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drowned in the Danube) and prisoners was forty thousand men. Among those taken were Marshal Tallard, and one hundred of his officers. The loss of the allies was four thousand five hundred killed, and seven thousand five hundred wounded. For this great victory Marlborough received the thanks of the two houses of parliament; the royal manor of Woodstock was conferred on him and his heirs, and the queen gave orders to erect on it, at the expense ‘of the crown, a splendid mansion to be named Blenheim Castle * In the campaign of the year 1706, Marlborough was preparing to lay seige to the town of Namur. The court of France sent orders to Marshal Villeroy to risk a battle in its defence, and on Whitmonday, the 23rd of May, he engaged the allies near a village named Ramillies. The armies on both sides were nearly equal, each counting about sixty thousand men. As at Blenheim, the action commenced at one o'clock and lasted till night, and it also terminated in the total defeat of the French, who had thirteen thousand men killed, wounded, and taken, while the allies had only one thousand killed and two thousand five hundred wounded. The next victory of Marlborough was in the campaign of 1708. The French army, under one of Louis's grandsons and the Duke of Vendome, was beseiging the town of Oudenarde. Marlborough marched to its relief; the French raised the seige at his approach; but on the 11th of July he brought them to an engagement near that town. The coming on of night saved them from a total rout; but they lost three thousand men killed, and seven thousand prisoners; the total loss of the allies was about two thousand men. Marlborough's last victory was in the year 1709. As he and Prince Eugene were preparing to lay seige to Mons, the French Marshal Villars, hastened to its relief. He posted his army of nineteen thousand men between two woods, near a place named Malplaquet, and secured his camp with strong entrenchments. Here, however, he was attacked by the allies on the 11th of September. The troops were equal in number, but the advantage in position was greatly on the side of the French; the contest was the most obstinate of any that had occurred during the war. But the honour of the day, with the loss of twenty thousand killed and wounded, remained with the allies, the French retiring with a loss of fourteen thousand men. The siege and capture of Mons terminated the campaign. Though only the great battles fought by the Duke of Marlborough are here noticed, they by no means alone contribute to his military reputation. The siege and capture of Dendermond, Ostend, Lisle, Ghent, Mons, and other places are distinguished in the annals of war; and the skill with which he managed to make the

* This was one of the completest victories ever obtained by any general. The French army was almost entirely destroyed; of 60,000 men so long victorious, there never re-assembled more than 20,000 effective.

The news of the defeat arrived at Versailles in the midst of the rejoicings for the birth of a great grandson of Louis XIV. Nobody dared inforin the king or so cruel a truth. Madame de Maintenon was obliged to tell his majesty that he was no longer invincible.

troops and cabinets of so many different states act in concert are worthy of a Hannibal. Keightley's History of England, p. 306.


The reign of Queen Anne has been termed the Augustan era of English Literature. But the writers of this age are more distinguished by the classical beauties of their composition, than strength and originality of genius. If, however, we embrace a larger period, from the restoration to the accession of the Brunswick family, we shall find men eminent in every branch of literature and science. Dr. Atterbury and Dr. Clarke were distinguished in divinity. Mr. Whiston, an eminent mathematician, but of eccentric opinions, wrote in defence of Arianism. John Locke shone forth as the father of human reason and metaphysical philosophy. His Essay on the Human Understanding, by explaining the powers of the mind, and exposing the delusions of enthusiasm, has done more to deliver mankind from the terrors and miseries of superstition, than the works of all other writers put together. Berkeley, afterwards Bishop of Cloyne, was also an eminent metaphysician ; but his ideal philosophy, though ingenious and unanswerable, not being of any practical utility, he cannot be considered to have conferred any important service on mankind by his productions. Great progress was made in mathematics and astronomy by Wallis, Halley, and Flamstead; and the art of medicine owed some valuable improvements to the writings and discoveries of Friend and Mead.

Among the poets of this era are numbered—William Congreve, celebrated for his comedies, which are not so famous for strength of character and power of humour, as for wit, elegance, and regularity. Vanbrugh, who wrote with more nature and fire, though far less art and precision. Steele, who in his comedies successfully engrafted modern characters on the ancient drama. Farquhar, who drew his pictures from fancy rather than from nature, and whose chief merit consists in the agreeable pertness and vivacity of his dialogue. Addison, whose fame as a poet greatly exceeded his genius, which was cold and enervate, void of passion, energy, and invention ; though in the character of an essayist he yielded to none, either in the beauties of style, or the ingenuity of his matter. Swift, whose muse seems to have been mere misanthropy; he was a cynic rather than a poet, and his natural dryness and sarcastic severity would have been unpleasing, had he not qualified them by adopting the extravagant and liceistious humour of Lucian and Rabelais. Prior, lively, familiar, and amusing. Rowe, solemn, florid, and declamatory. Pope, the prince of lyric poetry; unrivalled in satire, ethics, and polished versification. The agreeable Parnel. The wild, the witty, and the whimsical Garth. Gay, whose fables may vie with those of La Fontaine, in native humour, ease, and simplicity; and whose genius for pastoral was truly original. Dr. Bentley stood foremost in the list of critics


