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hands of John Lewis Childs, of Floral Park, N. Y., in 1893, who gave it his own On one side it had the same parentage as Nanceianus, but its other parent was Gandavensis, instead of Lemoinei. It is distinguished for the size and substance of the individual flower, for vigour of growth and for general adaptability over a wide territory and in various conditions. The form of the flower is not, however, so refined as in the Lemoinei and Nanceianus classes. "Princeps" is a hybrid originated by Dr. Van Fleet, and offered to the public for the first time in 1903. One of its parents is G. cruentus, a species that although repeatedly experimented with had not been known before to yield a hybrid, and the other parent is a Childsii variety. It is characterized by a healthy, vigourous growth, large blooms of an amaryllis form, and brightness of its colour, being scarlet crimson with a white throat. Garden varieties of this hybrid are being introduced and offered. The Colvillei hybrids, red and white, from which have been derived the varieties "The Bride" and "The Blushing Bride," popular for forcing purposes, and the G. primulinus species from which we may expect pure yellow varieties, are both of recent introduction. The most interesting class-to Canadians at least-of Gladiolus remains to be mentioned. Groff's hybrids. The origin of this class appears to have been as follows: In the eighties Halleck, of Flushing, L. I., Crawford of Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, Burbank of Santa Rosa, Cal., Dr. Van Fleet of the Rural New Yorker Experiment Grounds, and Groff, of Simcoe, Ont., had accumulated moderate sized collections of Hybrid Gladioli, chiefly of the Gandavensis type, Halleck's collection being the largest, and Burbank's having the greatest merit in quality. In the late nineties Mr. Groff acquired from all these other parties their commercial interests in these collections. In the years that have intervened Mr. Groff, who is recognized as the leader in Gladiolus hybridization and culture, has continued to produce new crosses of species and varieties, the result of which is such fine sorts as "Peace," "Evangeline," "Evolution." and "Empire."

The prominent characteristics of each class of the Gladiolus have been mentioned, but each class has defects. Many of the Gandavensis varieties have been so closely inbred that the vigour of the earlier sorts has been much impaired. The Lemoinei varieties are not adapted to so wide a range of territory and conditions as is to be desired, and the hooded form of the petals is undesirable. The Nanceianus varieties are generally lacking in substance of the petals. The Childsii section has some good varieties and has many of indifferent quality. Many of its varieties show a tendency to degenerate quickly. As a class it is exploited by wide advertising and exhibitions. Such varieties, however, as " Alive," "Attraction," "Cardinal," and "Melrose" are worthy of wide dissemination.

The gladiolus lends itself readily to cross breeding. This fact makes the growing of chance and hand-pollenated seedlings an alluring line of horticultural work. There is danger, however of the trade being swamped with new varieties from this source. In this country we have no authoritative control of the exploiting of new varieties. In the United States there is a Gladiolus Society which has taken up in conjunction with the Department of Horticulture of Cornell University, the testing of existing sorts, the weeding out of inferior ones, and eventually the publication of a moderate sized list of the best varieties. The society will, of course, take cognizance of new varieties as they are offered to the public.

What is the ideal gladiolus? Crawford, of Ohio, gives the following as his standard: "The plant should be a strong healthy grower, and if it produces a large number of bulblets so much the better. The spike should be long and straight with many flowers open at one time, properly placed and all facing in one

direction. The flower should be large, beautifully arched, with broad, thick petals. that will not wilt in sun or wind. The colour must be clear, rich and attractive." It would appear that Mr. Groff lays greater emphasis on the qualities of the individual flower than is indicated in Crawford's standard. When the best available of each of the following points has been attained it is submitted that the ideal Gladiolus is not far from being realized, viz.: the size of the flower as a whole; the size, roundness and openness of the petals, the colour, the richness and brilliancy of the colour, the markings, the texture and lasting quality of the petals, the number of flowers on the spike, the graceful connection of the flowers to the spike, the length of the spike, the vigour of the plant, as indicated not only in the growth of stem and foliage but also in its ability to open completely the greater number of its flowers after the spike is cut from the stem; its reproductive powers as shown in the increase of corms, its prepotency as shown in its hybrid offspring, and its adaptability over a wide territory and in various conditions.

