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that side of literature which connects itself with the general political or intellectual movement of the country, and to leave unnoticed the purely literary or scientific qualities of the writers mentioned. This will explain, for instance, the total omission of the name of Roger Bacon, and the brief and, if regarded from a different point of view, the very unsatisfactory treatment of writers like Dickens and Thackeray.

Those of my readers who have complained that no maps were to be found in the book may now be referred to a 'School Atlas of English History,' recently edited by me for Messrs. Longmans & Co. To include an adequate number of maps in this volume would have increased its size beyond all fitting limits.

In the spelling of Indian names I have not adopted the modern and improved system of transliteration. Admirable as it is when used by those who are able to give the right sound to each letter, it only leads to mispronunciation in the mouths of those who are, as most of the readers of this volume will be, entirely in the dark on this point. The old rough method of our fathers at least ensures a fair approximation to the true pronunciation.

My warmest thanks are due to Mr. GEORGE NUTT, of Rugby, and to the Rev. W. HUNT. Mr. NUTT not only looked over the proof-sheets up to the death of Edward I. with excellent results, but gave me most valuable advice as to the general arrangement of the book, founded on his own long experience of scholastic teaching. The Rev. W. HUNT looked over a considerable portion of the remaining proof-sheets, and called my attention to several errors and omissions which had escaped my eye.

The illustrations have been selected by Mr. W. H. ST. JOHN

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HOPE, Assistant-Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries. He wishes to acknowledge much valuable assistance given to him. in the choice of portraits by GEORGE SCHARF, Esq., C.B., F.SA., who is recognised as the highest authority on the subject.

I am indebted to Her Majesty the QUEEN for permission to engrave two of the portraits appearing in the following pages --viz., those of Bishop Fisher, on p. 393, and the Duke of Norfolk, on p. 410-the originals in both cases being at Windsor Castle.

I have to thank Earl SPENCER for permission to engrave the portrait on p. 362; the Earl of ESSEX for that on p. 476; the Earl of WARWICK for that on p. 403; the Earl of CARLISLE for that on p. 459; the Viscount DILLON, F.S.A., for that on p. 376; the Hon Sir SPENCER PONSONBY-FANE, K.C.B., for that on p. 365; Sir JOHN FARNABY LENNARD, Bart., for that on p. 463; Dr. EVANS for those on pp. 2, 4, 6; EDWARD HUTH, Esq., for that on p. 387; Mrs. DENT, of Sudeley, for that on P. 395; H. HUCKS GIBBS, Esq., for that on p. 419; T. A. Hope, Esq., for that on p. 487; E. B. NICHOLSON, Esq., for the portrait of Lord Burghley in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, engraved at p. 479; the authorities of the University of Cambridge for that on p. 477; of Jesus College, Cambridge, for that on p. 414; and of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, for that on p. 567; and the Treasurer of Christ's Hospital, London, for the portrait of Charles II. on p. 579. I have also to thank Mr. JOHN MURRAY for permission to engrave the figures on pp. 130, 150, 160, 166, 177, 188, 260; Messrs. PARKER & Co., Oxford, for those on pp. 19, 51, 75, 91, 107, 128, 170, 192, 197, 230, 245, 246, 247, 253, 409, 451; Mr. W. NIVES for those at pp. 381, 409, 451; Mr. J. G. WALLER for those on pp. 219, 229, 292, 298, 515; Mr. BRUCE for those on pp. 17, 18, 21; Messrs. POULTON & SONS, Lee, for those on pp. 7,

132; Mr. G. A. NICHOLS, Stamford, for those on pp. 311, 316 ; Mr. G. T. CLARKE, for that on p. 74; Messrs. CARL NORMAN & Co., Tunbridge Wells, for that on p. 171; Mr. R. KEENE, Derby, for that on p. 318; the Rev. H. H. HENSON, Vicar of Barking, Essex, for the photograph of the monument of Sir Charles Montague on p. 507; the Science and Art Department for those on pp. 371, 440, 518, 612; Mr. W. H. WHEELER, of Oxford, for those on pp. 319, 384; Messrs. VALENTINE & SONS, Dundee, for those on pp. 109, 206, 213, 238, 244, 276, 355, 378, 485, 662, 666, 668, 683, 907, 919, 937, 942; and Mr

R. KEENE, Derby, for those on pp. 456, 467, 469, 471.

1

PREFACE

132 ; Mr. G. A. Nichols, Stamford, for those on pp. 311, 316;
Mr. G. T. CLARKE, for that on p. 74; Messrs. CARL NORMAN
& Co., Tunbridge Wells, for that on p. 171 ; Mr. R. KEENE
Derby, for that on p. 318; the Rev. H. H. Henson, Vicar of
Barking, Essex, for the photograph of the monument of Si
Charles Montague on p. 507; the Science and Art Department
for those on pp. 371, 440, 518, 612 ; Mr. W. H. WHEELER, of
Oxford, for those on pp. 319, 384; Messrs. VALENTINE &
Sons, Dundee, for those on pp. 109, 206, 213, 238, 244, 276
355, 378, 485, 662, 666, 668, 683, 907, 919, 937, 942; and Mr
R. KEENE, Derby, for those on pp. 456, 467, 469, 471

CONTENTS

PREHISTORIC AND ROMAN BRITAIN

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