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of Norwich. In the month of October, the prin- A. C. 1660. cefs dowager of Orange arrived in London; and the king was afterwards, vifited by his mother, accompanied by the princefs Henrietta, and Edward prince palatine, brother to prince Rupert. It was Match beat this juncture, that the queen-mother propofed princefs the match between her daughter Henrietta and the Henrietta duke of Orleans, to which Charles confented with- of Orleans. out hesitation.

tween the

and the duke


The parliament, meeting on the fixth day of November, fent a folemn deputation, to congratulate the queen upon her, happy return; and the commons prefented ten thousand pounds to each of her daughters: then they took measures for enabling ing the king to difband the army, which was gradually reduced Charles referving only a regiment of horse, and another of infantry, as a guard to his perfon. It fettling the king's revenue, the commons abolished the court of wards and liveries, in lieu of which he received one hundred thousand pounds a year, arifing from one half of the excife, established as a fund in perpetuity for that purpose; and the other half of the excife, together with the duty of tonnage and poundage, were granted to the king for his life. This affair being dispatched, the parliament ordered the bodies of Cromwell, Ireton, Bradshaw, and Pride, to be dug out of their graves, and dragged through the ftreets to Tyburn, where they continued hanging a whole day, and then were interred under the gallows. On a vague report of a confpiracy against the life of the king and queen-mother, Defborough, Overton, Morgan, and fome other officers were taken into cuftody; but upon inquiry, the report was found to be without foundation. On the twenty-ninth day of December, the king, going to the house of peers, thanked the two houses for their affection, in the warmest expreffions of gra




A. C. 1660. titude: the chancellor expatiated on the same fubject, and then his majefty diffolved the parliament. diffolves the The earl of Clarendon, in his fpeech, touched upconvention on the militia; faying, he wifhed they had found time to settle it to the mutual fatisfaction of king and people he likewife mentioned a confpiracy for furprising Windfor, Whitehall, and the Tower of London. He affirmed, that many disbanded officers and republicans were concerned in this defign; and that they had planned an infurrection in the Weft, to be headed by general Ludlow. A. C. 1661. In the beginning of January, while the king ac Infurrection companied his mother to Dover, one Venner, a by Venner. defperate enthufiaft, and fifth-monarchy-man, appeared in the streets of London at the head of threescore fanatics completely armed, and proclaimed king Jefus. They flew a man because he declared himself for God and king Charles. They believed themselves invulnerable, made a defperate refistance against a body of the trained-bands fent to disperse them, and retreated to Kane-wood near Hampstead. Being diflodged from thence in the morning by a detachment of foldiers, they returned to London, and took poffeffion of a house, in which they defended themselves against a body of troops, until the majority was killed. The few furvivors were taken, tried, condemned, and executed; and affirmed to the laft, that if they had been deceived, the Lord himself was their deceiver. The king ufed great expedition in diffolving the conventionparliament, because a great number of presbyterians had been returned among the commons, and they were a check on the condefcending temper of the other members. They had granted the fupplies fcantily, and with the appearance of distrust; they were averfe to the king's being vefted with the whole power of the militia; nor would they have tamely fuffered the bishops to resume their feats



feats in parliament. This mad attempt was looked A. C: 1661 upon as a confirmation of the confpiracy; and it furnished the miniftry with a handle to publish a proclamation against all religious conventicles, ordaining that the oaths of allegiance and fupremacy should be exacted from all perfons fufpected of difaffection to the government: fo that the prefbyterians were confounded with the enemies of the ftate, under the general appellation of diffenters.


