The Organic Codes: An Introduction to Semantic Biology

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Cambridge University Press, 2003 - Всего страниц: 301
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The genetic code appeared on Earth with the first cells. The codes of cultural evolution arrived almost four billion years later. These are the only codes that are recognized by modern biology. In this book, however, Marcello Barbieri explains that there are many more organic codes in nature, and their appearance not only took place throughout the history of life but marked the major steps of that history. A code establishes a correspondence between two independent 'worlds', and the codemaker is a third party between those 'worlds'. Therefore the cell can be thought of as a trinity of genotype, phenotype and ribotype. The ancestral ribotypes were the agents which gave rise to the first cells. The book goes on to explain how organic codes and organic memories can be used to shed new light on the problems encountered in cell signalling, epigenesis, embryonic development, and the evolution of language.

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Содержание

The microscope and the cell
9
The cell theory
10
The problem of generation
12
The problem of embryonic development
15
The two versions of the cell theory
17
Mechanism
19
The chemical machine
21
The computer model
24
Evolution of the code
155
The ribotype metaphor
157
Copymakers and codemakers
159
The handicapped replicator
161
Prokaryotes and eukaryotes
163
The potassium world
164
Two forms of life
166
Three primary kingdoms
168

The autopoietic cell
27
The epigenetic cell
29
Theories of evolution
33
Traditional biology
34
Lamarcks contribution
36
Darwins bet
38
Natural selection
40
Organs of extreme perfection
41
Common descent
44
The second mechanism of evolution
49
The Modern Synthesis
51
Molecular evolution
54
The third mechanism of evolution
57
Macroevolution
60
Where is biology going to?
63
A new model for biology
67
Reconstruction from incomplete projections
69
A memorybuilding approach
71
The algebraic method
75
The theoretical limit
79
an iterative algebraic method
80
The memory matrix
82
Density modulation
84
the family of memory algorithms
86
The two general principles of MRM
89
Organic codes and organic memories
93
The organic codes fingerprints
96
The bridge between genes and organisms
99
The splicing codes
101
The signal transduction codes
105
Contextual information
111
Determination and cell memory
112
The other face of pattern
114
Hints from developing neurons
117
The key structures of embryonic development
119
The origin of life
121
The primitive Earth
122
Chemical evolution
127
Postchemical evolution
129
The metabolism paradigm
131
The replication paradigm
134
The RNA world
138
Replication catastrophes
140
Eigens paradox
142
The ribotype theory
145
The genetic code
148
The last common ancestor
173
The origins of bacteria
175
The cytoskeleton
178
The compartments
180
Chromosomes
182
The seven kingdoms
185
Three thousand million years
187
The Cambrian explosion
191
The fossil record
192
The experimental data
193
Body plans and phylotypic stages
196
The traditional explanations
201
The Cambrian singularity
202
The stumblingblock
203
The reconstruction model
204
Multicellular structures
206
Biological memories
209
A new model of the Cambrian explosion
210
The conservation of the phylotypic stage
213
Semantic biology
217
The semantic theory of the cell
219
The semantic theory of embryonic development
221
The mind problem
224
The semantic theory of mental development
226
Artifacts and natural selection
228
The semantic theory of evolution
229
About organic codes
234
The language model
236
The Individuality Thesis
237
The development of semantic biology
240
A brief summary
243
The first principle
244
The second principle
245
The third principle
246
The fourth principle
247
The first model
248
The second model
249
The third model
250
The fourth model
251
Conclusion
253
Definitions of life
255
Afterword
265
References
279
Index
295
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Professor Barbieri is based in the Department of Morphology and Embryology at the University of Ferrara, Italy.

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