and commentators. Sir Christopher Wren raised some noble monuments of architecture. The most celebrated political writers were Davenant, Hare, Swift, Steele, Addison, Bolingbroke, and, Trenchard. of this class Steele, Swift, and Bolingbroke were the most distinguished. Many of the political publications were published weekly, and sold for a penny or twopence each. Of this class were the Examiner, in which Bolingbroke and Swift were the principal writers. *

Kings of England, p. 183. DEATH OF ANNE. On the 30th July, 1714, the Queen (who had for a long time

Mr. George Raymond, in his most elegant and interesting Metrical Chronicles, p. 189, thus reviews the history of English poetry froin its early dawn down to the period of Queen Anne :-

" Robert of Gloucester appears to have been among the very earliest rhymesters; he is quoted by Camder, Selden, &c., and lived in the time of llenry II. The first poet, however, of any considerable fame, was Robert de Langland (Edward III.) lle was the author of a satire, called " The Vision of l'ie s the Ploughman." Selden, in his notes on Drayton's l'olyolo on," quotes him with respect. Sir John Gower follows (Richard II.), a man of family and learning. Chaucer, “the morning star of English poetry," as denominated by Denham, was born (Edward 111.); b: marriage he is said to have become the brother-in-law of John of Gaunt. "The Cante bury Tals" form his chief production. John Lidgate, the monk of Bury, was of the same period. Then follow-Thomas Ocleve, or Okeleafe (Henry V.); John Barding (Edward IV.); Alexander Barclay (Henry VII.); the principal work of the latter was a satirical piece, called “ The Ship of Fools," es. posing the vices and follies of all degrees of men ; and Robert Fabian (Henry VIII.); John Skelton was poet laureate to Henry. He indulged his power of satire unwisely against the great Carlinal Wolsey, and was coinpelled to secrete himsell Another poet, William Roy, appears to have committed the same offence. To him succeeds the illustrious Earl of Surrey --illustrious, brave, accomplished! The beautiful Geraldine, maid of honour to Queen Catherine, first inspired his muse; nor was he less brilliant in the field of Mars, which the glory he acquired at Floiden commemorates. Sir Thomas W’yat, almost equally celel'rated, was of the same time, and his style of writing of a similar character. T. Sackville (Lord Buckbarst) (Elizabeth) introduced allegory and table, lending greatness to the love of humanity, and making power the servant of justice. Sir Philip Sidnes, by assent of Europe, was the most perfect gentleman of his day; but as a poet he is here m ntioned merely in continuation of the line. Fulk Greville (Lord Brook) is next in the de scent of poets, the servant to Queen Elizabeth, councillor to King James, and friend to Sir Philip Sidney. He was stabbed by his own domestic.

Next comes Edmund Spencer, overflowing with tenderness and benevolence, reconciling magnificence and decorum, love and fidelity, and displaying, with Fairfax, a new worid of ornament, elegance, and taste. Sir Walter Raleigh,

The admiral, the statesman, and the sage,
The historian, bard, and censor of the age;
A light in ail: in some, the leading star :
The guide in science, and the chiet in war;
The new world's chart to Europe he unroll'd,

And dying, lett a record of the old. sir John Harrington an! Sir John Davis follow. Davis corrected the luxuriance of fable, and enriched the ininds of men with knowledge apart from ostentation, and learning from pedantry (James I.) Dome and Corbet added wit to satire, and rem stored the art of making reproof itself agreeable. Carew and Waller taught pane gyric to be delicate--passion to be courtly-and on the pegasus of fncy fixed the curb of good manners. D'Avenant b.ended address and politeness with the severest lessons of emperance and morality; and the divine Milton recorciled the graces of them all, adding a strength and m:tjesty of his own. Such appear to have been the English poets to the days of Dryden."

been in a state of lethargic insensibility, proceeding from continua? ill-health and uneasiness of mind regarding the dissentions of her ministers) seemed somewhat relieved by medicines, rose from her bed about eight o'clock, and walked a little ; efter some time, casting her eyes on a clock that stood in her chamber, she continued to gaze at it for some minutes. One of her ladies-in-waiting asked her what she saw there more than usual; to which the queen only answered by turning her eyes upon her with a dying look. She was soon after seized with a fit of apoplexy. She con nued all night in a state of stupefaction, and expired the following morning, 1st August, 1714, in the fiftieth year of her age. She was buried at Westminster, in the new vault built for Charles II., by the side of her husband, Prince George of Denmark. Spencer, p. 565.

