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on the science of harmony and every branch of composition, and the books of instruction for singers and performers on all instruments, drawn up under the direction of the Conservatory, are in general use, not only in France, but in every other country where music is cultivated.

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THE glee may be considered as peculiar to England. Other countries may afford scattered specimens of this description of music, but it is in this country only that it has engaged the attention of the most distinguished composers. Almost every English musician of eminence has written glees; and men of great genius have devoted themselves exclusively to their production. Hence we are in possession of a body of vocal harmony, which furnishes one of the most elegant and refined of our social recreations.


The word glee, as indicating a particular form of musical composition, appears to have been first used in a work published by Playford, in 1667, consisting of "Dialogues, Glees, Ayres, and Ballads, of two, three, and four voices." Burney defines a glee, in its original sense to be, a song of three or more parts, upon a gay or merry subject, in which all the voices begin and end together, singing the same words:" and he adds,"when subjects of fugue or imitation occur, and the composition is more artificial than simple counterpoint, it less resembles a glee than a madrigal, which it might with more propriety be called, if the words are serious; for a serious glee seems a solecism, and a direct contradiction in terms: the word glee, in Saxon, German, and English dictionaries, ancient and modern.

implying mirth, merriment, and, in old authors, music itself." This definition of the glee, in its oldest form, establishes the distinction between the cheerful glee and the catch. Both are songs in three or more parts, upon gay subjects; but, in the one, the voices begin and end together, while, in the other, they take up their parts in succession, and the words generally receive some quaint or ludicrous meaning from the manner in which they are broken and caught up by the different singers. But Burney overlooks the true distinction between the serious glee and the madrigal. The madrigal was intended to be sung by the whole of a convivial party, or as many as could make any use of the music-books, which were handed round the table; and this, which Morley describes as the original mode of performing madrigals, has been continued to the present time by the Madrigal Society. When pieces were composed, in order to be sung by two, three, or four persons, for the entertainment of the rest of the company, they were called dialogues, catches, and glees, or two, three, or four-part songs. This species of vocal harmony of a single voice to each part, at first chiefly confined to subjects of a lively character, and of a simpler construction and more rhythmical melody than the madrigals, was found by degrees to be adapted to a greater range of subjects, and capable of more elaborate treatment; and hence the apparent anomaly of the serious glee. But a serious glee could not with propriety be called a madrigal. There is this essential distinction between them, that the one is a piece of choral harmony, while the other is for single voices. A madrigal might (though with diminished effect) be

sung by single voices; but a glee could not be sung as a chorus. The apparent solecism in the phrase, “serious glee," is one of a thousand instances of a word coming to receive an acceptation different from its original meaning. Glee, as a musical term, means a piece for three, four, or five single voices, unaccompanied by any instrument, without reference to the subject of the words. As this species of composition was more and more cultivated, the subjects became more various; and we have glees of a pathetic, grand, and (as in the case of Webbe's "When winds breathe soft," and Callcott's "O snatch me swift,") even devotional character. The style of the glee, of course, depends on the subject of the words; but it may be remarked in general, that it is a medium between the style of the church and that of the theatre; the serious glee never being so grave as the anthem, nor the cheerful glee so light as the theatrical chorus or concerted piece. A glee may, without impropriety, be accompanied on the piano-forte, for the sake of facilitating its performance and sustaining the pitch of the voices; but, if the accompaniment is florid, or essential to the harmony or continuity of the music, then the piece is not properly a glee (though sometimes called so) but a vocal trio, quartet, or quintet. We even find, in our operas, concerted pieces accompanied by the orchestra, called glees; but this use of the term is quite erroneous.

Having already noticed the principal composers for the church and the theatre who also cultivated glee writing, it remains to speak of some of the most distinguished of those who have chiefly or exclusively devoted themselves to it.

About the middle, and in the latter part of, the last century, there were a number of glee composers, whose names are preserved by their beautiful and still popular compositions. Among these were ATTERBURY, the author of the charming round, "Sweet enslaver," and the glee, "Lay that sullen garland by thee;" BAILDON, author of "When gay Bacchus," and "Adieu to the village delights;" DANBY, author of "The fairest flowers," "When Sappho tuned," and "Awake, Æolian lyre;" PAXTON, author of "Go, Damon, go," "How sweet, how fresh," and "Breathe soft, ye winds;" and SPOFFORTH, author of "Hail, smiling morn," "Come, bounteous May," "Where are those hours," and "Lightly o'er the village green." To the same period belong the compositions of Dr. HARRINGTON, of Bath, among which the duet, "How sweet in the woodlands," the simple and elegant round, "How great is the pleasure;" the humorous catch, "Old Thomas Day;" and the charming duet, "Sweet doth blush the rosy morning," have always enjoyed the greatest popularity.

The name of DR. BENJAMIN COOKE deserves peculiar notice, not only from his eminence as a musician, but from his interesting character. The date of his birth is not recorded; but he was organist and master of the boys of Westminster Abbey about the year 1780, and died in 1793. The following pleasing particulars respecting this amiable man are taken from Miss Hawkins's Anecdotes, Biographical Sketches, and Memoirs.

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Everything agreeable is connected with the remembrance of Dr. Cooke. He was one of the worthiest

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