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grows choleric I confine him to his box until | much as to give you the character of Mrs. Jane his wrath is over, by which means I have hith- whom I will not hide under a borrowed name; erto prevented him from doing mischief. His but let you know, that this creature has been, horse is likewise very vicious, for which rea- since I knew her, very handsome (though I will son I am forced to tie him close to his manger not allow her even "she has been" for the with a packthread. The woman is a coquette. future,) and during the time of her bloom and She struts as much as it is possible for a lady beauty, was so great a tyrant to her lovers, of two feet high, and would ruin me in silks, so overvalued herself and underrated all her were not the quantity that goes to a large pin- pretenders, that they have deserted her to cushion sufficient to make her a gown and pet-a man; and she knows no comfort but that ticoat. She told me the other day, that she common one, to all in her condition, the heard the ladies wore coloured hoods, and or-pleasure of interrupting the amours of others. dered me to get her one of the finest blue. It is impossible but you must have seen am forced to comply with her demands whilst several of these volunteers in malice, who she is in her present condition, being very pass their whole time in the most laboriwilling to have more of the same breed. I do ous way of life in getting intelligence, runnot know what she may produce me, but pro- ning from place to place with new whispers, vided it be a show I shall be very well satis without reaping any other benefit but the fied. Such novelties should not, I think, be hopes of making others as unhappy as themconcealed from the British Spectator; for selves. Mrs. Jane happened to be at a place which reason I hope you will excuse this pre-where I, with many others well acquainted sumption in
Your most dutiful, most obedient, .
No. 272.] Friday, January 11, 1711-12.
-Longa est injuria, longæ
Virg. En. i. 345. Great is the injury, and long the talc.
" MR. SPECTATOR,
with my passion for Belinda, passed a Christmas evening. There was among the rest, a young lady, so free in mirth, so amiable in a just reserve that accompanied it; I wrong her to call it a reserve, but there appeared in her a mirth or cheerfulness which was not a forbearance of more immoderate joy, but the natural appearance of all which could flow from a mind possessed of an habit of innocence and purity. I must have utterly forgot Belinda to have taken no notice of one who was growing up to the same womanly virtues which shine to perfection in her, had I not The occasion of this letter is of so great distinguished one who seemed to promise to importance, and the circumstances of it such, the world the same line and conduct with my that I know you will but think it just to faithful and lovely Belinda. When the cominsert it, in preference to all other matters pany broke up, the fine young thing permitted that can present themselves to your consider-me to take care of her home. Mrs Jane ation. I need not, after I have said this, tell saw my particular regard to her, and was inyou that I am in love. The circumstances of formed of my attending her to her father's my passion I shall let you understand as well house. She came early to Belinda the next as a disordered mind will admit. "That cursed morning, and asked her "If Mr. Such-a-one pick-thank, Mrs. Jane!" Alas, I am railing had been with her?" "No." "If Mr. Suchat one to you by her name, as familiarly as if a-one's lady?" "No." "Nor your cousin you were acquainted with her as well as my-Such-a-one ?" "No."-" Lord" says Mrs. Jane self: but I will tell you all, as fast as the alter-"what is the friendship of women?-Nay, nate interruptions of love and anger will give they may well laugh at it.-And did no one me leave. There is the most agreeable young tell you any thing of the behaviour of your woman in the world whom I am passionately lover, Mr. What-d'ye-call, last night? But in love with, and from whom I have for some perhaps it is nothing to you that he is to be space of time received as great marks of favour married to young Mrs. --on Tuesday as were fit for her to give, or me to desire. next?" Belinda was here ready to die with The successful progress of the affair, of all rage and jealousy. Then Mrs. Jane goes on: others the most essential towards a man's hap-"I have a young kinsman who is clerk to a piness, gave a new life and spirit not only to great conveyancer, who shall show you the my behaviour and discourse, but also a certain rough draught of the marriage settlement. The grace to all my actions in the commerce of world says, her father gives him two thousand life, in all things however remote from love. pounds more than he could have with you." You know the predominant passion spreads I went innocently to wait on Belinda as usual, itself through all a man's transactions, and but was not admitted; I writ to her, and my exalts or depresses him according to the na- letter was sent back unopened. Poor Betty, ture of such a passion. But, alas! I have not her maid, who is on my side, has been here yet begun my story, and what is making sen- just now blubbering, and told me the whole tences and observations when a man is plead-matter. She says she did not think I could ing for his life? To begin then. This lady be so base; and that she is now so odious to has corresponded with me under the names of her mistress for having so often spoke well of love, she my Belinda, I her Cleanthes. Though me, that she dare not mention me more. Al I am thus well got into the account of my our hopes are placed in having these circumaffair, I cannot keep in the thread of it so stances fairly represented in the Spectator,
which Betty says she dare not but bring up as heroes. His principal actor is the son of a soon as it is brought in; and has promised when goddess, not to mention the offspring of other you have broke the ice to own this was laid deities, who have likewise a place in his poem, between us, and when I can come to an hear- and the venerable Trojan prince, who was the ing the young lady will support what we say father of so many kings and heroes. There is by her testimony, that I never saw her but that in these several characters of Homer, a certain once in my whole life. Dear sir, do not omit dignity as well as novelty, which adapts them this true relation, nor think it too particular; in a more peculiar manner to the nature of for there are crowds of forlorn coquettes who an heroic poem. Though, at the same time, intermingle themselves with our ladies, and to give them the greater variety, he has decontract familiarities out of malice, and with scribed a Vulcan, that is a buffoon, among his no other design but to blast the hopes of gods, and a Thersites among his mortals. lovers, the expectation of parents, and the benevolence of kindred. I doubt not but I shall be, Sir,
Your most obliged humble servant,
'SIR, Will's Coffee-house, Jan. 10.
