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ous affection while we were together, with the as what they would have found from a real tenderness which he expressed to me at part-meeting. It was an inexpressible satisfacing, make his absence almost insupportable tion to those divided lovers, to be assured I think of him every moment of the day, and that each was at the same time employed meet him every night in my dreams. Every in the same kind of contemplation, and makthing I see puts me in mind of him. I apply ing equal returns of tenderness and affec myself with more than ordinary diligence to tion.

the care of his family and his estate; but this If I may be allowed to mention a more seinstead of relieving me, gives me but so many rious expedient for the alleviating of absence, occasions of wishing for his return. I fre- I shall take notice of one which I have known quent the rooms where I used to converse with two persons practise, who joined religion to him, and not meeting him there, set down in that elegance of sentiments with which the his chair and fall a weeping. I love to read passion of love generally inspires its votaries. the books he delighted in, and to converse This was, at the return of such an hour, to with the persons whom he esteemed. I visit offer up a certain prayer for each other, which his picture a hundred times a day, and place they had agreed upon before their parting. myself over against it whole hours together. The husband, who is a man that makes a figure I pass a great part of my time in the walks in the polite world, as well as in his own family, where I used to lean upon his arm, and recol- has often told me, that he could not have suplect in my mind the discourses which have ported an absence of three years without this there passed between us: I look over the se- expedient. veral prospects and points of view which we Strada, in one of his Prolusions,* gives an used to survey together, fix my eye upon the account of a chimerical correspondence be objects which he has made me take notice of; tween two friends by the help of a certain and call to mind a thousand agreeable remarks load-stone, which had such virtue in it, that which he has made on those occasions. I if it touched two several needles, when one of write to him by every conveyance, and con- the needles so touched began to move, the trary to other people, am always in good-hu- other, though at never so great a distance, mour when an east-wind blows, because it moved at the same time, and in the same seldom fails of bringing me a letter from manner. He tells us, that the two friends behim. Let me entreat you, sir, to give me your ing each of them possessed of one of these advice upon this occasion, and to let me know needles, made a kind of dial-plate, inscribing how I may relieve myself in this my widow-it with the four-and-twenty letters, in the same hood.

'I am, Sir,

Your most humble servant,

manner as the hours of the day are marked upon the ordinary dial-plate. They then fixed one of the needles on each of these plates in such a manner, that it could move round Absence is what the poets call death in love, without impediment, so as to touch any of and has given occasion to abundance of beauti- the four-and-twenty letters. Upon their se ful complaints in those authors who have treat- parating from one another into distant couned of this passion in verse. Ovid's Epistles are tries, they agreed to withdraw themselves full of them. Otway's Monimia talks very ten-punctually into their closets at a certain hour derly upon this subject:

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The consolations of lovers on these occasions are very extraordinary. Besides those mentioned by Asteria, there are many other motives of comfort which are made use of by absent lovers.

I remember in one of Scudery's Romances, a couple of honourable lovers agreed at their parting to set aside one half hour in the day to think of each other during a tedious absence. The romance tells us, that they both of them punctually observed the time thus agreed upon; and that whatever company or business they were engaged in, they left it abruptly as soon as the clock warned them to retire. The romance further adds, that the lovers expected the return of this stated hour with as much impatience as if it had been a real assiguation, and enjoyed an imaginary happiness, that was almost as pleasing to them

of the day, and to converse with one another by means of this their invention. Accordingly when they were some hundred miles asunder, each of them shut himself up in his closet at the time appointed, and immediately cast his eye upon his dial-plate. If he had a mind to write any thing to his friend, he directed his needle to every letter that formed the words which he had occasion for, making a little pause at the end of every word or sentence, to avoid confusion. The friend in the meanwhile saw his own sympathetic needle moving of itself to every letter which that of his correspondent pointed at. By this means they talked together across a whole continent, and conveyed their thoughts to one another in an instant over cities or mountains, seas or deserts.

If Monsieur Scudery, or any other writer on romance, had introduced a necromancer, who is generally in the train of a knight-errant, making a present to two lovers of a couple of these above-mentioned needles, the reader would not have been a little pleased to have seen them corresponding with one another when they were guarded by spies and watches, or separated by castles and adventures. Lib. ii. prol. 6.

