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entered, followed by more than twenty musketeers.
“ This," cried Sir Henry Vane, “is not honest; it is against morality and common honesty.” “ Sir Henry Vane,” replied Cromwell, “O, Sir Henry Vane! The Lord deliver me from Sir Henry Vane! He might have prevented this ; but he is a juggler, and has not common honesty himself.” From Vane he directed his discourse to Whitelock, on whom he poured a torrent of abuse; then, pointing to Challoner, “There,” he cried, “sits a drunkard.” And afterwards, selecting different members in succession, described them as dishonest and corrupt livers, a shame and a scandal to the profession of the gospel. Suddenly, however, checking himself, he turned to the guard, and ordered them to clear the house. At these words Colonel Harrisson took the Speaker by the hand, and led him from the chair. Algernon Sidney was next compelled to quit his seat; and the other members, eighty in number, on the approach of the military, rose and moved towards the door. Cromwell now resumed his discourse. “It is you,” he exclaimed, “ that have forced me to do this. I have sought the Lord both day and night, that he would rather slay me than put me on the doing of this work.” Alderman Allen took advantage of these words to observe that it was not yet too late to undo what had been done; but Cromwell instantly charged him with peculation, and gave him into custody;
When all were gone, fixing his eye on the mace--" What,” said he, “shall we do with this fools bauble :" Here, carry it away. Then taking the act of dissolution from the clerk, he ordered the doors to be locked, and accompanied by the military returned to Whitehall. Thus by the parricidal hands of its own children perished the long parliament, which, under a variety of forms had, for more than twelve years, defended and invaded the liberties of the nation : it fell without a struggle or a groan, unpitied and unregretted. The members slunk away to their homes, where they sought by submission to purchase the forbearance of their new master; and their partisans, if partisans they had, reserved themselves in silence for a day of retribution, which came not before Cromwell slept in his grave.
Lingard, vol. X., p. 393. DEATH OF OLIVER CROMWELL. His death, it was thought, arose from anxiety of mind, originating in the difficulties of his situation. The royalists were unceasingly occupied in forming plots for his assāssination ; and although he had with such signal intrepidity braved death in the field, he was now in such dread of attempts on his life, that he never moved a step without his guards; he wore armour under his clothes, and always carried a sword and pistol. He seldom slept two nights together in the same chamber, and never let it be known beforehand what chamber he intended to choose, nor trusted himself in any one which was not provided with back doors, at which sentinels were carefully placed.
From the corroding cares of his troubled conscience his body became affected, and his health sensibly to decline. He was seized with a slow fever, which changed into a tertian ague. For the space of a week no unfavourable symptoms appeared, and in the intervals of the fits he was able to walk abroad. At length the fever increased, and he began himself to entertain some thoughts of dying, a subject which had formerly been intimately present to him, though in subsequent turmoils no doubt it had been considerably obliterated. He asked Goodwin, one of his preachers, if the doctrine were true, that the elect could never fall or suffer final reprobation. Nothing more true, replied Goodwin. Then I am safe, said the protector, for I am sure that once I was in a state of grace. His physicians declaring the perilous situation of their patient, a deputation from the council waited upon him, to know his will with regard to his successor. His senses were gone, and he could not now express his intentions. They asked him whether he did not mean that his eldest son Richard should succeed him in the protectorship. A simple affirmative was, or seemed to be, extorted from him. The 3rd of September, on which he died, he always considered the most fortunate day of his life. A most furious tempest, which immediately succeeded his death, served as a subject of discourse to the superstitious. His partizans, as well as his enemies, remarked this event, and interpreted it according to their peculiar prejudices.
He died at his palace of Whitehall (in the 59th year of his age), and was buried with immense splendour in Westminster Abbey, in the royal sepulchre. The whole expense of the funeral amounted to the enormous sum of £28,000. His body, with that of Ireton, was disinterred on Saturday, January 26, 1660, and on the Monday night following they were drawn in several carts from Westininster to the Red Lion Inn, in Holborn, where they remained all night. Bradshaw's, who presided at the king's trial, was taken up the morning following, when all three were conveyed on sledges to Tyburn, taken out of their coffins, hanged upon the several angles of that triple tree till sun-set, then beheaded, their trunks thrown into a hole under the gallows, and their heads placed upon poles upon the top of Westminster-hall, where Oliver's long remained. *
Spencer, p. 474.