Virgil falls infinitely short of Homer in the characters of his poem, both as to their variety and novelty. Æneas is indeed a perfect character; but as for Achates, though he is styled the hero's friend, he does nothing in the whole Mnestheus, Sergestus, and Cloanthus, are all poem which may deserve that title. Gyas, of them men of the same stamp and character: Fortemque Gyan, fortemque Cloanthum.. There are, indeed, several natural incidents
think it proper to take any notice of it until in the part of Ascanius; and that of Dido I had asked your advice.
'Your humble servant,
E. S. The correspondent is desired to say which cheek the offender turned to him.
From the parish-vestry, January 9.
cannot be sufficiently admired. I do not see any thing new or particular in Turnus. Pallas and Evander are remote copies of Hector and Priam, as Lausus and Mezentius are almost parallels to Pallas and Evander. The characters of Nisus and Euryalus are beautiful, but common. We must not forget the parts
of Sinon, Camilla, and some few others, which All ladies who come to church in the new-are fine improvements on the Greek poet. fashioned hoods, are desired to be there before short, there is neither that variety nor noveldivine service begins, lest they divert the at- ty in the persons of the Eneid, which we meet tention of the congregation.
HAVING examined the action of Paradise Lost, let us in the next place consider the This is Aristotle's method of considering, first the fable, and secondly the manners; or, as we generally call them in English, the fable and the characters.
with in those of the Iliad.
If we look into the characters of Milton, we shall find that he has introduced all the variety his fable was capable of receiving. The whole species of mankind was in two persons at the time to which the subject of his poem is confined. We have, however, four distinct characters in these two persons. We see man and woman in the highest innocence and perfection, and in the most abject state of guilt and infirmity. The two last characters are indeed, very common and obvious, but the two first are not only more magnificent, but more new than any characters either in Virgil or Homer, or indeed in the whole circle of nature.
Homer has excelled all the heroic poets that ever wrote in the multitude and variety of his Milton was so sensible of this defect in the characters. Every god that is admitted into his subject of his poem, and of the few characters poem, acts a part which would have been suit- it would afford him, that he has brought into able to no other deity. His princes are as much it two actors of a shadowy and fictitious nature distinguished by their manners, as by their do- in the persons of Sin and Death, by which minions; and even those among them, whose means he has wrought into the body of his characters seem wholly made up of courage, fable a very beautiful and well-invented allediffer from one another as to the particular gory. But notwithstanding the fineness of kinds of courage in which they excel. In short this allegory may atone for it in some measure, there is scarce a speech or action in the Iliad, I cannot think that persons of such a chimewhich the reader may not ascribe to the person who speaks or acts without seeing his name at the head of it.
rical existence are proper actors in an epic poem; because there is not that measure of probability annexed to them, which is requisite in writings of this kind as I shall show more at large hereafter.
Homer does not only outshine all other poets in the variety, but also in the novelty of his characters. He has introduced among his Virgil has indeed admitted Fame as an acGrecian princes a person who had lived thriee tress in thre Eneid, but the part she acts is the age of man, and conversed with Theseus, very short, and none of the most admired cirHercules, Polyphemus, and the first race of cumstances in that divine work.