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Your most humble servant,


In the meanwhile, if ever this invention for which you have professed so great an esshould be revived or put in practice, I would teem; and in particular the two ladies my late propose that upon the lover's dial-plate there fellow-sufferers, and, should be written not only the four-and-twenty letters, but several entire words which have always a place in passionate epistles; as flames, darts, die, languish, absence, Cupid, heart, eyes, hang, drown, and the like. This would 'The matter which I am now going to send very much abridge the lover's pains in this you, is an unhappy story in low life, and will way of writing a letter, as it would enable recommend itself, so that you must excuse the him to express the most useful and signifi- manner of expressing it. A poor idle drunkcant words with a single touch of the needle. en weaver in Spital-fields has a faithful labo


No. 242.] Friday, December 7, 1711.


Creditur, ex medio quia res arcessit, habere
Sudoris minimum
Hor. Lib. 2. Ep. i. 168.
To write on vulgar themes, is thought an easy task.


rious wife, who by her frugality and industry had laid by her as much money as purchased her a ticket in the present lottery. She had hid this very privately in the bottom of a trunk and had given her number to a friend and confidant, who had promised to keep the secret, and bring her news of the success. The poor adventurer was one day gone abroad, when her careless husband, suspecting she had sa· MR. SPECTATOR, ved some money, searches every corner, till at YOUR speculations do not so generally pre-length he finds this same ticket; which he imvail over men's manners as I could wish. A mediately carries abroad, sells, and squanders former paper of your's concerning the misbe-away the money without the wife's suspecting haviour of people, who are necessarily in each any thing of the matter. A day or two after other's company in travelling, ought to have this, this friend, who was a woman, comes and been a lasting admonition against transgres- brings the wife word, that she had a benefit of sions of that kind. But I had the fate of your five hundred pounds. The poor creature overquaker, in meeting with a rude fellow in a joyed, flies up stairs to her husband, who was stage-coach, who entertained two or three wo- then at work, and desires him to leave his loom men of us (for there was no man besides him- for that evening, and come and drink with a self) with language as indecent as ever was friend of his and her's below. The man reheard upon the water. The impertinent ob-ceived this cheerful invitation as bad husbands servations which the coxcomb made upon our sometimes do, and after a cross word or two, shame and confusion were such, that it is an told her he would not come. His wife with unspeakable grief to reflect upon them. As tenderness renewed her importunity, and at much as you have declaimed against duelling, length said to him, "My love! I have within I hope you will do us the justice to declare, that these few months, unknown to you, scraped if the brute has courage enough to send to the together as much money as has bought us a place where he saw us all alight together to get ticket in the lottery, and now here is Mrs. rid ofhim, there is not one of us but has a lover Quick come to tell me, that it is come up this who shall avenge the insult. It would certain-morning a five hundred pound prize." The ly be worth your consideration, to look in-husband replies immediately, "You lie, you to the frequent misfortunes of this kind, to slut, you have no ticket, for I have sold it." which the modest and innocent are exposed, The poor woman upon this faints away in a fit, by the licentious behaviour of such as are as recovers, and is now run distracted. As she much strangers to good-breeding as to virtue. had no design to defraud her husband, but Could we avoid hearing what we do not ap- was willing only to participate in his good forprove, as easily as we can seeing what is disa- tune, every one pities her, but thinks her husgreeable, there were some consolation but band's punishment but just. This, sir, is a since in a box at a play, in an assembly of matter of fact, and would, if the persons and ladies, or even in a pew at church, it is in the circumstances were greater, in a well-wrought power of a gross coxcomb to utter what a wo- play be called Beautiful Distress. I have only man cannot avoid hearing, how miserable is sketched it out with chalk, and know a good her condition who comes within the power of hand can make a moving picture with worse such impertinents? and how necessary is it to materials. 'Sir, &c.' repeat invectives against such a behaviour? If the licentious had not utterly forgot what it is to be modest, they would know that offended 'I am what the world calls a warm fellow, modesty labours under one of the greatest suf- and by good success in trade I have raised myferings to which human life can be exposed. self to a capacity of making some figure in If these brutes could reflect thus much, though the world; but no matter for that. I have they want shame, they would be moved by now under my guardianship a couple of nieces, their pity, to abhor an impudent behaviour in who will certainly make me run mad; which the presence of the chaste and innocent. If you will not wonder at, when I tell you they you will oblige us with a Spectator on this sub-are female virtuosos, and during the three ject, and procure it to be pasted against every years and a 'half that I have had them under stage-coach in Great Britain as the law of the my care, they never in the least inclined their journey, you will highly oblige the whole sex, thoughts towards any one single part of the


character of a notable woman. Whilst they to it by the writers of morality, and which by should have been considering the proper in-devout men generally goes under the name of gredients for a sack-posset, you should hear a religion. and by men of the world under the dispute concerning the magnetic virtue of the name of honour.


