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In July, 1763, when Mozart was in his seventh year, the family set out on an extensive journey. After visiting the different German courts, they arrived at Paris, where they remained for several months. The public performances of the children were received with enthusiasm, and Mozart played the organ in the Royal Chapel at Versailles before the court. It was at Paris that he composed and published his first two sonatas. In April, 1764, the family went to London, where they remained for more than a year. The children were received with the same applause as at Paris, both by the court and the public. Some of the most difficult pieces of Sebastian Bach, Handel, and other masters, were placed before Mozart, who perfomed them at sight with the greatest accuracy. On one occasion, in presence of the king, he played a very melodious and beautiful piece from a bass that was put before him. On another occasion, John Christian Bach, music-master to the queen, took the boy on his knees, and played a few bars; Mozart continued, and thus they went on, alternately, through an entire sonata, with such unity of effect, that those who did not see them thought that one person only was playing.

During Mozart's stay in England he was particularly noticed by the Honourable Daines Barrington, who has recorded several remarkable traits of his precocity. In one of his visits to the young musician, Mr. Barrington brought with him a manuscript duet, the words of which were from Metastasio's opera of Demofoonte. The score, beside the two voice parts, (which were in the counter-tenor clef,) contained accompaniments for

two violins and a bass. This score was no sooner placed before Mozart than he began to play the symphony in a masterly manner, and in the precise time intended by the composer. He then began to sing the upper voice part, leaving the other to his father. His voice was thin and infantine, but his style and expression were admirable. The father having made one or two mistakes, was instantly reproved and set right by his son. While he was thus singing his own part and attending to his father's, he was also playing the accompaniment from the instrumental score. When he had finished the piece, he appeared delighted with it, and asked Mr. Barrington if he had brought any more such music. Mr. Barrington then requested him to sing an extempore love-song, after the manner of Manzoli, the celebrated singer, who was then in England, and by whom the boy had been much caressed. He complied instantly, and, looking back archly, began a recitative proper for such a song. He played the symphony, and sang an air, on the single word affetto, which had a first and second part, and was of the ordinary length of an opera song. Mr. Barrington then asked him to give a song of rage, in the style of the serious opera. He immediately began a proper recitative, and, after a symphony, sang an air on the word perfido. Before he got through it, his imagination became so excited, that, in place of playing, he beat the harpsichord, and sometimes started from his chair in the tempest of rage he was describing. After this he played a little sonata that he had composed the day before, in which his execution was wonderful, considering that his little fingers could scarcely reach a sixth on the instrument. He appeared

to have a thorough knowledge of the fundamental rules of composition, as, on Mr. Barrington giving him a melody, he immediately wrote an excellent bass to it. He showed, too, great skill in extemporaneous modulation, making smooth and effective transitions from one key to another; and he executed these musical difficulties, for a considerable time, with a handkerchief over the keys. With all these displays of genius, however, which were such as to make Mr. Barrington doubtful as to his age, his general deportment was that of a child. While he was playing to Mr. Barrington one day, his favourite cat came in, on which he immediately left the harpsichord to play with it, and could not be brought back for some time. He had hardly resumed his performance when he suddenly started off again, and began running about the room with a stick between his legs for a horse.

During his residence in England, he composed six sonatas, which were dedicated to the queen, and published in London. These pieces are preserved among his works; and, though exceedingly simple in construction, they show that "the child was father to the man," as they contain innumerable traits of the same kind of melody and expression which distinguish the productions of his riper years.

After an absence of more than three years, the family returned to Salzburg, in November, 1766; and Mozart, living tranquilly at home, devoted himself with ardour to the study of composition. Emanuel Bach, Hasse, and Handel, were his principal guides, though he by no means neglected the study of the old Italian masters.

In 1768 Mozart performed at Vienna before the emperor Joseph the Second, who ordered him to compose the music of a comic opera, the Finta Semplice. It was approved by Hasse and by Metastasio, but its performance was prevented by a cabal among the singers. At the consecration of the new church of the Orphans, he composed the music of the service, and conducted the performance of it in the presence of the Imperial court, though then but a child of twelve years old.

He returned to pass the year 1769 at Salzburg. In the end of that year his father took him to Italy, where he was received with the enthusiasm which might be expected from a people so much alive to excellence in the fine arts. At Milan he received a commission to compose the opera for the carnival of the following year. At Bologna he found a warm admirer in the celebrated Padre Martini, who was delighted to see a boy of thirteen develop all the subjects of fugue which he himself proposed, and play them with the utmost readiness and precision. At Florence he became acquainted with Thomas Linley, the son of the celebrated composer of The Duenna, and himself afterwards a very distinguished musician. Linley was then a boy of about Mozart's age, and a pupil of Martini. Their friendship became so warm, that when Mozart left Florence, they parted with mutual tears.

When he arrived at Rome, Ganganelli, who then filled the pontifical chair, invited him to the Quirinal palace, where he had the honour of performing privately before his holiness. This was just before Easter. In the course of the conversation, the approaching per

formances in the Sistine chapel were spoken of, particularly the famous Miserere of Allegri. Mozart, with the naïveté of his age, requested a copy from the pope, which he declined giving, explaining, in kind terms, that compliance was out of his power, because the piece was forbidden to be copied under pain of excommunication. The young musician, however, obtained permission to attend the single rehearsal which preceded the public performance. He listened with the most earnest attention; and, on quitting the chapel, hastened home and wrote down the notes. At the public performance he had the manuscript concealed in his hat; and having filled up some omissions, and corrected some errors in the inner parts, he had the satisfaction to know that he possessed the treasure so jealously watched. The next time he was invited to play before the pope, he ventured to mention what he had done, and produced the manuscript. The pope listened with amazement, but said with a smile, "The prohibition cannot extend to the memory, and I think you may escape the penalty of excommunication." This composition, afterwards published from a copy sent as a present from Pope Pius the Sixth to the emperor of Germany, was compared with the manuscript of Mozart, and it was found that there was not the difference of a single note.

From Rome, Mozart went to Naples, where he played in public in so astonishing a manner, that the audience took it into their heads that there was some charm in a brilliant ring which he wore; and he was absolutely obliged to take it off in order to convince them that it had no share in the wonders he was performing. He

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