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Dress of Queen Elizabeth, 208
Druids, The, laws and religion of, 3, 4
Druidical remains, 5
Duke of Buckingham assassinated, 224
Duke of Clarence, death of, 157
Duke of Lancaster's invasion, 126
Duke of Marlborough, 263

victories of, 265
Duke of Monmouth, 248

capture of, 251
Dulwich College founded, 217
Dunkirk sold, 246
Dutch sailed up the Medway, 246
Earl or Essex beheaded, 206
Earthquake in London, 38
Earl of Somerset, execution of, 182
Earl of Strafford beheaded, 226
Edgar and Elfrida, 13
Edict against love locks, 41
Edwy and Elgiva, 13
Edinburgh Castle, surrender of, 233
Edward I., Reign of, 83

Death of, 89

Person and Character, 89
Edward II., Reign of, 90

Deposition of, 96
Murder of, 99

Person and Character, 100
Edward III., Reign of, 101

Invasion of France, 107
Death of, 121

Person and Character,122
Edward IV., Reign of, 153

Marriage of, 154
Death of, 157

Person and Character, 157
Edward Y., Reign of, 158

Murder of, 159
Edward VI., Reign of, 182

Abilities of, 182
Death of, 184

Person and Character, 184
Eleanor of Provence, coronation of, 79
Elevation of the Normans, 27
Elizabeth, birth of, 191

Reign of, 191
In the Tower, 187, 192
Coronation, 205
At Tilbury, 201
Death of, 203
Funeral of, 204
Wax effigy, 201

Person and Character of, 205
Era Roman, 7
Experiments on convicts, 285
Extortions for the crusade, 59
Fair Rosamond, 52

Ballad of, 54
Fardingale, The, 208
Feudal castles, 42

law, 27

system, 33
Final retirement of the Romans, 9
Fire and water ordeal abolished, 83
First Lottery, 206

First sedan chair in England, 218
Fire of London, 240
Fire at Whitehall, 263
Flight of Prince Charles, 281
Flora Macdonald, 282
Flora Macivor's ballad, 279
Fontainbleau, Peace of, 301
French King, capture of, 116

Entry into London, 119
French Revolution, 302
Gaol fever, 284
Geoffrey Chaucer, 121, 135
George I., Reign of, 271

Death of, 273

Person and Character of, 274
George II., Reign of, 275

Death of, 284

Person andCharacter of, 284
George III., Reign of, 287

Death of, 300

Person and Character, 301
George IV., Reign of, 303

Death of, 307

Person and Character, 300
Gibraltar, siege and defence of, 270
Glass and crystal first manufactured, 257
Glasslamps in London streets, 285
Glenlyon, 261
Godiva, Lady, 15
Goodwin Sands, 37
Gordon, Lord George riots, 302
Gin drinking in Reign of George II., 286
Grammar schools first established, 153
Great famine, 100
Great earthquake 100
Gunpowder invented, 122
Gunpowder plot, 211
Guy Fawkes, 213
Harold's oath on the relics, 15

Treachery of, 16
Haymarket, hedges and bushes, 83
Hengist and Horsa, 9
Henry I., Reign of, 39

Seizure of the crown, 39
Death of, 42

Person and Character, 42
Henry II., Reign of, 45

Penance ot, 49
Death of, 56

Person and Character, 57
Henry III., Reign of, 79

Death of, 82

Person and Character, 83
Henry IV., Reign of, 129

Coronation of, 129
Conspiracy to dethrone, 131
Death of, 134

Person and Character, 134
Henry V., Reign of, 135

Reformation of, 135
Return to England, 139
Death of 140
Funeral of, 141

Person and Character, 142
Henry VI., Reign of, 143

Henry VI., Deposed, 153

Murder of, 152
Person and Character, 15?

