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have a large mass of uneducated people who do not know or care about these things. I firmly believe that you must begin with the young child; you cannot expect to make much impression on the older ones. The first step in the education of children is the school garden; we shall have a paper on that subject from a gentleman representing one of the best School Gardens on the continent of America, at Jordan Harbour. I would advise every one to bring what influence they can on the School Board of their section to have a School Garden in connection with their schools. The great bulk of schools have ample room for it. I am connected with some School Gardens in the County of Carleton and am perfectly satisfied that they are important adjuncts in the education of children. Some of our Societies do some work with the school children through the teachers. If you can get your teachers interested that is a great thing but, in my experience, it is very difficult to find teachers who are willing to give any attention to it, but that is no reason why that work should not go on if the Societies have a few members who are willing to perform it. It is not a question of expense to a large extent; it is well worth trying. You cannot expect them to learn it all at once; you have got to give it to them line upon line. It would be a splendid thing to issue a little bulletin; the information thus given is never forgotten. Here is a pamphlet issued some years ago on Aster growing. I would strongly recommend publishing your instructions in black and white. One of the drawbacks is that the teachers look upon it as an extra task, so that it is better to have an independent organization apart from the school. There is a Flower Guild at Ottawa and I will tell you something about their work, and the small amount of money it costs. The advantage is that you have your children under more control than when they are part of a large school. In Ottawa they look upon it as a privilege to be a member and you are in a better position to insist upon obedience to the rules and regulations which it is necessary to lay down. The Flower Guild consists of 150 children ranging in ages from 7 to 14, boys and girls; there is a President, Vice-President and Secretary-Treasurer and committee. of 10, 8 of whom are girls. Last year we distributed 6 different kinds of flower seeds through our girl committee; the seeds were put in little envelopes and 150 children got them. They were shown how to plant the different seeds, and then they were handed over to them and they were put upon their honour to do the best they could with them. A Committee of ladies visited the gardens during the summer and prizes were awarded to the best designed and best kept garden grown from the seeds given out. We had an exhibition of these vegetables and flowers at a picnic and the Committee were delighted with the results. There were vegetables, too, beets, carrots, beans and corn, that would have been a credit to any Horticultural Society, altogether grown by these children and the cut flowers were exceedingly beautiful. We consider the fall work as of even more importance. We had a meeting last October in the Y.M.C.A. building, which we got for nothing. A demonstration was given how to pot bulbs. They are potted before the children and the methods of tending explained as briefly as possible. To get the best results you must explain everything clearly and reasons are given for everything we do. We had two meetings of that kind and before the plants were received every member had to sign a bond that in the month of March he or she will produce the plant or bulb, no matter in what condition they may be. Last year some came with bulbs showing poor development. We found out what was the matter and the reason was explained. Those who do not take bulbs are given plants and vice versa. We distributed 100 sets of bulbs and 80 sets of plants. Gardens are visited and also the Experimental Farm, and several trips are made each summer

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to the woods to study wild flowers. We try to show that the organization is something more than a plant growing society, and endeavor to spread a knowledge of the plants-nature study. On these visits the Canadian Pacific Railway gives us free transportation and the Ottawa Electric Railway Co. carry us free to the station; we had the free use of Aylmer Park from the Canadian Pacific Railway and had a very delightful picnic. The children were all eager; a wild flower competition was held and the quantity some of them gathered in half an hour was surprising. Then the flowers were judged, and for the little girls who were too small to take part we held a sewing contest, and had a very pleasant and profitable outing. The total outlay was $40, which covered the buying of plants and bulbs and all expenses; this year it will be a little more, but not exceeding $50. I do not know of any better way in which a Society can spend $40 or $50. Our newspapers in Ottawa treat us well, being willing to print anything we send them. I will conclude by reading our Flower Guild Hymn. It is sung to the tune of "God Save the King."

God bless these seeds we plant,
And to all nature grant

Sunshine and rain;

May they sweet blossoms bear,
May they perfume the air
With fragrance rich and rare,
Praise Thee again.