We learn from Hierocles, it was a common saying among the heathens, that the wise man hates no body, but only loves the virtuous.

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loadstone, or perhaps the pressure of the at- Hypocrisy itself does great honour, or ramosphere. Their language is peculiar to ther justice, to religion, and tacitly acknowlthemselves, and they scorn to express them-edges it to be an ornament to human nature. selves on the meanest trifles with words that The hypocrite would not be at so much pains are not of a Latin derivation. But this were to put on the appearance of virtue, if he did supportable still, would they suffer me to en- not know it was the most proper and ef joy an uninterrupted ignorance; but unless I fectual means to gain the love and esteem of fall in with their abstracted ideas of things mankind. (as they call them) I must not expect to smoke one pipe in quiet. In a late fit of the gout complained of the pain of that distemper, when my niece Kitty begged leave to assure me, that whatever I might think, several great Tully has a very beautiful gradation of philosophers, both ancient and modern, were thoughts to show how amiable virtue is. of opinion, that both pleasure and pain were We love a virtuous man,' says he, who imaginary distinctions, and that there was no lives in the remotest parts of the earth, though such thing as either in rerum natura. I have we are altogether out of the reach of his viroften heard them affirm that the fire was not tue, and can receive from it no manner of hot; and one day when I, with the authority benefit. Nay, one who died several ages ago, of an old fellow, desired one of them to put raises a secret fondness and benevolence for my blue cloak on my knees, she answered, him in our minds, when we read his story. Sir, I will reach the cloak; but take notice, Nay, what is still more, one who has been the I do not do it as allowing your description; enemy of our country, provided his wars were for it might as well be called yellow as blue; regulated by justice and humanity, as in the for colour is nothing but the various infrac-instance of Pyrrhus, whom Tully mentions tions of the rays of the sun." Miss Molly on this occasion in opposition to Hannibal. told me one day, that to say snow was white, Such is the natural beauty and loveliness of is allowing a vulgar error; for ås it contains virtue. a great quantity of nitrous particles, it might Stoicism, which was the pedantry of virtue, be more reasonably supposed to be black. In ascribes all good qualifications of what kind short, the young husseys would persuade me, soever to the virtuous man. Accordingly that to believe one's eyes is a sure way to be Cato, in the character Tully has left of him, deceived; and have often advised me, by no carried matters so far, that he would not almeans to trust any thing so fallible as my low any one but a virtuous man to be handsenses. What I have to beg of you now is, to some. This indeed looks more like a philosoturn one speculation to the due regulation of phical rant than the real opinion of a wise female literature, so far at least as to make man; yet this was what Cato very seriously it consistent with the quiet of such whose fate maintained. In short, the Stoics thought it is to be liable to its insults; and to tell us they could not sufficiently represent the exthe difference between a gentleman that should cellence of virtue, if they did not comprehend make cheese-cakes and raise paste, and a lady in the notion of it all possible perfections; and that reads Locke, and understands the ma-therefore did not only suppose, that it was thematics. In which you will extremly transcendantly beautiful in itself, but that it oblige

'Your hearty friend and humble servant,

No. 243.] Saturday, December 8, 1711.

Formam quidem ipsam, Marce fili, et tanquam facien honesti vides; quæ si oculis cerneretur, mirabiles amores (ut ait Plato) excitaret sapientiæ. Tull. Offie.

You see, my son Marcus, virtue as it were embodied, which, if it could be made the object of sight, would (as Plato says) excite in us a wonderful love of wisdom.

made the very body amiable, and banished every kind of deformity from the person in whom it resided.

It is a common observation, that the most abandoned to all sense of goodness, are apt to I wish those who are related to them of a dif ferent character: and it is very observable, that none are more struck with the charms of virtue in the fair-sex than those who by their very admiration of it are carried to a desire of ruining it.

A virtuous mind in a fair body is indeed a fine picture in a good light, and therefore it is no wonder that it makes the beautiful sex all over charms.