Crowned King of France, 153
Henry VII., Reign of, 164

Avarice and extortions, 167
Death of, 168

Person and Character, 169
Henry VIII., Reign of, 170

Six wives of, 170
Death of, 180

Person and Character, 180
Henry Jenkins, 225
Hever Castle, 172
Holborn a garden, 83
Holidays abolished, 233
Horned head dresses, 129
Hour of dinner, 210
Hugh le Despenser, 95
Jack Cade, insurrection, 147
James I., Reign of, 211

Death of, 215

Person and Character, 216
James II., Reign of, 248

-Embarked for France, 256
Death of, 256

Person and Character, 256
Jane Grey, Lady, 185

Her accomplishments, 187
Jannissaries, Massacre of, 309
Jane Shore, 155
Jerusalem chamber, 134
Jews hanged, 90
Invasion, preparations for, 17
Invasion, The Norman, 18
Infant King. 143
Introduction of silk hose, 208
Joan D'Arc, 144
John, Reign of, 74

-Barbarity and venality of, 77
-Death of, 78

-Person and Character, 79
John Wycliffe, 120

Death of, 129
John Knox, 206
Ireland annexed to England, 57
Irish Rebellion, 226
Judge Jeffreys, 252, 253
Kean, Edmund, death of, 310
King of Bohemia, 111
Kirke, Colonel, 253
Labyrinth at Woodstock, 53
Lady Fairfax, 219
Lambert Sinnel, 164
Landing of the Normans, 18
Landing of Charles Edward, 275
Laws to restrain luxury, 122
League of the Barons, 75
London-bridge built with stone, 57
Long Parliament, 226, 230
Lord High Admiral beheadel, 184
Lord Mayor's Show, first time 153
Louis XIV. died, 274
Luxury in dress, 208
Magna Charta, 76

Manner of embalming, 42
Manners and morals, change of, 237
Margaret of Anjou, 149
Marie Antoinette beheaded, 302
Mary, Reign of, 185

Death of, 190

Person and Character, 190
Mary Queen of Scots, execution of, 195

-Dress at the block, 198
Martyrs, The, 188
Marlborough, Earl of, 269

Duchess Death of, 285
Marr Rebellion, 271
Mass restored, 191
Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 206

Glencoe, 260

The Jews, 58
Men of Note in Anne's Reign, 207

Elizabeth's Reign, 202
George II., Reign, 285
George III., Reign, 312

Victoria I., Reign, 312
Minstrels, origin of, 64
Minstrel Blondel, 66
Monasteries, suppression of, 178
Monument erected, 241
Mortimer, capture and execution of, 101
Mortmain, statute of, 90
Murder of Prince Arthur, 74
Murder of the young Princes, 159
Nell Gwyn, 242
New Crusade, 44
New Forest, formation of, 26
Oath of the Barons, 76
Old man of the mountain, 82
Oliver Cromwell, 227

Death of, 231

Person Character, 233
Old Parr, 225
Order of the Garter, 114
Order of Baronets instituted, 217
Palace of St. James's built, 181
Paper first made, 206
Parliaments originated, 42
Peeping Tom, 15
Perkin Warbeck, 166
Philip of Spain arrived in England, 191
Piers Gavestone, 90
Plantagenets, last of them behead 1,169
Plague, 122, 158, 206, 237
Plague-pits, 240
Poll-tax insurrection, 123
Porteous Riots, 245
Pretender landed, 274
Price of provisions in 1316, 100
Prince Edward, attempted murder of, 81
Prince of Wales, excesses of, 132

-Seizure of Crown, 133
Princess Elizabeth's imprisonment, 187
Prince Edward, assassination of, 155
Prince Rupert died, 247
Prince Orange lands, 256
Prince George of Denmark died, 270
Prince Eugene, death of, 285
Prince Charles Edward, death of, 281

Prince Charles Edward, Monument, 281
Printing first introduced, 158
Proclamation in Cheapside, 233
Protestant religion, restoration of, 191
Prynne prosecuted, 225

