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A good spring top dressing is finely ground bone meal and sifted wood ashes in equal parts, distributed over the surface at the rate of a ton to the acre or in other words about as thick as would give an even covering, leaving the lawn a grayish colour. This should be done, if possible, before a rain as the dressing will then be washed down to the roots of the grass without delay.

Nitrate of soda makes a good top dressing at the rate of five hundred pounds to the acre. It is generally thought best to apply this in two or three separate dressings as nitrate of soda is easily soluble in water, and is better applied in a solution at the rate of one pound in forty gallons of water. If this dressing is scattered dry, and rain does not quickly follow the grass is likely to burn.

Grass will respond immediately to this mixture making a vigorous growth and assuming a dark green colour. This top dressing can be used at any time when it is desired to force a quick growth.

It is almost impossible to keep weeds entirely out of any lawn, and dandelions, plantains and dock will be found there. It is no use to pull off the leaves and stems. The only way is to go over the entire surface of the lawn carefully and dig up the roots with a hand tool made for the purpose, which can be readily obtained at most hardware stores at a cost of from ten to fifteen cents.

I have found Italians good at this work, as they seem to have the patience to go over the areas carefully, but you must instruct them and see that they refill with turf and press well down into the small hole caused by the removal of the root, otherwise these little spots will show bare and your lawn will look untidy.

Some use green vitriol to kill the roots but with this method there is always danger of doing damage to the grass roots by the solution spreading in the soil, necessitating reseeding or turfing. The roots can also be killed by a drop or two of gasoline, but would not advise this method. It is better to dig out the rank growing weeds in the fall, rather than in the spring as their removal in the early part of the year gives a chance for crab grass to gain a foothold, especially during the hot weather, and if it does it is almost a hopeless task to get rid of it without going to a great deal of expense and trouble.

Clover is generally considered desirable in a lawn as its low growing foliage leaves the newly cut areas with a fresh green color, and also covers up the bare stems and does not interfere with the growth of the permanent grasses.

Moles occasionally cause considerable trouble tunneling under the sod and spoiling the appearance of the surface. Constant watch should be kept for indications of their presence which will be readily observed by lines of slightly raised turf, and with a mole trap set on the run you will probably catch the unwelcome visitor within a night of two.

A few evergreen shrubs properly placed add to the beauty of a lawn, and a few flower beds carefully located add to the effect.

In making a new lawn any trees with well developed trunks should be retained as far as practicable. If they are below the proposed grade and of moderate size it is better to raise them, doing the work in the winter season when the ball is frozen, having prepared for it in advance.

With large trees, that is, those with trunks more than six inches in diameter the chance of failure is great and it is better to build a stone or brick wall around same about three feet from the tree and to the height of the finished grade thus keeping the earth away from the lower part of the tree and preserving its health.


Road in Hampstead Garden Suburb.

Note the original trees preserved in harmony with the plan.


Houses in Hampstead Garden Suburb, renting from 6s. 6d. to 9s. 6d. per week.

If there are very shaded places in the lawn, a special mixture of seed should be used. The best for this is the wood meadow grass which thrives under trees where other grasses will not grow at all.

On large lawns winding gravel paths and drives are very effective, but where the areas are large enough to make this necessary it would be better to consult some good landscape architect in regard to these various features.


The election of officers resulted as on page 6.

THE PRESIDENT. We will now have the presentation of reports. These were considered yesterday morning, and as they are quite lengthy it was decided that each representative should make a short verbal report covering the chief items of interest in his district. These reports will be edited by the Secretary, and everything of interest will be printed.



The work of Horticultural Societies in District No. 1 has been proceeding satisfactorily during the past year, under most unfavourable circumstances as regards climatic conditions with most of us.

The extremely dry and hot weather made the showing of lawns, flowers and vegetables much below the average. In the case of our own Society, we at one time contemplated giving up our Exhibition, but were rewarded with a very good exhibit considering all circumstances.

The work of the Societies in the Capital City of the Dominion and the progressive town of Perth, under the guidance of your worthy President and VicePresident, needless to say, is progressing along sound lines.

Smith's Falls, as in the case of last year, is doing excellent work, and their Secretary reports a splendid year.

The town grants $150.00 to the Society, and from their report I notice $360.00 were spent in Park Improvements and beautifying same, $167.00 for plants, bulbs and shrubs, $65.00 for the Horticulturist, $117.00 for work on beautifying streets, etc., leaving a small amount for prizes and working expenses.

It is towards work of this nature that our Society in Vankleek Hill eventually aims.

We have this year started in that direction, and given up premiums, devoting our surplus money towards the work of improving the entrance to our Collegiate Institute grounds under the auspices of our Society. This will be continued next year, and though the dropping of premiums affected our membership, we expect next year, now that citizens see that we are really improving the town, and not spending all the money on ourselves, that we will have increased support.

Children were this year interested in our work, seeds being given them free at the schools, and an exhibit made, which was very favorable considering the bad weather.



The Belleville Horticultural Society has increased in membership and has, as in former years, distributed seeds to the school children in the spring with instructions as to growing the plants.

The Society has also taken charge of the flower beds and planted shrubs in the two public parks; filled the window boxes in the several schools (one of them being supplied with plants which were cared for by the children and teacher); furnished and planted a large bed in Victoria Park this month with tulip bulbs; supplied the members with plants and shrubs, and those, who availed themselves of the time offer were given The Canadian Horticulturist.

In the second week in September, The Childrens' Flower Show was held, and every division from the primary class to and including the 4th class were awarded a 1st, 2nd and 3rd prize in tulip bulbs.

Thus the good work has been carried on and whilst we would like to see more interest taken generally by the citizens in the way of civic improvement, we recognize that our work is an educational one in that direction, and must tell in the "long run."

PICTON SOCIETY: Walter T. Ross, Secretary.

The distribution of premiums last spring were two dozen Groff's Modern Gladioli bulbs, and this fall five Hyacinth bulbs and ten Narcissus bulbs to each member, together with a copy of The Canadian Horticulturist for the year.

Four prizes were offered for the best kept lawns during the season of 1911: two clocks, one set pearl-handled carving knives, and one silk umbrella. One clock was given by the Society.

COBOURG SOCIETY: A. B. Roberts, Secretary.

During the spring we allowed each member value to the amount of 75c. from a list of twenty options comprising the latest novelties in flowers, plants, shrubs and fruit trees, and over 80 per cent. of the members availed themselves of this privilege. Again this fall we allowed the members to select bulbs for fall planting to the amount of 35c. from our local seedsman, and this course was fully appreciated by the members. We also sent each member of our Society The Canadian Horticulturist.

In continuance of our work on the cemeteries, a marked improvement has been made this year along this line, and we trust that the coming year will see a still larger improvement.

The Bell Telephone Co. have through our representations, placed their wires underground on, our main street, and we trust that after 1912 no more overhead wires will be seen in Cobourg.

Through the influence of the Horticultural Society and the Council, the unsightly bill-boards on our main streets have been practically removed, but, unfortunately, the Connor-Ruddy Co. have invaded our midst and leased some of the most conspicuous positions on our streets, and at present it appears that we are unable to remedy this nuisance.

We are endeavouring to assist in making the two new railway stations as neat and suitable as possible.

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