The king had not been long reftored when he Affairs of converted his attention to the affairs of Scotland. Some members of the council propofed, that the Scots fhould be retained in fubjection by means of a ftanding army and the forts which had been erected from one end of the kingdom to the other. The earl of Lauderdale, who had been taken at the battle of Worcester, and continued a prisoner from that event to the restoration, was now admitted to the council, and ftrenuously opposed this propofition. He obferved that the Scots had been reduced to flavery, in confequence of the efforts they made in behalf of his majefty; and though they were not mentioned in the declaration from Breda, the king could not, without incurring the imputation of ingratitude, allow them to remain in a ftate of mifery and oppreffion. He faid they were fo humbled, that they would comply with any terms of fubmiffion to the crown, provided their independency fhould be restored: that the attachment of the Scots to their native prince was very warm, and would be a great refource against the turbulent fpirit of the English. Charles was fatisfied with thefe arguments. He ordered the troops in Scotland to be difbanded, the forts to be razed, the English judges in that country to discontinue their functions, and a convention of the estates to be affembled. Those who had diftinguished themfelves for their loyalty, were nominated to the great offices

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A. C. 1661. of the state. He appointed the earl of Glencairn, chancellor; the earl of Crawford, treasurer; the earl of Caffils, lord juftice-general; the earl of Lauderdale, fecretary of ftate; and Middleton, now created an earl, was fent down to reprefent his majefty in the office of lord high-commiffioner. At the fame time the council determined to intimidate that nation by fome examples of severity. The marquis of Argyle had made a journey to London, in hope of being admitted to pay his respects to the king in perfon: but he was arrested at Whitehall, committed to the Tower, and afterwards fent down to Scotland to be tried for high treafon. The other victim devoted to death was one Guthry, a four pedantic prefbyterian minifter, who had taken indecent freedoms with the king, while he refided among that people *.


Some prefbyterian minifters finding themselves of divines at confounded with other fectaries whom they abthe Savoy horred, intreated the king to give order for a conference between them and the bishops, that both fides might candidly examine their objections to the English liturgy. Charles complied with their request: one and twenty ecclefiaftics were nominated on each fide, and the conferences were be gun in the house of the bishop of London, who lived in the Savoy. The bishops would not offer fuch an indignity to the church as to make the leaft conceffion to this ftubborn fect; and the prefbyterians exclaimed against the liturgy, and the furplice, as relics of the church of Rome. After obftinate difpute and virulent altercation, they

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The king appointed the earls of Orrery and Montrath, in conjunction with Sir Maurice Euftace, chancellor of Ireland, to govern that kingdom as juftices, until he should have leisure to name a lord lieutenant.

In the courfe of this year, Charles, by his letters patent, eftablished the royal fociety, for the improvement of mechanics, mathematics, and natural philofophy.


parted more than ever irritated against each A. C. 1661 other. On the twenty-third day of April, being. the festival of St. George, the king's coronation was celebrated with extraordinary magnificence.

Zeal and loyalty of

Writs had been iffued for a new parliament to meet on the eighth day of May; and the court the new had influenced the elections fo fuccefsfully, that parliament. the majority of the members returned were strongly attached to the hierarchy and the royal prerogative. The king, in his firft fpeech to both houfes, recommended two bills for confirming the act of indemnity, and made them acquainted with his intention to espouse the infanta of Portugal, a match already concluded, with the advice of his council. Sir Edward Turner, folicitor-general to the duke of York, being chofen fpeaker, the two houses voted that thanks fhould be returned to his majefty, for this inftance of his confidence, in communicating his purposed marriage to his parliament; and that they should go in a body and congratulate him upon that event. Then they ordered, that upon a certain day every member should receive the communion, according to the liturgy of the English church, on pain of being expelled. They afterwards ordained, that the folemn league and covenant, the acts for erecting the high court of juftice to try the late king, for fubfcribing the engagement against a king and house of lords, for declaring England a commonwealth, for renouncing the title of his prefent majefty, and for the fafety of the lord protector, fhould be burned by the hands of the common executioner.

an extraor

The republicans thinking themselves infecure They pafs from the zeal of this parliament, petitioned the dinary act king that the act of indemnity might be confirm-for the preed, and he wrote to the two houfes for this pur-his majesty's pofe, giving them to understand that this fhould perfon and be the first bill he would pafs. They forthwith

fervation of



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