I Do not remember to have read any discourse written expressly upon the beauty and loveliness of virtue, without considering it as a As virtue in general is of an amiable and duty, and as the means of making us happy lovely nature, there are some particular kinds both now and hereafter. I design therefore of it which are more so than others, and this speculation as an essay upon that subject, these are such as dispose us to do good to in which I shall consider virtue no farther than mankind. Temperance and abstinence, faith as it is in itself of an amiable nature, after and devotion, are in themselves perhaps as having premised, that I understand by the laudable as any other virtues: but those which word virtue such a general notion as is affixed make a man popular and beloved, are justice,

charity, munificence, and, in short, all the town on the cartoons of the inimitable Raphgood qualities that render us beneficial to each ael. It should methinks be the business of a other. For this reason even an extravagant Spectator to improve the pleasures of sight, man, who has nothing else to recommend him and there cannot be a more immediate way to but a false generosity, is often more beloved it than recommending the study and observaand esteemed than a person of a much more tion of excellent drawings and pictures. When finished character, who is defective in this I first went to view those of Raphael which particular. you have celebrated, I must confess I was but The two great ornaments of virtue, which barely pleased; the next time I liked them show her in the most advantageous views, and better, but at last as I grew better acquainted make her altogether lovely, are cheerfulness with them, I fell deeply in love with them; and good-nature. These generally go toge-like wise speeches, they sunk deep into my ther, as a man cannot be agreeable to others heart: for you know, Mr. Spectator, that a who is not easy within himself. They are man of wit may extremely affect one for the both very requisite in a virtuous mind, to present, but if he has not discretion, his merit keep out melancholy from the many serious soon vanishes away: while a wise man that thoughts it is engaged in, and to hinder its has not so great a stock of wit, shall neverthenatural hatred of vice from souring into seve-less give you a far greater and more lasting rity, and censoriousness. satisfaction. Just so it is in a picture that is

and anatomy, and perfected by a good harmony, a just and natural colouring, and such passions and expressions of the mind as are almost peculiar to Raphael; this is what you may justly style a wise picture, and which seldom fails to strike us dumb, until we can assemble all our faculties to make but a tolerable judgment upon it. Other pictures are

If virtue is of this amiable nature, what can smartly touched, but not well studied; one we think of those who can look upon it with an may call it a witty picture, though the painter eye of hatred and ill-will, or can suffer their in the mean time may be in danger of being aversion for a party to blot out all the merit of called a fool. On the other hand, a picture the person who is engaged in it? A man must that is thoroughly understood in the whole, be excessively stupid, as well as uncharitable, and well performed in the particulars, thatis who believes that there is no virtue but on his begun on the foundation of geometry, carried own side, and that there are not men as honest on by the rules of perspective, architecture, as himself who may differ from him in political principles. Men may oppose one another in some particulars, but ought not to carry their hatred to those qualities which are of so amiable a nature in themselves, and have nothing to do with the points in dispute. Men of virtue, though of different interests. ought to consider themselves as more nearly united with one another, than with the vicious part made for the eyes only, as rattles are made of mankind, who embark with them in the for children's ears; and certainly that picture same civil concerns. We should bear the same that only pleases the eye, without representing love towards a man of honour who is a living some well-chosen part of nature or other, antagonist, which Tully tells us in the fore- does but show what fine colours are to be sold mentioned passage, every one naturally does to an enemy that is dead. In short, we should esteem virtue though in a foe, and abhor vice though in a friend.

at the colour-shop, and mocks the works of the Creator. If the best imitator of nature is not to be esteemed the best painter, but he that makes the greatest show and glare of colours; I speak this with an eye to those cruel it will necessarily follow, that he who can artreatments which men of all sides are apt to ray himself in the most gaudy draperies is give the characters of those who do not agree best drest, and he that can speak loudest the with them. How many persons of undoubt- best orator. Every man when he looks on a ed probity and exemplary virtue, on either picture should examine it according to that side, are blackened and defamed? How ma- share of reason he is master of, or he will be ny men of honour exposed to public obloquy in danger of making a wrong judgment. If and reproach? Those therefore who are either men when they walk abroad would make the instruments or abettors in such infernal more frequent observations on those beauties dealings, ought to be looked upon as persons of nature which every moment present themwho make use of religion to promote their cause, not of their cause to promote religion.

No. 244.] Monday, December 10, 1711.

Judex et Callidus audis.


Hor. Lib.2. Sat. vii. 101.

selves to their view, they would be better judges when they saw her well imitated at home. This would help to correct those errors which most pretenders fall into, who are over hasty in their judgments, and will not stay to let reason come in for a share in the decision. It is for want of this that men mistake in this case, and in common life, a wild extravagant pencil for one that is truly bold and great, an impudent fellow for a man of true courage and bravery hasty and unreasonable actions for enterprises of spirit and resoI CANNOT, without a double injustice, for-lution, gaudy colouring for that which is truly hear expressing to you the satisfaction which beautiful, a false and insinuating discourse for a whole clan of virtuosos have received from simple truth elegantly recommended. those hints which you have lately given the parallel will hold through all the parts of life

A judge of painting you, a connoisseur.