We find in
moek-heroic poems, particularly in the Dis- of those poems have lost this great advantage, pensary, and the Lutrin, several allegorical among those readers to whom their heroes are persons of this nature, which are very beau- as strangers, or indifferent persons. tiful in those compositions, and may perhaps Milton's poem is admirable in this respect, be used as an argrment, that the authors of since it is impossible for any of its readers, them were of opinion such characters might whatever nation, country, or people he may have a place in an epic work. For my own belong to, not to be related to the persons who part I should be glad the reader would think are the principal actors in it; but what is still so, for the sake of the poem I am now exa- infinitely more to its advantage, the principal mining: and must farther add, that if such actors in this poem are not only our progeempty unsubstantial beings may be ever made use of on this occasion, never were any more nicely imagined, and employed in more proper actions, than those of which I am now speaking.
nitors, but our representatives. We have an actual interest in every thing they do, and no less than our utmost happiness is concerned, and lies at stake in all their behaviour. I shall subjoin as a corollary to the foregoing Another principal actor in this poem is the remark, an admirable observation out of Aris great enemy of mankind. The part of Ulysses totle, which has been very much misrepresented in Homer's Odyssey is very much admired by in the quotations of some modern critics; 'If Aristotle, as perplexing that fable with very a man of perfect and consummate virtue falls agreeable plots and intricacies, not only by into a misfortune, it raises our pity, but not the many adventures in his voyage, and the our terror, because we do not fear that it may subtilty of his behaviour, but by the various be our own case, who do not resemble the sufconcealments and discoveries of his person in fering person. But, as that great philosopher several parts of that poem. But the crafty adds, if we see a man of virtue mixt with inbeing I have now mentioned makes a much firmities, fall into any misfortune, it does not longer voyage than Ulysses, puts in practice only raise our pity but our terror; because many more wiles and stratagems, and hides we are afraid that the like misfortunes may himself under a greater variety of shapes and happen to ourselves, who resemble the characappearances, all of which are severally detected ter of the suffering person.' to the great delight and surprise of the reader. I shall take another opportunity to observe We may likewise observe with how much that a person of an absolute and consummate art the poet has varied several characters of virtue should never be introduced in tragedy, the persons that speak in his infernal assembly. and shall only remarke in this place, that the On the contrary, how has he represented the foregoing observation of Aristotle, though it whole Godhead exerting itself towards man may be true in other occasions, does not hold in its full benevolence under the threefold dis- in this; because in the present case, though tinction of a Creator, a Redeemer, and a Com- the persons who fall into misfortune are of the forter!
most perfect and consummate virtue, it is not Nor must we omit the person of Raphael, to be considered as what may possibly be, but who amidst his tenderness and friendship for what actually is our own case; since we are man, shows such a dignity and condescension embarked with them on the same bottom, and in all his speech and behaviour as are suitable must be partakers of their happiness or misery. to a superior nature. The angels are indeed In this, and some other very few instances, as much diversified in Milton, and distinguished Aristotle's rules for epic poetry (which he had by their proper parts, as the gods are in Homer drawn from his reflections upon Homer) canor Virgil. The reader will find nothing ascribed not be supposed to quadrate exactly with the to Uriel, Gabriel, Michael, or Raphael, which heroic poems which have been made since his is not in a particular manner suitable to their respective characters.*
time; since it is plain his rules would still have been more perfect, could he have perused the Eneid, which was made some hundred years after his death.
There is another circumstance in the principal actors of the Iliad and Æneid, which gives a peculiar beauty to those two poems, and was therefore contrived with very great judgment. I mean the authors having chosen for their heroes, persons who were so nearly related to the people for whom they wrote. Achilles was a Greek, and Eneas the remote founder of Rome. By this means their countrymen (whom they principally propose to themselves for their No. 274.] Monday, January 14, 1711-12.
In my next, I shall go through other parts of Milton's poem; and hope that what I shall there advance, as well as what I have already written, will not only serve as a comment upon Milton, but upon Aristotle.
readers) were particularly attentive to all the parts of their story, and sympathized with their heroes in all their adventures. A Roman could not but rejoice in the escapes, successes, and victories of Æneas, and be grieved at any defeats, misfortunes, or disappointments that befel him; as a Greek must have had the same. regard for Achilles. And it is plain, that each
* The two last sentences are not in the original folio
Andire est operæ pretium, procedere rectè
Hor. Sat. ii. Lib. 1. 37.
