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ball or an assembly; to which one of the you paint an impertinent self-love, an artful company added, that a certain knot of ladies glance, an assumed complexion, you say all took him for a wit. He was cut off in the which you ought to suppose they can be posflower of his age by the blow of a paring-sho-sibly guilty of. When you talk with this limivel, having been surprised by an eminent citation, you behave yourself so as that you may tizen, as he was tendering some civilities to his wife.

expect others in conversation may second your raillery; but when you do it in a style which When we had thoroughly examined this head every body else forbears in respect to their with all its apartments, and its several kinds quality, they have an easy remedy in forbearof furniture, we put up the brain, such as it ing to read you, and hearing no môre of their was, into its proper place, and laid it aside un- faults. A man that is now and then guilty of der a broad piece of scarlet cloth, in order to an intemperance is not to be called a drunkbe prepared, and kept in a great repository of ard; but the rule of polite raillery is to speak dissections; our operator telling us that the of a man's faults as if you loved him. Of this preparation would not be so difficult as that of nature is what was said by Cæsar: when one another brain, for that he had observed several of the little pipes and tubes which ran through the brain were already filled with a kind of mercurial substance, which he looked upon to be true quicksilver.

He applied himself in the next place to the coquette's heart, which he likewise laid open with great dexterity. There occurred to us many particularities in this dissection; but being unwilling to burden my reader's memory too much, I shall reserve this subject for the speculation of another day. L.

No. 276.] Wednesday, January 16, 1711-12.
Errori nomen virtus posuisset honestum.

Hor. Sat. iii. Lib. 1. 45.

Misconduct screen'd behind a specious name.



was railing with an uncourtly vehemence and broke out with, "What must we call him who was taken in an intrigue with another man's wife?" Cæsar answered very gravely, “A careless fellow." This was at once a reprimand for speaking of a crime which in those days had not the abhorrence attending it as it ought, as well as an intimation that all intemperate behaviour before superiors loses its aim, by accusing in a method unfit for the audience. A word to the wise All I mean here to say to you is, that the most free person of quality can go no further than bring a kind woman; and you should never say of a man of figure worse than that he knows the world.

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'I am a woman of an unspotted reputation, and know nothing I have ever done which should encourage such insolence; but here was one the other day, and he was dressed like a gentleman too, who took the liberty to name the words " lusty fellow" in my presence. I doubt not but you will resent it in behalf of, Sir, 'Your humble servant, 'CELIA.'


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I HOPE you have philosophy enough to be capable of hearing the mention of your faults. Your papers which regard the fallen part of the fair-sex are, I think, written with an indelicacy which makes them unworthy to be inserted in the writings of a moralist who knows the world. I cannot allow that you are at liberty to observe upon the actions of mankind with the freedom which you seem to resolve upon; least if you do so, you should take along with you the distinction of manners of the world, 'You lately put out a dreadful paper, whereaccording to the quality and way of life of the in you promise a full account of the state of persons concerned. A man of breeding speaks criminal love; and call all the fair who have of every misfortune among ladies, without giv- transgressed in that kind by one very rude ing it the most terrible aspect it can bear: and name which I do not care to repeat: but I dethis tenderness towards them is much more to sire to know of you whether I am or am not be preserved when you speak ofvices. All man- one of those? My case is as follows: I am kind are so far related, that care is to be taken kept by an old bachelor who took me so young, in things to which all are liable, you do not that I know not how he came by me. He is a mention what concerns one in terms which bencher of one ofthe inns of court, a very gay shall disgust another. Thus to tell a rich healthy old man, which is a very lucky thing man of the indigence of a kinsman of his, or for him; who has been, he tells me, a scowerabruptly to inform a virtuous woman of the er, a scamperer, a breaker of windows, and lapse of one who until then was in the same invader of constables, in the days of yore, degree of esteem with herself, is a kind of in- when all dominion ended with the day, and volving each of them in some participation of males and females met helter skelter, and the those disadvantages. It is therefore expected scowerers drove before them all who pretended from every writer, to treat this argument in to keep up order or rule to the interruption of such a manner, as is most proper to entertain love and honour. This is his way of talk, for the sort of readers to whom his discourse is di- he is very gay when he visits me; but as his rected. It is not necessary when you write to former knowledge of the town has alarmed the tea-table, that you should draw vices which him into an invincible jealousy, he keeps me in carry all the horror of shame and contempt: if a pair of slippers, neat bodice, warm petti.

-fas est et ab hoste doceri.

