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doing so when it is in the fourth stage, and when it is in the second stage you can do so, and more so when it is in the third stage.

Again, a plant should never be fresh potted when it is in the first and fourth stages, but in the second and third.

Another essential thing is to plan to assist nature, not to make nature subservient to your views; that belongs to the individual who is far advanced in the science. It may be possible that plants know when you are trying to help them along and when you are not, and that may be one of the reasons why some succeed with plants while others do not. There is not the least doubt that all plants have more or less of what we call intelligence, so look at your plant as something living, not as a dead thing. It may not be able to understand what you say to it, but it can feel your touch, and it may be possible for it to tell whether you are a friend or an enemy. There are greater possibilities in nature than we know of at present. I doubt not that plants appreciate kindness as well as animals.

Plants are somewhat like human beings; some drink a good deal, others very little. By a close observation we can tell very nearly their wants in both food and drink. Look at the formation and arrangement of their leaves and roots. Take the hyacinth, for instance. The leaves stand out to catch all the rain which falls down from heaven, and fit close to the stem or bulb to hold all the water it gets. It is a water-loving plant, and will grow in water alone. Take the cabbage as another example. Its leaves stand out to catch all the rain which comes within its reach, but it is open at the stem, so that all the water can get to its roots. It is composed of 95 per cent. of water, yet it will not grow in water. The Oleander, a hard-wooded shrub, whose home is in the marshy parts of the Jordan, and whose leaves stand out, will, in a short time in hot weather, absorb all the water you give it and look out for more, and if a leaf or branch be cut off the sap will fairly run out. Another type is the black Larch or Tamarac, with open and short foliage, to let all the rain down through it; it is partly a swamp plant and a gross feeder, and sends its roots a long distance in search of food; also the Soft Maple, another gross feeder, whose roots oft-times penetrate a longer distance away than its branches are high, and the leaves of which are more openly arranged than the hard maple, is sometimes found growing in rather swampy places, while the hard maple will not grow on wet land, and has its leaves arranged somewhat linke shingles on a house.

The Fuchsia has its leaves formed to catch water, and its roots are naturally long and large for a small plant, showing it a gross feeder, and, if given plenty of both food and drink, and, what is indispensable to all plants, the necessary amount of heat and light, it will soon show you it appreciates your kindness. So, with a little intelligent observation, we can tell pretty nearly their requirements as regards food and drink.

One of the best soils for ordinary window plants is rotten sod broken up with a little rotten manure added to some good garden soil and a leaf mould equal parts, taking care not to go near pine trees for your leaf mould. When repotting slow-growing plants, use one size larger pots, but when potting vigorous growers use two sizes larger. It is better to repot often than to use too large pots, as the soil is apt to become sour before the roots penetrate into it. Always use soft water in preference to hard, as it contains more plant food, and aim to have your water about the same temperature as the room the plants are in. If the temperature has gone down to near freezing at night a good hot drink will do them good. Water as hot as you can bear your hand in will not hurt plants when the soil is cold, and the saucer can be filled with boiling water without injury.

Learn to know the difference in colour of wet soil and dry, and then you can quickly tell when your plants want watering, but if you are inclined to be a little colour blind, but quick to detect sounds, then give the pot a rap with your knuckles; if it gives a dead sound it is wet enough, if a hollow sound it is dry Another way is to lift the pot and tell by its weight. All three ways can be studied by anyone.

When a plant gets partly frozen plunge it into cold water and let it remain quite a while and it will oft-times revive. On very cold nights place a newspaper between your plants and the window and it will keep away a lot of cold. Have a tray made of galvanized iron, the edges turned up about an inch, of the size to fit your window. It serves two purposes, to catch the water which is liable to leak from the pots, and all the plants can be lifted at once, if needed.

Never open a window so as to cause a draught directly on the plants, but give plenty of fresh air through the door, if it is only for a minute or two at a time. Don't be afraid to live in a room where there is a lot of plants, as florists are among the healthiest class in existence to-day, and are also the least addicted to excessive drinking. Therefore, all children should be taught to love and care for flowers. Never place plants in full growth back in the room for any length of time. Plants at rest may be so placed for some time without injury. Some plants like to have plenty of sunlight, so place them in the windows where there is most sunshine; others enjoy partial shade, but all full light. The brighter the colours the more sun and light are needed as a rule.

