fold down a leaf at the place, and

great attention; and, desiring Mr. Honeyproper for me to add to it. I was so re- lend him his book, the knight put it up in his buffed by this overture, that I never inquired pocket, and told us that he would read over either for her or her attorney afterwards. • A few months after, I addressed myself

these verses again before he went to bed.

X. to a young lady who was an only daughter, and of a good family. I danced with her at several balls, squeezed her by the hand, No. 360.] Wednesday, April 23, 1712. said soft things to her, and, in short, made no doubt of her heart; and, though my for

-De paupertate tacentes, tune was not equal to hers, I was in hopes Plus poscente ferent. Hor. Ep. xvii. Lib. 1. 43. that her fond father would not deny her the The man who all his wants conceals, man she had fixed her affections upon. But

Gains more than he who all his wants reveals. as I went one day to the house, in order to break the matter to him, I found the whole I HAVE nothing to do with the business of family in confusion, and heard to my this day, any further than affixing the piece unspeakable surprise, that Miss Jenny of Latin on the head of my paper; which I was that very morning run away with the think a motto not unsuitable; since, if sibutler.

lence of our poverty is a recommendation, I then courted a second widow, and am still more commendable is his modesty who at a loss to this day how I came to miss her, conceals it by a decent dress. for she had often commended my person and behaviour. Her maid indeed told me

• MR. SPECTATOR,—There is an evil one day, that her mistress said she never under the sun, which has not yet come saw a gentleman with such a spindle pair within your speculation, and is the cenof legs as Mr. Honeycomb.

sure, disesteem, and contempt, which some • After this I laid siege to four heiresses young fellows meet with from particular successively, and, being a handsome young persons, for the reasonable methods they dog in those days, quickly made a breach take to avoid them in general. This is by in their hearts, but I don't know how it appearing in a better dress than may seem came to pass, though I seldom failed of to a relation regularly consistent with a getting the daughter's consent, I could small fortune; and therefore may occasion never in my life get the old people on my a judgment of a suitable extravagance in side.

other particulars; but the disadvantage with • I could give you an account of a thousand which the man of narrow circumstances acts other unsuccessful attempts, particularly of and speaks, is so feelingly set forth in a little

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book called the Christian Hero, that the, hat to a person whose air and attire hardly appearing to be otherwise is not only par- entitle him to it! for whom nevertheless the donable, but necessary. Every one knows other has a particular esteem, though he is the hurry of conclusions that are made in ashamed to have it challenged in so public contempt of a person that appears to be a manner. It must be allowed, that any calamitous; which makes it very excusable young fellow that affects to dress and appear to prepare one's self for the company of genteelly,might with artificial management, those that are of a superior quality and for- save ten pounds a-year; as instead of fine tune, by appearing to be in a better condi- holland he might mourn in sack-cloth, and tion than one is, so far as such appearance in other particulars be proportionably shabshall not make us really of worse.

by: but of what service would this sum be • It is a justice due to the character of to avert any misfortune, whilst it would one who suffers hard reflections from any leave him deserted by the little good acparticular person upon this account, that quaintance he has, and prevent his gaining such persons would inquire into his manner any other? As the appearance of an easy of spending his time; of which, though no fortune is necessary towards making one, I further information can be had than that don't know but it might be of advantage he remains so many hours in his chamber, sometimes to throw into one's discourse yet if this is cleared, to imagine that a rea- certain exclamations about bank stock, and sonable creature, wrung with a narrow for- to show a marvellous surprise upon its fall, tune, does not make the best use of this as well as the most affected triumph upon retirement, would be a conclusion extremely its rise. The veneration and respect which uncharitable. From what has, or will be the practice of all ages has preserved to said, I hope no consequence can be extorted, appearances, without doubt suggested to implying, that I would have any young fel- our tradesmen that wise and politic custom, low spend more time than the common to apply and recommend themselves to the leisure which his studies require, or more public by all those decorations upon their money than his fortune or allowance may sign-posts and houses which the most emiadmit of, in the pursuit of an acquaintance nent hands in the neighbourhood can furnish with his betters: for as to his time, the them with. What can be more attractive gross of that ought to be sacred to more to a man of letters, than that immense erusubstantial acquisitions; for each irrecove- dition of all ages and languages, which a rable moment of which he ought to believe skilful bookseller, in conjunction with a he stands religiously accountable. As to his painter, shall image upon his column, and dress, I shall engage myself no further than the extremities of his shop? The same in the modest defence of two plain suits a spirit of maintaining a handsome appearyear: for being perfectly satisfied in Eu-ance reigns among the grave and solid aptrapelus's contrivance of making a Mohock prentices of the law (here I could be partiof a man, by presenting him with laced and cularly dull in proving the word apprentice embroidered suits, I would by no means be to be significant of a barrister,) and you may thought to controvert the conceit, by insi- easily distinguish who has most fately made nuating the advantages of foppery. It is an his pretensions to business, by the whitest assertion which admits of much proof, that and most ornamental frame of his window; a stranger of tolerable sense, dressed like a if indeed the chamber is a ground-room, and gentleman, will be better received by those has rails before it, the finery is of necessity of quality above him, than one of much bet- more extended and the pomp of business ter parts, whose dress is regulated by the better maintained. And what can be a rigid notions of frugality. A man's ap- greater indication of the dignity of dress, pearance falls within the censure of every than that burdensome finery wřich is the one that sees him; his parts and learning regular habit of our judges, nobles, and very few are judges of; and even upon these bishops, with which upon certain days we few they cannot at first be well intruded; see them incumbered?' And though it may for policy and good-breeding will counsel be said, this is lawful, and necessary for the him to be reserved among strangers, and to dignity of the state, yet the wisest of them support himself only by the common spirit have been remarkable, before they arrived of conversation. Indeed among the injudi- at their present stations, for being very well cious, the words, “delicacy, idiom, fine dressed persons. As to my own part, I am images, structure of periods, genius, fire,' near thirty; and since I left school have not and the rest, made use of with a frugal and been idle, which is a modern phrase for comely gravity, will maintain the figure of having studied hard. I brought off a clean immense reading, and the depth of criti- system of moral philosophy, and a tolerable cism.

jargon of metaphysics, from the university; * All gentlemen of fortune, at least the since that I have been engaged in the clearyoung and middle-aged, are apt to pride ing part of the perplexed style and matter themselves a little too much upon their of the law, which so hereditarily descends dress, and consequently to value others in to all its professors. To all which severe some measure upon the same considera-studies I have thrown in, at proper intion. With what confusion is a man of terims, the pretty learning of the classics. figure obliged to return the civilities of the Notwithstanding which, I am what ShakVOL. II.


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