Ovid. Met. Lib. iv. 428 Receive instruction from an enemy.

I PRESUME I need not inform the polite part of my readers, that before our correspondence with France was unhappily interrupted by the war, our ladies had all their fashions from thence; which the miliners took care to furnish them with by means of a jointed baby, that came regularly over once a month, hab ited after the manner of the most eminent toasts in Paris.

I am credibly informed, that even in the hottest time of the war, the sex made several efforts, and raised large contributions towards the importation of this wooden mademoiselle.

coats, and my own hair woven in ringlets, | No 277] Thursday, January 17, 1711-12. after a manner, he says, he remembers. I am not mistress of one farthing of money, but have all necessaries provided for me, under the guard of one who procured for him while he had any desires to gratify. I know nothing of a wench's life, but the reputation of it: I have a natural voice, and a pretty untaught step in dancing. His manner is to bring an old fellow who has been his servant from his youth, and is gray-headed. This man makes on the violin a certain jiggish noise to which I dance, and when that is over I sing to him some loose air that has more wantonness than music in it. You must have seen a strange windowed house near Hyde Park, which is so built that no one can look out of any of the apartments; my rooms are after this manner, and I never see man, woman, or child, but in company with the two persons above-mentionWhether the vessel they sent out was lost ed. He sends me in all the books, pamph- or taken, or whether its cargo was seized on lets, plays, operas, and songs that come out; by the officers of the custom-house as a piece and his utmost delight in me, as a woman, is of contraband goods, I have not yet been to talk over his old amours in my presence, to able to learn; it is however certain, that their play with my neck, say "the time was give first attempts were without success, to the no me a kiss, and bid me be sure to follow the small disappointment of our whole female directions of my guardian (the above-men-world; but as their constancy and applicationed lady), and I shall never want The tion, in a matter of so great importance, can truth of my case is, I suppose, that I was edu- never be sufficiently commended, so I am cated for a purpose he did not know he should glad to find, that in spite of all opposition, be unfit for when I came to years. Now, sir, they have at length carried their point, of what I ask of you as a casuist, is to tell me which I received advice by the two following how far in these circumstances I am innocent, letters: though submissive; he guilty, though impo


'I am. Sir,

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Your constant reader,

To the Man called the Spectator.



'I am so great a lover of whatever is French, that I lately discarded an humble admirer, because he neither spoke that tongue, nor drank claret. I have long bewailed in secret the calamities of my sex during the war. in all which time we have laboured un'Forasmuch as at the birth of thy labour, der the insupportable inventions of English thou didst promise upon thy word, that letting tire-women, who, though they sometimes alone the vanities that do abound, thou copy indifferently well, can never compose wouldest only endeavour to straighten the with that "goût" they do in France. crooked morals of this our Babylon, I gave 'I was almost in despair of ever more seecredit to thy fair speeches, and admitted one ing a model from that dear country, when last of thy papers, every day save Sunday, into Sunday I overheard a lady in the next pew my house, for the edification of my daughter to me whisper another, that at the Seven Tabitha, and to the end that Susanna the wife Stars, in King-Street, Covent-garden, there of my bosom might profit thereby. But, alas! was a mademoiselle completely dressed, just my friend, I find that thou art a liar, and come from Paris. that the truth is not in thee; else why didst 'I was in the utmost impatience during thou in a paper which thou didst lately put the remaining part of the service, and as forth, make mention of those vain coverings soon as ever it was over, having learnt the for the heads of our females, which thou lovest milliner's "addresse," I went directly to her to liken unto tulips, and which are lately house in King-street, but was told that the sprung up among us? Nay, why didst thou French lady was at a person of quality's make mention of them in such a seeming, as in Pall-mall, and would not be back again if thou didst approve the invention, insomuch until very late that night. I was therefore that my daughter Tabitha beginneth to wax obliged to renew my visit very early this wanton, and to lust after these foolish vani- morning, and had then a full view of the dear ties? Surely thou dost see with the eyes of the moppet from head to foot. flesh. Verily therefore, unless thou dost speedily amend, and leave off following thine own imaginations, I will leave off thee. Thy friend, as hereafter thou dost demean




You cannot imagine, worthy sir, how ridiculously I find we have been trussed up during the war, and how infinitely the French dress excels ours.