Death of, 247
Quakers first known, 233
Quarrel betwixt clergy and laity. 39
Queen Anne's speech in Parliament, 269

bounty, 270
Queen Eleanor's Amazon guard, 51
Queen's College, Cambridge, 153
Queen Henriette, destitution of, 226
Queen Margaret and the Robber, 153
Raising the Standard, 276
Rapacity of the Queen's ladies, 249
Reform Bill carried, 309
Reformation, The, 179
Revels at Kenilworth, 198
Richard I., Reign of, 58

Arrival at Messina, 60

Berengaria, nuptials of, 61
Charger and Costume, 61
Combat with Saladin, 62
Death of, 72

Person and Character, 73
Richard II., Reign of, 123

Unpopularity of, 126
Deposition of, 127
Murder of, 128
Person and Character, 128

Greyhound of, 127
Richard III., Reign of, 159

Marriage 161
Death of, 161

Person and Character, 164
Richard Cromwell protector, 234
Rising of London apprentices, 181
Robert Bruce, 87, 94
Robin Hood, 67
Robin Hood ballads, 69
Robin Hood's death and burial, 71
Romance of Ceur de Lion, 65
Royal Exchange foundation laid, 206
Royal Society established, 257
Rouen conquered, 79
Rye-house plot, 247
Saladin death of, 67
Salisbury, Countess of, 102
Saxon and Dane Kings, 12
Saxon Heptarchy, 10
Siege and capture of Jerusalem, 34
Seven Kingdoms, 10
Shakspeare, death of, 217
Shipwreck of Prince William, 39
Side-saddles first used, 129
Silk-women, 153
Bir Walter Raleigh, fate of, 214

Verses of, 215
South-sea bubble, 272
Spanish Armada, 200
St. Paul's Cathedral destroyed, 33

Rebuilt, 83
Sterling money first coined, 79
Stephen, Reign of, 42

Stephen, Death of, 44

Person and Character, 14
Style of living improved, 209
Suburbs of London in 1180, 58
Surrender of Calais, 111
Surrender of Sterling Castle, 86
Surnames first used, 33
Table of Kings and Queens, 314
Taish, or Second Sight, 3
Tatler, first number published, 270
Tavern bill in 1560 and 1851, 210
Telescopes invented, 206
Terrific storm, 270
Thames frozen, 247
Thermometers invented, 209
Thomas Parr born, 158
Titus Oates, 247
Tobacco introduced, 209
Tomb of Cour de Lion, 73
Torture, application of, 244
Touching for the evil, 224

revived, 270
Tower built, 33
Tradesman beheaded, 158
Trial by battle, 33
Trial of the Bishops, 253

Queen Caroline, 308

Warren Hastings, 302
Tribute paid to the Pope, 90
Troubadours, 64
Turbulence of the Barons, 131
Union with Scotland, 270
Usury prohibited to Christians, 79
Utrecht, treaty of, 270
Victory of Dettingen, 285

La Hogue, 262

Ramilles, 270
Victory over the Dutch, 246
Virginia discovered, 206
Von Trump, 233
Wales united with England, 182
Waltham Cross, origin of, 90
Wars of the Roses, 150
Warwick, Earl of, 150

House of, 151
Wat Tyler, 124
Watches first brought from Geneva, 206
Weaving stockings invented, 206
Westminster Abbey, decay of, 83
Westminster Hall rebuilt, 129
Whittington, Sir Richard, 135
William Rufus, reign of, 33

Death of, 37
Ferson and Character, 38

Tomb of, 38
William Wallace, Sir, 84
William Russel, Lord, tried, 247

- beheaded, 247
William III., Reign of, 257

Death of, 261

Person & Character, 262
William IV., Reign of, 309

Death of, 309

Person and Character, 310
! Windsor Castle built, 123





ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY OF BRITAIN Geoffrey, of Monmouth, a Benedictine monk, who lived in the twelfth century, penned, in Latin, a history of Britain, and dedicated it to Robert, Earl of Gloucester, a natural son of Henry I., King of England. In this pretended history Britain is said to receive her name from Brutus,