Some plants make their growth first and bloom afterwards. They are generally winter bloomers. Others make their growth and bloom at the same time. These generally require rest in the winter. Grow a few of both and you will have bloom all the year around.

When the old leaves on a growing plant begin to wither or lose their natural colour, cut them off. Nature has done with and wants to get rid of them, but if the young leaves begin to turn colour there is something wrong at the roots. Turn your plant upside down, take it in one hand and give the pot a rap on the edge of something and it will come off. If a worm is present, take hold of it and pull gently so as not to break a piece of it off. When putting your plants out of doors in summer place a good sized saucer under them, and in hot weather fill the pot with water and the saucer, too; the saucer keeps worms from getting into the pots. When propagating by cuttings, use two-thirds clean sand and place your cuttings close to the edge of the pot, not in the centre. When sowing seeds in pots, sow them in the centre and not near the sides, and water around close to the pot and not on the seed. Keep a piece of glass on the pot to keep the soil from drying out.

Greenfly or Aphis is one of the most common enemies of window plants, and may be prevented by putting tobacco dust on the soil in the pot; this is also food for the plant. A single plant can be fumigated with tobacco smoke by putting a newspaper over it and pasting the edges together so as to make it smoke tight and blowing the smoke in under. Several small plants can be put under an inverted boiler and it be filled with smoke.

Thrip and Red Spider are also enemies of window plants; both are very minute, and found under the leaves. Nail two strips of wood on a table or bench, about three inches apart and projecting about six inches. Turn your plant upside down and put it in between the strips. Have some strong soapsuds and a small piece of sponge and wash the leaves well, finishing off with clean water.

With a little close study and a few minutes of daily care you can keep your windows full of healthy plants, which will be the admiration of all comers. One

thing more I might mention which is essential to success. After ten years of experimenting I find that the results from seeds sown and plants transplanted when the moon is in different signs of the Zodiac are either good or bad, according to the signs, Cancer being the best of all, followed in order by Scorpio, Pisces, Libra, Capricorn and Taurus for good signs, and Leo, Virgo, and Gemini the best for destroying weeds, etc. The Book of Proverbs tells us that there is a time to plant and a time to pluck up that which is planted. It is a science which was, apparently, understood in those days and will be again before this century closes, as I am satisfied it will be taught in our agricultural colleges, as those who have made a thorough trial of it will never go back on it, as the results are so plainly different and account for a good part of the successes and failures which we so often hear and read about.


The Seventh Annual Convention of the American Civic Association was held in Washington, Dec. 13, 14 and 15, 1911, and was one of the most important meetings of the year to the students of civic improvement. Representatives of many cities and organizations affiliated with the Association were present. The Ontario Horticultural Association was represented by its Secretary, Mr. J. Lockie Wilson, of Toronto. Superintendent of Horticultural Societies, and Mr. and Mrs. W. B. Burgoyne, of St. Catharines.

The purpose of the American Civic Association is the cultivation of higher ideals of civic life and beauty, the promotion of city, town, and neighborhood improvement, the preservation and development of landscape, and the advancement of outdoor art.

In the activities thus set out the Association aims specifically to make living conditions clean, healthful, attractive; to extend the making of public parks; to promote the opening of gardens and playgrounds for children, and recreation centres for adults; to abate public nuisances-including objectionable signs, unnecessary poles and wires, unpleasant and wasteful smoking factory chimneys; to make the buildings and surroundings of schools, railway stations and factories attractive; to protect existing trees and to encourage intelligent tree planting; to preserve great scenic wonders from commercial spoliation, and thus, both in civic effort and in relation to national resources, to efficiently promote conservation.

The first session of the recent meeting was devoted to an address of welcome and response thereto. Welcome from the District of Columbia was conveyed by Dr. Wm. Tindall, Secretary of the District Board of Commissioners, in the absence of Hon. C. H. Rudolph, the President, and spoke for all the interests, individual and collective. of the district.