'The mantua has no lead in the sleeves, and I hope we are not lighter than the French ladies, so as to want that kind of ballast;

the petticoat has no whalebone, but sits with her dress, as I was taking a view of it altoan air altogether gallant and degage: the gether, the shop-maid, who is a pert wench, coiffure is inexpressibly pretty, and in short, told me that mademoiselle had something very the whole dress has a thousand beauties in curious in the tying of her garters; but as I it, which I would not have as yet made too pay a due respect even to a pair of sticks public. when they are under petticoats, I did not 'I thought fit, however, to give you this no- examine into that particular. Upon the whole, tice, that you may not be surprised at my ap-I was well enough pleased with the appearpearing a la mode de Paris on the next birth-ance of this gay lady, and the more so benight. 'I am, Sir,

'Your humble servant,

Within an hour after I had read this letter,
I received another from the owner of the pup-


" SIR,

cause she was not talkative, a quality very rarely to be met with in the rest of her countrywomen.

ther informed me, that with the assistance As I was taking my leave, the milliner farof a watch-maker, who was her neighbour, and the ingenious Mr. Powel, she had also contrived another puppet, which by the help

'On Saturday last, being the 12th instant, of several little springs to be wound up withthere arrived at my house in King-street Co-in it, could move all its limbs, and that she had vent-Garden, a French baby for the year 1712. sent it over to her correspondent in Paris to I have taken the utmost care to have her be taught the various leanings and bendings dressed by the most celebrated tire-women of the head, the risings of the bosom, the and mantua-makers in Paris, and do not find courtesy and recovery, the genteel trip, and that I have any reason to be sorry for the the agreeable jet, as they are now practised expense I have been at in her clothes and im- at the court of France. portation: however, as I know no person She added, that she hoped she might dewho is so good a judge of dress as yourself, pend upon having my encouragement as soon if you please to call at my house in your way as it arrived; but as this was a petition of too to the city, and take a view of her, I promise great importance to be answered extempore, to amend whatever you shall disapprove in I left her without a reply, and made the best your next paper, before I exhibit her as a of my way to Will Honeycomb's lodgings, pattern to the public. without whose advice I never communicate any thing to the public of this nature. X.

'I am, Sir,

'Your most humble admirer,


' and most obedient servant,

'BETTY CROSS-STITCH.' No. 278.] Friday, January 18, 1711-12.


Sermones ego mallem

Repentes per humum

Hor. Ep, 1. Lib. 2. 250.

I rather choose a low and creeping style.



As I am willing to do any thing in reason for the service of my countrywomen, and had much rather prevent faults than find them, I went last night to the house of the abovementioned Mrs. Cross-stich. As soon as I entered, the maid of the shop, who, I suppose, was prepared for my coming, without asking me any questions, introduced me to 'Your having done considerable services the little damsel, and ran away to call her in this great city, by rectifying the disorders of families, and several wives having preThe puppet was dressed in a cherry-colour-ferred your advice and directions to. those of ed gown and petticoat, with a short working their husbands, emboldens me to apply to you apron over it, which discovered her shape to at this time. I am a shopkeeper, and though the most advantage. Her hair was cut and but a young man, I find by experience that divided - very prettily, with several ribands nothing but the utmost diligence both of husstuck up and down in it. The milliner assur-band and wife (among trading people) can ed me, that her complexion was such as was keep affairs in any tolerable order. My wife worn by all the ladies of the best fashion in at the beginning of our establishment showed Paris. Her head was extremely high, on herself very assisting to me in my business as which subject having long since declared my much as could lie in her way, and I have reasentiments, I shall say nothing more to it at son to believe it was with her inclination: but present. I was also offended at a small of late years she has got acquainted with a patch she wore on her breast, which I can-school-man, who values himself for his great not suppose is placed there with any good de-knowledge in the Greek tongue. He entersign. tains her frequently in the shop with discourses

Her necklace was of an immoderate length, of the beauties aud excellencies of that lanbeing tied before in such a manner, that the guage; and repeats to her several passages two ends hung down to her girdle; but whe-out of the Greek poets, wherein he tells her ther these supply the place of kissing-strings there is unspeakable harmony and agreeable in our enemy's country, and whether our sounds that all other languages are wholly unBritish ladies have any occasion for them, I acquainted with. He has so infatuated her shall leave to their serious consideration. with his jargon, that instead of using her for After having observed the particulars of mer diligence in the shop, she now neglects the VOL. I.