* It is impossible to conceive the meanness both the kings of France and Spain used to win the friendship of Cromwell; his very name was terrible to them. It is said that he obliged the haughty Louis XIV. to sign his name after his; it is certain he would not receive the title of cousin from that king, but insisted on that of brother. He obliged all nations to pay the same honours to his ambassadors as they had done when the kingdoms were governed by kings, saying it was the nation, not the king, to whom the respect had been paid. The whole world trembled at his name; Cardinal Mazarine declared that he was more afraid of him than of the devil: the pope ordered processions to be carried about to prevent the thunder of his cannon reaching Rome. The Duke of Savoy was commanded to put a stop to the massacre of his Protestant subjects; no sooner did the mandate of Oliver reach him than he obeyed : the stubborn Datch were all sabmission to him : Sweden took uncommon pains to obtain his alliance: Denmark and Portugal he treated with disdain and hangatiress: all Italy, with the piratical states of Africa, w... insolence he had punished for their depredations on English ships, stood in a
PERSON AND CHARACTER. He was of a robust make and constitution, his aspect manly, though clownish. His education extended no farther than a superficial knowledge of the Latin tongue, but he inherited great talents from nature. His character was formed from an amazing conjuncture of enthusiasm, hypocrisy, and ambition. He was possessed of courage, and resolution that overlooked all dangers, and saw no difficulties. He dived into the characters of mankind with wonderful sagacity, whilst he concealed his gwn purpose under the impenetrable shield of dissimulation.
Noble's Memoirs of Cromwell.
CHRONICLE. 1649, January 30. On the day of the king's execution a proclamation was read in Cheapside, declaring it treason to give any person the title of king without the assent of parliament, and at the same same time was published the vote of January 4th, that the supreme authority of the nation resided in the representatives of the people. 7th. The Prince of Wales took the title of Charles II. at the Hague. July 16. Cromwell and his officers pray and preach in the churches and chapels about London. Cromwell was three hours in the pulpit at Whitehall, where he prayed that “ God would take from his shoulders the government of this mighty people, being too heavy for him to bear.” 1650. The gloomy enthusiasm of the parliamentarians carried them to the most ridiculous austerities; all recreations were in a manner suspended by their severities; horse-racing, bear-baiting, and cock-fighting were prohibited as the greatest enormities. The sport, not the inhumanity gave offence. All holidays were abolished, and amusements on the Sabbath severely prohibited, so that no time was left for relaxation. The keeping of the Christmas holidays was long a great mark of ungodliness, and severely censured by the commons; even pies, which custom had made a Christmas dish, were regarded as a profane viand by the Puritans. May-poles were abolished as an heathenish vanity. At this time the Quakers first became known. June 23. Cromwell made captain-general of the forces. July 15. Charles solemnly proclaimed at Edinburgh Cross, King of England, Scotland and Ireland. December 24. Edinburgh Castle surrendered to Cromwell, said to be the first time that ever it was taken. 1651, January 1. Charles crowned at Scone. August 6. Charles entered England by Carlisle, with an army of 16,000 men. September 3. The Battle of Worcester, where the king's forces were entirely routed : about 3,000 of them were küled, and 6,000 or 7,000 taken prisoners. 1652, November 29. Von Tromp, with eighty sail of men-of-war, fell upon Blake, who was riding with forty sail of English ships in the downs; six of the English ships were taken and destroyed, and the rest driven into the Thames. After which Von Tromp sailed in triumph through the channel with a broom at the topmast head, proclaiming his missior' to sweep the English navy from the seas. 1653, Feoruary 18, 19, 20. Immense exertions were made to re-equip a fresh fleet, and a fight of three days ensued between the English and Dutch fleets off Portland, where the English obtained a great victory, taking and destroying eleven Dutch men-of-war, and thirty merchantmen out of 300'the Dutch had under their convoy. Yon Tromp was the admiral of the Dutch, and Blake of the English. The custom now was for officers to serve both in army and navy, and Generals Monk and Deane commanded under Blake in this engagement; the number slain on each side was about 2,000. 1653, April 20. The long parliament dissolved, and Cromwell declared Protector. 1656. Cromwell, desirous of increasing the population and prosperity of the West India colonies, ordered all females of disorderly sives to be arrested and shipped off for Barbadoes; he had, on a former occasion, for similar purposes, forcibly taken up 1,000 young girls in Ireland, and sent them to Jamaica. 1658. Richard Cromwell, the protector's eldest son, proclaimed Lord Protetor. 1659. Richard resigns the protectorship, and retires to Franee.*
* Richard Cromwell was quite the reverse of his father: without ambition, intrigue, or a taste for public business; and it is even said he was without religion, Having attained his twenty-first year, he was admitted to the Society of Lincoln's Inn, but took no pains to gain a knowledge of the law. While the kingdom was rent assunder by faction and civil war, he lived ingloriously in the Temple, spending his time chiefly in the pursuits of pleasure ; and what is still more remarkable, when his father was fighting the battles of parliament, he was the companion of the most loyal cavaliers, and joined in drinking health and success to the sovereign whom his father was dethroning. There needs no greater proof of his incapacity than Oliver never placing him in any public situation, but suffering him to reside in the country, where he spent his time in hunting, hawking, and other rural diversions.