All you, who think the city ne'er can thrive
I HAVE upon several occasions (that have occured since I first took into my thoughts the present state of fornication) weighed with myself in behalf of guilty females, the impulses
of flesh and blood, together with the arts and stances when they fell, to the uneasy perplexity gallantries of crafty men; and reflect with under which they lived under senseless and some scorn that most part of what we in our severe parents, to the importunity of poverty, youth think gay and polite, is nothing else but to the violence of a passion in its beginning an habit of indulging a pruriency that way. well grounded, and all other alleviations which It will cost some labour to bring people to so make unhappy women resign the characteristic lively a sense of this, as to recover the manly of their sex, modesty. To do otherwise than modesty in the behaviour of my men readers, this, would be to act like a pedantic Stoic, who and the bashful grace in the faces of my wo- thinks all crimes alike, and not like an imparinen; but in all cases which come into debate, tial Spectator, who looks upon them with all there are certain things previously to be done the circumstances that diminish or enhance before we can have a true light into the sub- the guilt. I am in hopes, if this subject be ject matter: therefore it will, in the first place, well pursued, women will hereafter from their be necessary to consider the impotent wenchers infancy be treated with an eye to their future and industrious hags, who are supplied with, state in the world; and not have their tempers and are constantly supplying, new sacrifices made too untractable from an improper sourto the devil of lust. You are to know then, ness or pride, or to complying from familiarity if you are so happy as not to know it already, or forwardness contracted at their own houses. that the great havock which is made in the After these hints on this subject, I shall end habitations of beauty and innocence, is com- this paper with the following genuine letter; mitted by such as can only lay waste and not and desire all who think they may be concernenjoy the soil. When you observe the presented in future speculations on this subject, to state of vice and virtue, the offenders are such send in what they have to say for themselves as one would think should have no impulse to for some incidents in their lives, in order to what they are pursuing; as in business, you have proper allowances made for their consee sometimes fools pretend to be knaves, so duct. in pleasure, you will find old men set up for wenchers. This latter sort of men are the
word when he will be waited on. This inter
ral women called bawds. In order to this the
Your humble servant.'
" MR. SPECTATOR, Jan. 5, 1711-12. great basis and fund of iniquity in the kind of so great importance, and the thorough The subject of your yesterday's Paper, is we are speaking of; you shall have an old rich man often receive scrawls from the several quarhandling of it may be so very useful to the ters of the town, with descriptions of the new preservation of many an innocent young creawares in their hands, if he will please to send ture, that I think every one is obliged to furnish you with what lights he can to expose the view is contrived, and the innocent is brought pernicious arts and practices of those unnatuto such indecencies as from time to time ban-enclosed is sent to you, which is verbatim the ish shame and raise desire. With these preparatives the hags break their wards by little copy of a letter written by a bawd of figure in and little, until they are brought to lose all this town to a noble lord I have concealed the apprehensions of what shall befall them in the names of both, my intention being not to expossession of younger men. pose the persons but the thing. It is a common 'I am, sir, postscript of an hag to a young fellow whom she invites to a new woman, She has, I assure you, seen none but old Mr. Such-a-one.' It pleases the old fellow that the nymph is 'I having a great esteem for your honour, brought to him unadorned, and from his bounty and a better opinion of you than of any of the she is accommodated with enough to dress her quality, makes me acquaint you of an affair for other lovers. This is the most ordinary that I hope will oblige you to know. I have method of bringing beauty and poverty into the a niece that came to town about a fortnight possession of the town: but the particular cases ago. Her parents being lately dead, she came of kind keepers, skilful pimps, and all others to me, expecting to have found me in so good who drive a separate trade, and are not in the a condition as to set her up in a williner's shop. general society or commerce of sin, will require Her father gave fourscore pound with her for distinct consideration. At the same time that five years: her time is out, and she is not sixwe are thus severe on the abandoned, we are teen: as pretty a black gentlewoman as ever to represent the case of others with that miti- you saw; a little woman, which I know your gation as the circumstances demand. Calling lordship likes; well shaped, and as fine a comnames does no good; to speak worse of any plexion for red and white as ever I saw ; I thing than it deserves, does only take off from doubt not but your lordship will be of the same the credit of the accuser, and has implicitly opinion. She designs to go down about a month the force of an apology in the behalf of the hence, except I can provide for her, which I person accused. We shall, therefore, accord- cannot at present. Her father was one with ing as the circumstances differ, vary our appel- whom all he had died with him, so there is lations of these criminals: those who offend four children left destitute: so if your lordship only against themselves, and are not scandals thinks proper to make an appointment where to society, but out of deference to the sober I shall wait on you with my niece, by a line part of the world, have so much good left in or two, I stay for your answer; for I have no them as to be ashamed, must not be huddled place fitted up since I left my house, fit to in the common word due to the worst of wo-entertain your honour. I told her she should men; but regard is to be had to their circum-go with me to see a gentleman, a very good
friend of mine; so I desire you to take no no- by the scent discovered itself to be right Spatice of my letter, by reason she is ignorant of nish. The several other cells were stored with the ways ofthe town. My lord, I desire if you commodities of the same kind, of which it meet us to come alone; for upon my word would be tedious to give the reader an exact and honour you are the first that I ever men-inventory. tioned her to. So I remain
Most humble servant to command. 'I beg of you to burn it when you've read it.