The culture of the Gladiolus is of the simplest. Any good garden soil is suitable. In this district they may be planted in the beginning of May, and if a succession of bloom be desired, at intervals of ten days up to the middle of June. The corms, if large, should be covered to a depth of four inches; if small, a covering of three inches is sufficient. If the collection be only a dozen or two they may be planted four to six inches apart in groups of half a dozen in a sunny border. If the collection be a hundred or more, the easiest way is to plant in rows a foot apart and the corms four to six inches apart in the row. No attention is required after planting except to keep the surface of the ground stirred and to supply moisture in the flowering season. The flower spikes are usually cut as soon as the first bloom appears, and placed in water, which should be changed every day. Treated in this way the spike will unfold all its flowerbuds and give a blooming period for each spike of six to eight days. In cutting the spike some foliage should be left on the stem of the plant. The corms should be dug before severe frost, dried somewhat, the old corm and roots cleaned off, and then stored in a frost-proof cellar There are two points in the culture of Gladiolus by amateurs that should be emphasized, viz,: the season of blooming of the variety and the size and age of the corm. In European catalogues buyers are advised of the season of blooming of each variety offered, while in America little attention is given to this important piece of information. "Surprise" and "1900" are two well known varieties that must be planted early in this district to enable them to bloom before frost in an ordinary season. It will be readily understood that these varieties would be disappointing in the northern portions of Ontario, and especially so in the North West Provinces. Amateur buyers generally prefer the largest corms that are available and often these buyers are disappointed at blooming time. It is admitted that definite information on this point is somewhat meagre, but this may be safely advanced, viz., that a corm that is flat or concave on the upper surface, and of large circumference is not a desirable one. If the career of such a corm could be traced it would be found that in the first year it bloomed it was of a conical or at least convex form, that it had been planted for a number of years, that after each year's blooming it had lost a part of its convexity, and that after a short series of years, (it is said that five years is the limit for most sorts) it ceased to give satisfactory bloom. Crawford says on this point. "Other things being equal a bulb (corm) is valuable according to its vertical diameter." The conical form, then, with a horizontal diameter of from three-quarters of an inch and upwards is the form to be preferred in buying


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The diseases that affect the Gladiolus are few, and these have affected its growth and progress so little that up to the present little attention has been given to them. These diseases are soft rot, hard rot, scab, and a fungous disease that affects the petals of bloom lacking in substance. An investigation into the nature and causes of these diseases is now under way at Cornell University, the result of which will doubtless enable the average grower to keep any of these diseases that may appear in check. In the meantime if any grower discovers that he has scabby corms it is a good precaution to soak them for 20 minutes, just before planting, in a solution of formalin, one pint to 30 gallons of water.

The blooms of Gladiolus are admirably adapted for decoration and they are largely so used in the homes, hotels and offices. The florists appreciate their fine qualities and the number of amateurs who do so is growing rapidly. It is worthy of being planted in every garden in town and country.

The public wants large forms, but large flat forms are not desirable, as I endeavoured to show in the paper, but forms with a large horizontal circumference, so long as it has depth, that is in a vertical direction. While I suggest five years as the limit of real usefulness, I cannot state that positively, because I do not know. It is a point I would like others who experiment with Gladiolus to take notice of so that we may have more information on that point and other points in connection with the flower. It is, perhaps, as well to suggest that the old corms should be avoided; plant only the forms that are even.

B. B. WHYTE: As to the question of how long Gladiolus corms will keep, as a rule, people think they will die out. I haven't had any trouble with the corms in my garden getting too big; when they are too large they divide up. Every year I grow I take in 3,000 Gladiolus; these I will grow next year. I am in favour of the young and vigorous plants; it is much easier to grow from the young than the old


W. A. BROWNLEE: Have the new bulbs depth perpendicularly?

JOHN CAVERS: Yes; the proportion is greater the first year than after; these are worth more than any other.