affairs of the house, and is wholly taken up with der this difficulty I now labour, not being in her tutor in learning by heart scraps of Greek, the least determined whether I shall be gowhich she vents upon all occasions. She told verned by the vain world, and the frequent me some days ago, that whereas I use some examples I meet with, or hearken to the voice Latin inscriptions in my shop, she advised me of my lover, and the motions I find in my with a great deal of concern to have them heart in favour of him. Sir, your opinion changed into Greek; it being a language less and advice in this affair is the only thing I understood, would be more conformable to know can turn the balance, and which I earthe mystery of my profession; that our good nestly entreat I may receive soon; for until I friend would be assisting to us in this work; have your thoughts upon it, I am engaged not and that a certain faculty of gentlemen would to give my swain a final discharge. find themselves so much obliged to me, that 'Besides the particular obligation you will they would infallibly make my fortune. In lay on me, by giving this subject room in one short, her frequent importunities upon this, of your papers, it is possible it may be of use and other impertinencies of the like nature, to some others of my sex, who will be as gratemake me very uneasy; and if your remon- ful for the favour as, strances have no more effect upon her than mine, I am afraid I shall be obliged to ruin myself to procure her a settlement at Oxford with her tutor, for she is already too mad for Bedlam. Now, sir, you see the danger my family is exposed to, and the likelihood of my wife's becoming both troublesome and useless, unless her reading herself in your paper may make her reflect. She is so very learned that 'You will forgive us professors of music if I cannot pretend by word of mouth to argue we make a second application to you, in order with her. She laughed out at your ending a to promote our design of exhibiting entertainpaper in Greek, and said it was a hint to wo-ments of music in York-buildings. It is indusmen of literature, and very civil not to trans-triously insinuated that our intention is to deslate it to expose them to the vulgar. You see troy operas in general, but we beg of you to how it is with,


'Your humble servant.'



'Your humble servant,


'P. S. To tell you the truth, I am married to him already, but pray say something to justify me.'


insert this plain explanation of ourselves in your paper. Our purpose is only to improve our circumstances, by improving the art which we profess. We see it utterly destroyed at present, and as we were the persons who inIf you have that humanity and compassion troduced operas, we think it a groundless imin your nature that you take such pains to putation that we should set up against the opera make one think you have, you will not deny itself. What we pretend to assert is, that the your advice to a distressed damsel, who in- songs of different authors injudiciously put totends to be determined by your judgment in gether, and a foreign tone and manner which a matter of great importance to her. You are expected in every thing now performed must know then, there is an agreeable young amongst us, has put music itself to a stand; fellow, to whose person, wit and humour, no insomuch that the ears of the people cannot body makes any objection, that pretends to now be entertained with any thing but what have been long in love with me. To this I has an impertinent gayety, without any just must add (whether it proceeds from the vanity spirit, or a languishment of notes, without We hope of my nature, or the seeming sincerity of my any passion or common sense. lover, I will not pretend to say) that I verily those persons of sense and quality who have believe he has a real value for me; which, if done us the honour to subscribe, will not be true, you will allow may justly augment his ashamed of their patronage towards us, and merit with his mistress. In short, I am so sen- not receive impressions that patronising us sible of his good qualities, and what I owe to is being for or against the opera, but truly his passion, that I think I could sooner resolve promoting their own diversions in a to give up my liberty to him than any body just and elegant manner than has been hielse, were there not an objection to be made therto performed. to his fortunes, in regard they do not answer the utmost mine may expect, and are not sufficient to secure me from undergoing the reproachful phrase so commonly used "that she has played the fool." Now though I am one of those few who heartily despise equip- 'There will be no performances in Yorkage, diamonds, and a coxcomb, yet since such buildings until after that of the subscription.' opposite notions from mine prevail in the T. world, even amongst the best, and such as are esteemed the most prudent people, I cannot find in my heart to resolve upon incurring the censure of those wise folks, which I am conscious I shall do, if when I enter into a married state, I discover a thought beyond that of equalling, if not advancing my fortunes. Un-the fable and characters in Milton's Paradise


"We are, Sir, 'Your most humble servants, THOMAS CLAYTON, 'NICOLINO HAYM, 'CHARLES DIEUPART,

No. 279.] Saturday, January 19, 1711-12.
Reddere persona scit convenientia cuique.
Hor. Ars Poet. v. 316.

He knows what best befits each character.