No. 275.] Tuesday, January 15, 1711-12.
- tribus Anticyris caput insanabile
Hor. Ars Poet. ver. 300.
A head, no hellebore can cure.
There was a large cavity on each side of the head, which I must not omit. That on the right side was filled with fictions, flatteries, and falsehoods, vows, promises, and protestations, that on the left with oaths and imprecations. There issued out a duct from each of these cells, which ran into the root of the tongue. where both joined together, and passed forward in one common duct to the tip of it. We discovered several little roads or canals running from the ear into the brain, and took particular care to trace them out through their I was yesterday engaged in an assembly of several passages. One of them extended itself virtuosos, where one of them produced many to a bundle of sonnets and little musical incurious observations which he had lately made struments. Others ended in several bladders, in the anatomy of a human body. Another of which were filled either with wind or froth. the company communicated to us several won- But the large canal entered into a great cavity derful discoveries which he had also made on of the skull, from whence there went another the same subject, by the help of very fine glass-canal into the tongue. This great cavity was This gave birth to a great variety of un-filled with a kind of spongy substance, which common remarks, and furnished discourse for the French anatomists call galimatias, and the the remaining part of the day. English, nonsense.
The different opinions which were started on this occasion presented to my imagination so many new ideas, that by mixing with those which were already there, they employed my fancy all the last night, and composed a very wild extravagant dream.
The skins of the forehead were extremely tough and thick, and what very much surprised us, had not in them one single bloodvessel that we were able to discover, either with or without our glasses; from whence we concluded, that the party when alive must have been entirely deprived of the faculty of blushing.
I was invited, methought, to the dissection of a beau's head, and a coquette's heart, which were both of them laid on a table before us. The os cribriforme was exceedingly stuffed, An imaginary operator opened the first with a and in some places damaged with snuff. We great deal of nicety, which upon a cursory and could not but take notice in particular of that superficial view, appeared like the head of an- small muscle which is not often discovered in other man; but upon applying our glasses to it, dissections, and draws the nose upwards, when we made a very odd discovery, namely, that it expresses the contempt which the owner of what we looked upon as brains, were not such it has, upon seeing any thing he does not like, in reality, but an heap of strange materials or hearing any thing he does not understand. wound up in that shape and texture, and pack-I need not tell my learned reader, this is that ed together with wonderful art in the several muscle which performs the motion so often cavities of the skull. For, as Homer tells us, mentioned by the Latin poets, when they talk that the blood of the gods is not real blood, but of a man's cocking his nose, or playing the only something like it; so we found that the rhinoceros. brain of the beau was not real brain, but only something like it.
We did not find any thing very remarkable in the eye, saving only, that the musculi amaThe pineal gland which many of our mo-torii, or, as we may translate it into English, dern philosophers suppose to be the seat of the ogling muscles, were very much worn and the soul, smelt very strong of essence and or-decayed with use; whereas, on the contrary, ange flower water, and was encompassed with the elevator, or the muscle which turns the eye a kind of horny substance, cut into a thou- towards heaven, did not appear to have been sand little faces or mirrors, which were imper-used at all. ceptible to the naked eye, insomuch that the soul, if there had been any here, must have been always taken up in, contemplating her own beauties.
I have only mentioned in this dissection such new discoveries as we were able to make, and have not taken any notice of those parts which are to be met with in common heads. As for We observed a large antrum or cavity in the the skull, the face, and indeed the whole outsinciput, that was filled with ribands, lace, and ward shape and figure of the head, we could embroidery, wrought together in a most curi-not discover any difference from what we obous piece of net-work, the parts of which were serve in the heads of other men. We were inlikewise imperceptible to the naked eye. An-formed that the person to whom this head be other of these antrums or cavities was stuffed longed, had passed for a man above five and with invisible billet-doux, love-letters, pricked thirty years; during which time he eat and dances, and other trumpery of the same na-drank like other people. dressed well, talked In another we found a kind of powder, loud, laughed frequently, and on particular which set the whole company a sneezing, and occasions had acquitted himself tolerably at a