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enrich the vocal harmony without withdrawing the attention from it. The more independent vocal music is of instrumental accompaniment, the less it will be subject to the mutability of taste and fashion; and this is one cause of the durability of our cathedral music. Its choral harmony, too, is of surpassing grandeur, when performed with sufficient vocal strength; but, unfortunately, this is seldom the case in our cathedrals and churches. The body of vocal sound being too feeble to fill the edifice, the organist endeavours to supply the defect by the loudness of his playing. But two and two do not always make four. By doubling the quantity of vocal sound, the greatness of its effect may be doubled: not so when the added quantity of sound is instrumental. This addition, indeed, frequently subtracts from the effect of the whole; for the listener is painfully employed in straining his ear to separate the tones and words of the choristers from the mass of instrumental sounds in which they are smothered. The choral establishments of the cathedrals are, at present, inadequate to do justice to the grand and solemn music which they have to perform.

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CHAPTER XVI.

COMPOSERS FOR THE ENGLISH STAGE DURING THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. -PEPUSCH.-GALLIARD.-CAREY-LAMPE.-DR. ARNE.MICHAEL ARNE. LINLEY. JACKSON. ARNOLD. DIBDIN. —

SHIELD.-STORACE.

IN taking a view of the composers for the theatre who flourished in England during the last century, the first who presents himself is DR. JOHN CHRISTOPHER PEPUSCH.

This eminent musician was born at Berlin in 1667. His father, a Protestant minister in that city, observing his early propensity, gave him an excellent musical education, by which he profited so much, that, at the age of fourteen he had acquired considerable reputation for learning and skill in the art. He came to England about the year 1700, and resided in this country for the remainder of his life. He was at first engaged at Drurylane theatre, and assisted in preparing for the stage the operas that were performed there; parts of some of which appear to have been composed by him. He devoted himself, however, more to the study of the ancient Greek writers on music, than to the practice of the art; and his inquiries, however unprofitable in other respects, gained him the character of a profound musician, and the honour of a doctor's degree, conferred on him by the university of Oxford, in 1713. In order to prevent the music of the great masters of the preceding

century from falling into oblivion, he formed a plan, in which he was assisted by many of the principal dilettanti of that period, for the establishment of an academy for the performance of ancient vocal and instrumental music; an institution, which, under the name of The Academy of Ancient Music, existed till the year 1792.

About the year 1724, Dr. Berkeley, afterwards bishop of Cloyne, having formed a plan for erecting a college in the Bermuda Islands, engaged Dr. Pepusch as one of the members of the projected establishment. He and his associates embarked for the place of their destination; but the ship was wrecked and the undertaking abandoned. After his return to England, he married the celebrated singer, Margarita de l'Epine, who brought him a fortune of ten thousand pounds; but the possession of affluence did not cause any relaxation in his pursuits. He assisted Gay to select the national airs in The Beggar's Opera, to which he composed basses; and he wrote also an overture to the opera. This profligate production is said to have been intended to ridicule the Italian opera, which was then becoming very fashionable in England; though, if this was its object, it certainly was not accomplished, as there is not the slightest resemblance, in any particular, between The Beggar's Opera and the pieces of the Italian stage, either of that or any other period. It had an unprecedented success, owing partly, no doubt, to its simple and beautiful ballads, but much more to its wit and licentiousness. Its original popularity is not surprising, considering the state of the theatre at that period; but its still continuing to be performed, in defiance of public decency,

says little for the boasted improvement in the morality of the stage.

Dr. Pepusch was an able teacher of the science of music, and was much employed in that capacity. Among his pupils was the earl of Abercorn, who is said to have afterwards published anonymously a Treatise on Harmony, compiled from the written instructions given him by his master. Dr. Pepusch complained of this, as a breach of confidence; but it did not dissolve the friendship between Lord Abercorn and him,—a circumstance which makes it doubtful whether this surreptitious publication was the act of that nobleman. The real author afterwards published an edition of the work much improved and enlarged. It was very valuable at that period; and some parts of it may still be perused with advantage.

His principal compositions are twelve cantatas, in the style of Alessandro Scarlatti, and the other Italian writers of that school. These were very popular when they appeared, but are now forgotten, with the exception of Alexis, which is still performed with applause at our

concerts.

In 1737, Dr. Pepusch obtained the situation of organist to the Charter-house, and spent the rest of his life in the tranquil enjoyment of his favourite studies. He was chosen a member of the Royal Society in 1746; an honour to which his great learning justly entitled him. He died in 1752, at the age of eighty-five.

JOHN ERNEST GALLIARD, a native of Zell, was a favourite composer for the theatres in the beginning of the last century. His music is now forgotten; though

his pretty hunting-song, "With early horn," has been sung within our remembrance.

HENRY CAREY was a poet and a dramatist, as well as a musician, though his musical attainments were limited to a happy vein of melody which enabled him to produce airs, some of which are popular to this day. The pretty ballad of "Sally in our alley" is his, both words and music; and it probably owes its natural simplicity to the circumstance of its being founded on a real incident.

A benefit of Carey's is announced in the Daily Post, of December 3rd, 1730, in terms which give an amusing idea of the manners of the time. After naming the play, which was Greenwich Park, and the additional entertainments of singing, particularly a dialogue of Purcell, by Carey and Miss Rafter, (afterwards the celebrated Mrs. Clive,) and a cantata of Carey's, by Miss Rafter, there is an apology from Carey for "The tragedy of half an act not being performed; but a promise is made of indemnification by the entertainments between the acts. Then there is the following editorial paragraph :-" At our friend Harry Carey's benefit to-night, the powers of music, poetry, and painting, assemble in his behalf,—he being an admirer of the three sister arts: the body of musicians meet in the Haymarket, whence they march in great order, preceded by a magnificent moving organ, in form of a pageant, accompanied by all the kinds of musical instruments ever in use from Tubal Cain to the present day; a great multitude of booksellers, authors, and painters, form themselves into a body at Templebar, whence they march with great decency to Covent

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