After the downfall of the family, Richard lived many years on the Continent. At Pezenas, Lord Clarendon relates, that he was introduced to the Prince of Conti as an English gentleman, not wishing to be known as the son of the protector. The prince discoursing on the affairs of England, asked many questions concerning the king; whether all men were quiet, and submitted obediently to him; which Richard briefly answered. Well," continued the prince, “Oliver, though he was a traitor and a villain, was a brave fellow, had great parts, great courage, and was worths to command; but that Richard, that coxcomb, coquin, poltroon, was surely the basest fellow alive! What has become of that fool ? How is it possible that he should be such a sot?” Richard quickly took his leave; and the next day left the town; fearing to be discovered to be the very fool and coxcomb whom the prince had complimented so liberally.
Richard resided a long time at Cheshunt, a few miles from London, under the assumed name of Wallis. His only son dying without issue, he became entitled to a life estate in the manor of Hursley, and sent his youngest daughter down to take possession, which she did; but she and her sister seem to have followed the example of the ungrateful daughters of Lear. Having got possession of the estate, they refused to surrender it, pretending he was superannuated, and proposed allowing him a small sum yearly; this he refused, and commenced a law-suit to obtain possession, Being obliged to appear in court in person, his sister, Lady Fauconberg, sent her coach and equipage to conduct him thither, where the judge, Sir Nathan Wright, struck with the venerable appearance, the sad reverse of fortune he exhi bited, and the unnatural conduct of his daughters, treated him in the most respectful manner. His lordship not only directed him to be conducted into an adjoining apartment, where refreshments were provided, and where he remained till the cause came on, but ordered that a chair should be brought into court; and insisted, upon account of his advanced age, that he would sit covered. The opposite counsel
1660, May 3. The city of London and the Fleet declared for Charles. May 7. The king's statue was set up again in Guildhall, and the Commonwealth's arms taken down. May 8. The king was solemnly proclaimed in London and Westminster. May 14. The king invited to return and take the government of the kingdoms.
REIGN OF CHARLES II.
LANDING OF CHARLES II. AT DOVER. 25th May, 1660. By the morning we were come close to the land, and everybody made ready to get on shore. The king and the two dukes (York and Gloucester, the king's brothers) did eat their breakfast before they went, and there being set some ship's diet, they eat of nothing else but pease and pork and boiled beef, about noon; though the brigantine that Beale made was there ready to carry him, yet he would go in my lord's (Admiral Sir Edward Montague) barge with the two dukes. Our captain steered, and my lord went along bare with him. I went with Mr. Mansell and one of the king's footmen, and a dog that the king loved in a boat by ourselves, and so got on shore when the king did, who was received by General Monk with all imaginable love and respect at his entrance upon the land at Dover. Infinite the crowd of people and the horsemen, citizens, and noblemen of all sorts. The mayor of the town came and gave him his white staffe, the badge of his place, which the king did give him again. The mayor also presented him from the town a very rich bible, which he took, and said it was the thing that he loved above all things in the world. A canopy was provided for him to stand under, which he did, and talked awhile with General Monk and others, and so into a stately coach there set for him, and so away through the towne towards Canterbury, without making any stay at Dover. The shouting and joy expressed by all is past imagination. Pepy's Diary, vol. i., p. 97.
CHARLES II.'S ENTRANCE INTO LONDON. May 29th, 1660. This day his majesty, Charles the Second, came to London, after a sad and long exilc, and calamitous suf
objecting to the indulgence of a chair, the worthy judge replied, “I will allow of no reflexions to be made, but that you go to the merits of the cause."
In retiring from Westminster-hall, Richard's curiosity led him to the House of Lords, when some person asking him, as the house broke up, if he had ever heard or seen anything like it before ? he replied, “Never since I sat in that chair;" pointing to the throne. This inoffensive being enjoyed a good state of health to the last, and was so hale and hearty that he would gallop his horse for several miles together. He died July 12, 1712, in the eighty-sixth year of his age, at Cheshunt, in the House of Sergeant Pengelly, a supposed natural son of Richard's, and whose filial affection far exceeded that of his legitimate daughters. His remains were deposited in the chancel of the church at Hursley. Kings of England, p. 147.