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classes are taught to prefer the pleasures of intellect, and even of taste, to the gratification of sense, a great and favourable change takes place in their character and manners. They are no longer driven by mere vacuity of mind to the beer-shop; and a pastime, which opens their minds to the impressions produced by the strains of Handel and Haydn, combined with the inspired poetry of the Scriptures, becomes something infinitely better than the amusement of an idle hour. Sentiments are awakened which make them love their families and their homes; their wages are not squandered in intemperance; and they become happier as well as better."

In every class of society the influence of music is salutary. Intemperance may be rendered more riotous and more vicious by the excitement of loose and profane songs, and music may be an auxiliary to the meretricious blandishments of the stage. But the best gifts of nature and art may be turned to instruments of evil; and music, innocent in itself, is merely abused when it is conjoined with immoral poetry and the allurements of pleasure. "Music," says Burney, "may be applied to licentious poetry; but the poetry then corrupts the music, not the music the poetry. It has often regulated the movements of lascivious dances; but such airs heard, for the first time without the song or dance, could convey no impure ideas to an innocent imagination: so that Montesquieu's assertion is still in force, that Music is the only one of all the arts which does not corrupt the mind.""

APPENDIX.

279

APPENDIX.

THE USE AND ABUSE OF IMITATION IN MUSIC.

[The following observations are extracted from AvISON'S Essay on Musical Expression, a work which is now in few hands. Being founded on the immutable principles of taste, they are applicable to the music of all ages and countries, and have, therefore, lost none of their value and interest by the lapse of nearly a century. The whole work may still be perused with much advantage by the musical student.]

EXPRESSION in music arises from a combination of air and harmony and is no other than a strong and proper application of them to the intended subject.

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From this definition it will plainly appear, that air and harmony are never to be deserted for the sake of expression because expression is founded on them. And if we should attempt anything in defiance of these, it would cease to be musical expression. Still less can the horrid dissonance of cat-calls deserve this appellation, though the expression or imitation be ever so strong and natural.

And, as dissonance and shocking sounds cannot be called musical expression; so neither do I think, can mere imitation of several other things be entitled to

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