Lord of the earth and sea,
Bless our own fair city,
Grant us Thy light;

Save us from indolence,
Waste and improvidence,

And in Thine excellence
Guide us aright.

When to Thee hymns we raise,
May children's songs of praise
By Thee be heard;

Help us to work aright,

Shed Thy bright rays of light,
And in earth's darkest night
Save by Thy Word.

W. B. BURGOYNE: I am sure I express the sentiment of this meeting when I say that we are all very pleased with the manner in which our President has performed his duties, and after listening to his able address, so full of new, crisp matter, so full of initiative, so fertile in suggestion, our only regret is that we have not more resources to put into operation the suggestions he has made. Some time ago I had the pleasure of seeing him at his beautiful home in Ottawa, and suggested that he send all our Societies a circular like that issued by the Ottawa Horticultural Society, containing suggestions such as he has given. Half a dozen of these during the season, I am sure, would be fruitful of splendid results. When we have a man like Mr. Whyte for President we should draw on him for all this knowledge. There is not enough of this co-operation among Societies. We get splendid reports of our Annual meetings, but that only comes once a year.

MAJOR H. J. SNELGROVE: As the report of this Convention will not get into the hands of our members till next spring, we should have a bond of union in the way of a circular sent out by our President half a dozen times a year which would keep us in touch with the work we have in hand.


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The Directors are to be congratulated on the excellent programme prepared for your Convention of 1911, which I am sure will be appreciated by the delegates in attendance. The five annual gatherings you have already held have been marked each succeeding year by progress and increasing enthusiasm, and the spirit of Home and Civic Improvement through your combined efforts is rapidly spreading over the Province. Not only are our larger cities awakening in this regard, but even the smaller towns are rising to the occasion and devoting their energies to the improvement of their environment.

While this is true in many instances, the majority have as yet taken no steps. along the line of Civic Improvement and have become accustomed to many an eye sore, which would not be tolerated where civic fathers have received the broader outlook, and the knowledge that money and effort could not be expended that would bring larger financial returns as well as a greater amount of pleasure than by giving a little encouragement to those who endeavor to make their home surroundings more beautiful. Complaint is made that the boys and girls are leaving the smaller towns and villages for the larger cities. There is one way to dam that tide and that is by instilling into the citizens, old and young, a greater civic pride in tree and lawn-lined streets and ivy crested homes and pride in spacious recreation grounds where little children love to play.

In early days the school grounds were usually selected in the roughest piece of land in the districts; this was considered quite good enough for the boys and girls to spend the first years of their scholastic life. The inside furnishings of the buildings were of the crudest sort. Many a time as a boy I sat in the log school house staring at chinked log walls with never a back to a seat. Under these conditions, what encouragement was there for boys and girls to take kindly to these crude surroundings?

But conditions in this regard have rapidly changed in recent years and the day of the school garden is here, and the golden shafts of the sunlight are allowed to stream in through spacious windows. Now window boxes filled with pretty flowers fill the once vacant window spaces and, surrounded by these, little children receive lessons in the beauties of nature and of nature's God.

We in Ontario are behind so-called benighted Russia. There are no schools in that country receiving financial Government assistance, unless they have a large piece of land in which there are a forestry plot, an apiary and a school garden.

In the city of Minneapolis vacant lots have been utilized for garden purposes, and the citizens thereof have learned that things other than tomato cans and weeds can grow on vacant lots, and they have formed what is called a Garden City Club. This Association arranges to plow, harrow and prepare for planting, and also furnishes seeds and plants. They expended last year for this upwards of $1,000. Those who have taken advantage of the work of this Association planted vegetables and flowers on 360 vacant lots, or 2,225,000 square feet, of which 2,000,000 square feet were planted to vegetables alone. The city was divided into six districts, with about sixty gardens to each, and an assistant gardener was furnished by the Minnesota Farm School. Careful instruction in gardening was thus universal and an idea of the extent of the work may be gained from the fact that the club gave away 28,000 cabbage and tomato plants. The nasturtium was adopted as the official flower of the Club, and 28,000 packages of this flower seed were distributed, in

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