We have already taken a general survey of

Lost. The parts which remain to be consider- and none but a poet of the most unbounded ined, according to Aristotle's method, are the vention, and the most exquisite judgment, sentiments and the language. Before I enter could have filled their conversation and behaupon the first of these, must advertise my viour with so many apt circumstances during reader, that it is my design, as soon as I their state of innocence.

have finished my general reflections on these Nor is it sufficient for an epic poem to be four several heads, to give particular instances filled with such thoughts as are natural, unless out of the poem which is now before us, of it abound also with such as are sublime. Virgil beauties and imperfections which may be ob- in this particular falls short of Homer. He has served under each of them, as also of such not indeed so many thoughts that are low and other particulars as may not properly fall un- vulgar; but at the same time has not so many der any of them. This I thought fit to pre- thoughts that are sublime and noble. The truth mise, that the reader may not judge too has- of it is, Virgil seldom rises into very astonishing tily of this piece of criticism, or look upon it sentiments, where he is not fired by the Iliad. as imperfect, before he has seen the whole ex- He every where charms and pleases us by the tent of it. force of his own genius; but seldom elevates. and transports us where he does not fetch his

The sentiments in an epic poem are the thoughts and behaviour which the author as-hints from Homer. cribes to the persons whom he introduces, and Milton's chief talent, and indeed his distinare just when they are conformable to the guishing excellence, lies in the sublimity of his characters of the several persons. The sen- thoughts. There are others of the moderns

filled with less action. Let the jndicious reader compare what Longinus has observed on several passages in Homer, and he will find parallels for most of them in the Paradise Lost.

timents have likewise a relation to things as who rival him in every other part of poetry; well as persons, and are then perfect when but in the greatness of his sentiments he they are such as are adapted to the subject. triumphs over all the poets both modern and If in either of these cases the poet endeavours ancient, Homer only excepted. It is impossible to argue or explain, to magnify or diminish, for the imagination of man to distend itself with to raise love or hatred, pity or terror, or any greater ideas, than those which he has laid toother passion, we ought to consider whether gether in his first, second, and sixth books. the sentiments he makes use of are proper for The seventh, which describes the creation of those ends. Homer is censured by the critics the world is likewise wonderfully sublime for his defect as to this particular in several though not so apt to stir up emotion in the parts of the Iliad and Odyssey, though at the mind of the reader, nor consequently so persame time those, who have treated this great fect in the epic way of writing, because it is poet with candour, have attributed this defect to the times in which he lived. It was the fault of the age, and not of Homer, if there wants that delicacy in some of his sentiments, which now appears in the works of men of a From what has been said we may infer that much inferior genius. Besides, if there are as there are two kinds of sentiments the natural blemishes in any particular thoughts, there is and the sublime, which are always to be pursued an infinite beauty in the greatest part of them. in an heroic poem, there are also two kinds of In short, if there are many poets who would thoughts which are carefully to be avoided. not have fallen into the meanness of some of The first are such as are affected and unnatural; his sentiments, there are none who could have the second such as are mean and vulgar. As risen up to the greatness of others. Virgil has for the first kind of thoughts, we meet with excelled all others in the propriety of his sen- little or nothing that is like them in Virgil. timents. Milton shines likewise very much in He has none of those trifling points and puerthis particular: nor must we omit one consi-ilities that are so often to be met with in Ovid, deration which adds to his honour and repu- none of the epigrammatic turns of Lucan, tation. Homer and Virgil introduced persons none of those swelling sentiments which are so whose characters are commonly known among frequent in Statius and Claudian, none of those men, and such as are to be met with either in mixed embellishments of Tasso. Every thing history, or in ordinary conversation. Milton's is just and natural. His sentiments show that characters, most of them, lie out of nature, he had a perfect insight into human nature, and were to be formed purely by his own in- and that he knew every thing which was the vention. It shows a greater genius in Shaks-most proper to affect it.

peare to have drawn his Caliban, than his Mr. Dryden has in some places, which I may Hotspur, or Julius Cæsar: the one was to be hereafter take notice of, misrepresented Virsupplied out of his own imagination, whereas gil's way of thinking as to this particular, in the other might have been formed upon tra- the translation he has given us of the Æneid. dition, history, and observation. It was much I do not remember that Homer any where easier therefore for Homer to find proper sen- falls into the faults above-mentioned, which timents for an assembly of Grecian generals, were indeed the false refinements of later ages. than for Milton to diversify his infernal coun- Milton, it must be confessed, has sometimes cil with proper characters, and inspire them erred in this respect, as I shall show more at with a variety of sentiments. The loves of Di- large in another paper; though considering do and Æneas are only copies of what has how all the poets of the age in which he writ passed between other persons. Adam and Eve, were infected with this wrong way of thinking before the fall, are a different species from that he is rather to be admired that he did not give of mankind, who are descended from them; more into it, than that he did sometimes com

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