The responses were made by Mr. J. Lockie Wilson, of Toronto, who dwelt upon the work of civic improvement in Ontario, and conveyed the greetings of the Horticultural Association; by Hon. Wm. Dudley Folke, of Richmond, Ind., President of the National Municipal League, who, during the previous summer, visited many cities in Europe, and related his observations of living conditions in those cities, especially of Frankfort, where he had spent several weeks; by Mrs. Rudolph Blankenbury, of Philadelphia, representing the National Federation of Women's Clubs, who spoke of the efficiency of organized women in municipal ad

vancement; by Mr. Irving Kane Pond, of Chicago, Ill., on behalf of the American. Institute of Architects, then holding its sessions in Washington, and which organization had done a distinct service in dignifying the profession of architecture and in urging the æsthetic growth of communities, especially in the erection of public structures that contain qualities of beauty as well as utility, and lastly by Mr. Ernest Thompson Seton, of Connecticut, on behalf of the Boy Scouts of America, of whom he is the chief, and who spoke on the relation of the Boy Scouts to Civic Improvement.

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The afternoon session was given over to a meeting in which delegates were expected to become acquainted with each other, and an illustrated talk on "The Beauty Spots of Oregon," by Mr. Wm. Gladstone Steel.

The evening session of Wednesday was entirely devoted to the subject of the National Parks of the United States. Hon. Walter L. Fisher, Secretary of the Interior in the Administration of President Taft, presided. The needs for a Federal Bureau of National Parks were forcibly presented by the several speakers. Mr. J. Horace McFarland, President of the American Civic Association, in his annual address answered the question: "Are National Parks Worth While?" and urged upon Congress the creation of the National Bureau, calling attention to the fact that President Taft, in his last annual message, impressed upon the House and Senate the importance of such a Bureau. Other speakers on the programme were Hon. Reed Smoot, U.S. Senator for Utah: Mr. Enos A. Mills, of Colorado, and

Mr. H. W. Gleason, of Massachusetts. President Taft honoured the meeting with his presence, and delivered an address in which he presented the need for a Federal Bureau for the proper development of the National Park System of the United States, and expressed the hope that Senator Smoot's bill will become law during the present session of Congress.


Thursday's sessions brought forth many valuable papers and discussions relating to "The Communities we Live In," and embraced addresses on new phases of city planning for large and small communities, with particular reference to the practical or business value to cities of comprehensive planning. Because Washington, the capital city of the United States, is the original type of a planned city in that country, it was selected for an address entitled "Washington, a Model City," by Major William V. Judson, U.S.A., Engineer Commissioner of the District of Columbia. Major Judson declared that Washington was peculiarly a national city, and that municipal progress there was almost of as much importance to other municipalities as to its own people. He pointed out that half the population of the United States is urban, that city planning is growing in importance, and that somewhere a model should be built, in which all municipalities would find a school for city building.

Arnold W. Brunner, of New York, gave an address on the business side of city planning. Mr. Brunner recalled some of the famous streets and centres on the continent, pointing out that with all their beauty they were designed, primarily, to permit the easiest passage of innumerable vehicles and persons. Emphasizing the importance of beauty as an asset of community growth, Mr. Brunner pointed out very clearly the close relation that exists between beauty and utility.


Speaking to the topic "Modern Street Lighting as related to the Communities We Live In," C. L. Eshleman, of Cleveland, Ohio, stated as his hypothesis that "anything which adds to the general attractiveness of the city excites interest in its affairs and fosters public spirit and civic pride," and from this he drew the deduction that "the lighting of the entire business section of a city according to the standards of illumination increases values by increasing the traffic, not only from the city itself, but from the surrounding country and nearby towns. Mr. Eshleman summarized under four headings the reasons why street lighting which is both ornamental and adequate meets with popular favour:

1. "Because of the important part it plays in the movement for the city beautiful-artistic as well as utilitarian;

2. "Because of the advertising value to the city as a whole as an indication. of its prosperous condition and progressive spirit-a well-dressed city, like a welldressed man, commands attention and respect;

3. "Because of the benefit in dollars and cents accruing to the business interests in the lighted district-the value of property on a business street is directly proportionate to the number of people who make use of the street as a thoroughfare light attracts people;

"Because of the increase in property values and the decrease of crime."

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