A. GILCHRIST: Mr. Cavers is right. Some varieties we have been growing many long years and they are as good as when they came out first. If you cut all the foliage off you cannot expect the large bulbs to come through. Then you depend on the little bulblets for your stock. That is where most people fail. the Glasgow (Scotland) show last year they had 14, 15 or 16 full sized blooms the equal of which you could not find in this country. The grower not only exhibited himself but sold to other people and he depended on the old corms. I have grown Gladioli for the Toronto market for about 20 years. The trade wants one colour and as many flowers as you can produce of this type. We want one pure colour-pink or scarlet. Take Mrs. Frances King-miscellaneous variety-and it will produce about 15 or 20 blooms to the spike. If you attend to them and cut the spikes short the bulbs will not deteriorate. I had one variety this year producing from large bulbs 12 inches in circumference and 4 inches in diameter. The American varieties don't take up the water so freely, and only open about three flowers at a time. The old type is much superior to any of the new ones. We want a long spike and one decided colour.

Moved by J. LOCKIE WILSON, seconded by W. B. BURGOYNE, "That Mr. R. B. Whyte of Ottawa be elected an Honorary President of this Association." Carried.

THE PRESIDENT: I am sorry to say that Mr. C. C. James, who was on our programme for an address, is not well enough to be present. Mr. James desires

the Association to understand that he has a deep sense of the worth of this organization to the Department of Government of which he is Deputy Minister, and further, he desires to convey to you his sense of the success of the work that is being carried on by the Ontario Horticultural Association.

Moved by B. B. WHYTE, seconded by J. LOCKIE WILSON, "That the four Honorary Directors of this Association be re-elected for the ensuing year." Carried.

THE PRESIDENT: At the meeting of the Directors early in the Convention the duty was placed upon the President of nominating the Committee having to do with incorporation work. I have pleasure in submitting the names of that Committee now: Mr. McCulloch and Major Snelgrove, to be associated with the Secretary, the First Vice-President and the President of the Association.

W. B. BURGOYNE: I had hoped to receive from the jewellers the silver cup which the Toronto Society won in competition at our Exhibition during the last two years, so that it might be presented at this meeting, but, unfortunately, the engraving work is not quite completed.

THE PRESIDENT: Before we disperse, I commend the members of the Ontario Horticultural Association to a growing interest in that service which a kindly Providence has invited us to be sharers in. Our possibilities are very great; let us all endeavour to strive even more for success in that field of work in which our Heavenly Father has graciously permitted us to have a part.

The proceedings of the Sixth Annual Convention of the Ontario Horticultural Association then terminated with the singing of the National Anthem.


The experience gathered in 1910 from the successful Home Gardens conducted in connection with the Bolton Ave., School showed that the scheme was a good one and deserving of being extended. It was decided that in the year 1911 one school be selected from each of the seven wards. Your Committee got started and early in the year had all arrangements completed. Interviews were had with the seedsmen by whom the finest quality of seeds of the varieties selected for competition would be supplied at a charge of two cents per packet, also for fertilizer to be delivered in bulk to each school, when sufficient for 50 square feet could be had to cost one cent.

Through the Chief Inspector our scheme was submitted to the Board of Education and met with their approval. Printed matter explaining our enterprise with instructions for preparing the soil and caring for the plants were sent to each school. The prize list for competition by children in books three and four offered. one silver and one bronze medal to each school for best gardens in children's homes, with twelve first, twelve second and twelve third prizes in cash for best products shown at an Autumn Fair to be held at each school.

There was a degree of enthusiasm in the spring but it fell away for want of stimulating encouragement in the schools. Of the seven participating, only one, Withrow Ave., carried through to a finish, showing at their Fair very creditable results. Some children are away during the holidays, but there are many who are

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