Covent Garden,
Dec. 7.


and painting too; and the virtuosos above-my own inclination. I hope, sir, if you canmentioned will be glad to see you draw it not propose entirely to reform this evil, you with your terms of art. As the shadows in a will take such notice of it in some of your picture represent the serious or melancholy, future speculations, as may put the deserving so the lights do the bright and lively thoughts. part of our sex on their guard against these As there should be but one forcible light in a creatures; and at the same time the apes may picture which should catch the eye and fall be sensible that this sort of mirth is so far on the hero, so there should be but one object from an innocent diversion, that it is the highof our love, even the Author of nature. These est degree that vice which is said to compreand the like reflections, well improved, might hend all others. very much contribute to open the beauty of that art, and prevent young people froni being poisoned by the ill gusto of any extravagant workman that should be imposed upon 'I am, Sir, . Your most humble servant.'


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Though I am a woman, yet I am one of those who confess themselves highly pleased with a speculation you obliged the world with some time ago, from an old Greek poet you call Simonides, in relation to the several na


'I am, Sir, your humble servant,

No. 245.] Tuesday, December 11, 1711.
Ficta voluptatis causâ sint proxima veris.

Hor. Ars. Poet. v. 338.


Fictions, to please, should wear the face of truth. THERE is nothing which one regards so much with an eye of mirth and pity as innocence, when it has in it a dash of folly. the same time that one esteems the virtue, one is tempted to laugh at the simplicity which wholly of the dove, without the least grain of accompanies it. When a man is made up ridiculous in many circumstances of life, and the serpent in his composition, he becomes very often discredits his best actions. The Cerdeliers tell a story of their founder St. Francis, that as he passed the streets in the dusk of the evening, he discovered a young fellow with a maid in a corner; upon which the

tures and distinctions of our own sex. I could not but admire how justly the characters of women in this age fall in with the times of Simonides, there being no one of those sorts I have not at some time or other of my life met with a sample of. But, sir, the subject of this present address are a set of women, comprehended, I think, in the ninth species of that speculation, called the Apes; the description of whom I find to be, "That they are such as are both ugly and ill-natured, who have nothing beautiful themselves, and endeavour to de- good man, say they, lifted up his hands to heatract from, or ridicule every thing that ap: still so much Christian charity in the world. ven with a secret thanksgiving, that there was pears so in others." Now, sir, this sect, as I The innocence of the saint made him mishave been told, is very frequent in the great take the kiss of the lover for a salute of town where you live; but as my circumstance of life obliges me to reside altogether in the charity. I am heartily concerned when I see country, though not many miles from Lon-edge of the world; and if there be any use in a virtuous man without a competent knowldon, I cannot have met with a great number of these my papers, it is this, that without reprethem, nor indeed is it a desirable acquaintance, senting vice under any false alluring notions, as I have lately found by experience. You must know, sir, that at the beginning of this they give my reader an insight into the ways of men, and represent human nature in all its summer a family of these apes came and set- changeable colours. The man who has not tled for the season not far from the place where been engaged in any of the follies of the world, I live. As they were strangers in the country, or, as Shakspeare expresses it, hackneyed in they were visited by the ladies about them, of the ways of men,' may here find a picture of whom I was one, with an humanity usual in its follies and extravagancies. The virtuous those who pass most of their time in solitude. and the innocent may know in speculation The apes lived with us very agreeably our own what they could never arrive at by practice, way until towards the end of the summer, and by this means avoid the snares of the when they began to bethink themselves of re- crafty, the corruptions of the vicious, and the turning to town; then it was, Mr. Spectator,

Their minds

It is with an eye to my following correspondent, Mr. Timothy Doodle, who seems a this short preface, to which I shall subjoin a very well-meaning man, that I have written letter from the said Mr. Doodle.

that they began to set themselves about the reasonings of the prejudiced. proper and distinguishing business of their may be opened without being vitiated. character; and as it is said of evil spirits, that they are apt to carry away a piece of the| house they are about to leave, the apes, without regard to common mercy, civility, or gratitude, though fit to mimic and fall foul on the faces, dress, and behaviour of their innocent neighbours, bestowing abominable censures • I could heartily wish that you would let and disgraceful appellations, commonly called us know your opinion upon several innocer nick-names, on all of them; and in short, like diversions which are in use among us, and true fine ladies, made their honest plainness which are very proper to pass away a winter and sincerity matter of ridicule. I could not night for those who do not care to throw away but acquaint you with these grievances, as well their time at an opera, or at the play-house at the desire of all the parties injured, as from I would gladly know in particular, what no



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