the first of her kings. What the historian relates is as follows :-Brutus, son of Sylvius, grandson of Æneas, had the misfortune to kill his father as he was shooting at a deer. As he could not, or would not, after this fatal accident, stay any longer in Italy, he retires into Greece, where, gathering together the descendants of the Trojans that were put thither after the destruction of their city, he puts to sea with them, and, after long wandering on the Mediterranean, enters the Atlantic ocean, and performs wonders in several places, particularly at Gaul, against Goffarius, King of Aquitain. At length, guided by an oracle, he comes and lands on the island of Albion, at a place

where Totnes now stands, in the county of Devon.* The island was at that time inhabited by giants, of the race of Cham, whose chief, or king, was Gog-Magog.

* The very stone upon which Brutus, the nephew of Æncas, landed at Totnes still remains ! It is inserted in the footway, nearly opposite the Mayoralty House, in the Fore-street. “From Totnes, the neighbouring shore was heretofore called Totnese. And the British History' tells us that Brutus, the founder of the British nation, arrived here." And Havillances (John de Alvilla, or Hauteville, according to Mr. Wright), as a poet, following the same authority, writos thus:

“ Inde dato cursa, Brutus comitatus Achate

Gallorum spoliis cumulatis navibus æquor
Exarat, et superis auraque faventibus usus

Littora felices entrat Totnesia portus.”
From hence, great brute, with his Achates steered,

Full fraught with Gallic spoils their ships they appear'd
The winds and gods were all at their command,
And happy Totnes shew'd them grateful land.”----Gibson's Camden.

Notes and Queries, vol. i., page 233,- J. Milner Barry, M.D.

Brutus and his companions, though few in number, not only keep their ground, but root out the giants, and get possession of the island, which Brutus, from his own name, called Britain. Before his death he divided his kingdom among his three sons; Locrin, or Loegrin, had for his share Loegria, so called from him; the same with England now, exclusive of Wales, which was the share of Camber, Brutus's second son, and from him called Cambria. Albanact, the youngest, had the country since called Scotland, to which he gave the name of Albania. Having laid these foundations, the author continues his history, giving an account of the various revolutions that happened in the island under the kings, successors of Brutus, whose names he relates, with some of their actions. But as to the time of their reigns he is not so exact, setting down neither when they began nor how long they lasted. He is contented with saying, “ Brutus's arrival in Ålbion was twelve hundred years after the flood, and sixty-six after the destruction of Troy."

This history, published in so dark an age, was greedily received, particularly by the Welsh, the posterity of the Ancient Britons; but it brings with it so many marks of forgery that it is looked upon by all that have examined it with any attention as a fiction of Geoffrey himself, or some other author, whom he has too im. plicitly followed.

After rejecting this fable, I wish it were in my power to give a satisfactory account of the origin of the Britons; but that is im. possible-we must be satisfied with the conjectures of Cæsar, Tacitus, and some more modern authors. The most probable account seems to be this-that Great Britain was peopled by the Celtæ, or Gauls, descended from Gomer, son of Japhet. Of this the name Cumri, by which the Welsh call themselves still in their language, and several other reasons, will not suffer us to doubt. Besides, the numerous swarms of Gauls that over-ran so great a part of Europe and Asia, make it credible they neglected not to send colonies into Great Britain, which lay so near them. The affinity, taken notice of by antiquaries, between the Gauls and Britains, with respect to religion, is a further confirmation of this opinion. It is true, indeed, the Belgæ are said by some writers to settle in the eastern, the Spaniards in the western, and the Hibernians, or Irish, in the northern parts of Great Britain ; but this is inconsistent with the common opinion. The Belgæ were no other than Gauls, and the Spaniards, as well as the Irish or Scots, were, according to some writers, colonies of the Celtiberian-Gauls, that inhabited along the western coasts of Spain. But supposing it were not very certain that these Spaniards were not Celtiberians, it can't be denied that the southern part, now called England, was peopled by the Gauls. This is the most probable account of thc origin of Britain.

Rapin, Introduction, po dhe


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