PERSON AND CHARACTER. She was of middle size, well proportioned, her hair was of dark brown colour, her complexion ruddy; her features were regular ; her countenance was rather round than oval, and her aspect more comely than majestic; her voice was clear and melodious, and her presence engaging; her capacity was naturally good, but not much cultivated by learning, nor did she exhibit any marks of extraordinary genius or personal ambition. She was certainly deficient in that vigour of mind by which a prince ought to preserve her independence, and avoid the snares and fetters of sycophants and favourites; but whatever her weakness in this particular might have been, the virtues of her heart were never called in question; she was a pattern of conjugal affection and fidelity, a tender mother, a warm friend, an indulgent mistress, a munificent patron, a mild and merciful princess, during whose reign no blood was shed for treason. She was zealously attached to the Church of England, from conviction rather than from prepossession, unaf. fectedly pious, just, charitable and compassionate. She felt a mother's fondness for her people, by whom she was universally beloved with a warmth of affection which even the prejudice of party could not abate. In a word, if she was not the grea was certainly one of the best and most unblemished sovereigns that ever sat upon the throne of England, and well deserved the express sive though simple epithet of Good QUEEN ANNE.

CHRONICLE. child of James II. by Anne Hyde, daughter of the Earl of Claren

1702, March 8. Anne, Princess of Denmark, the only surviving of her age. 11. The queen, in a speech to both Houses of Parliament, recommends a union between England and Scotland, presses her determination to maintain the Protestant succession, April 23. Her Majesty was crowned at Westminster. Nov, 28. 15. Earl of Marlborough declared Captain General of the Forces.




Marlborough returned from Holland, and received the thanks of the Lords and Commons for his signal services during the cam. paign. 1703. The practice of touching for the king's evil was about this period revived by the queen. Nov. 26. About mid. night began the most terrific storm ever known in England, the wind W.S.W., attended with flashes of lightning; it uncovered the roofs of many houses and churches, blew down the spires of several steeples and chimneys, tore whole groves of trees up by the roots; the leads of some churches were rolled up like scrolls of parchment, and several vessels and barges sunk in the Thames; but the royal navy sustained the greatest damage, being just returned from the Straits : four third-rates, one second-rate, four fourth-rates, and many others of less force, were cast away upon the coast of England, and above fisieen thousand seamen lost, besides those that were cast away in merchant ships. The loss that London alone sustained was computed at one million sterling, and the city of Bristol lost to the amount of two hundred thousand pounds; among the persons drowned was Rear-Admiral Beaumont. Dec. 6. A proclamation for a fast, on account of the great storm. 1704, Feb. 7. QUEEN ANNE's Bounty. The queen sent a message to the Commons, desiring that the revenue of the firstfruits and tenths might be settled for augmenting the maintenance of the poor clergy, and a bill was brought in for rendering her majesty's intentions in that matter effectual. July 21—24. The siege and capture of Gibraltar. Aug. 13. The BATTLE OF BLENHEIM. 1706, May 12. The victory of Ramillies. March 6. I'NION WITH SCOTLAND. The articles of union were twentyfive; the first was that on 1st May, 1707, and for ever after, the kingdoms of England and Scotland shall be united into one kingdom, by the name of GREAT BRITAIN. 1708, July 11. Battle of Oudenarde. Oct. 23. Prince George of Denmark died of asthma, at Kensington, and was privately interred at Westminster; he was in his fifty-fifth year, and had been twenty-five years married to the queen. 1709, April 22. Mr. Steele publishes the first number of “The Tatler ;” though crude in its plan, and containing some of the ordinary information of a newspaper, it was the foundation of that popular mode of instruction, by periodical essays, which gave a distinct tone to British manners and sentiment. Sept. 11. The Battle of Malplaquet. 1713. The TREATY OF UTRECKT signed with France, by the ministers of Great Britain, Savoy, Prussia, Portugal, and the States General ; by this celebrated treaty the Protestant succession in England is recognised, the separation of the crowns of Spain and France secured, the harbour of Dunkirk demolished, Arcadie, Hudson's Bay, Newfoundland, and St. Christopher's ceded to the English, Naples, Milan, and the Spanish Netherlands yielded to the emperor, Sicily was severed from Naples and transferred to the Duke of Savoy with the regal title, and the Dutch obtained Namur, Charleroi, and other strong places for a barrier. May 5. Peace proclaimed. Aug. 1. The queen dicd.

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