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But here is something new under the sun, the current has set in the other direction, and the extension of the "Broadview idea" will mean the swelling of the current from the city countryward.

Evening classes, which are almost exclusively industrial, are held during seven months in the year. Vocational classes would, perhaps, be a better term, for here it is found that boys discover their bent, and decide upon their life vocations. The subjects taught are: Woodwork, both in manual training and wood carving, clay modeling, printing, cooking, freehand and mechanical drawing, show card lettering, typewriting and business correspondence.

The eagerness displayed by the boys in the fall of each year in enrolling in these classes would serve as a striking object lesson to those who are indifferent on the question of industrial education. Last season over three hundred boys, threefourths of our entire membership, were enrolled in these classes. No objection is made to a boy dropping one class and taking up another until he finds what he likes or is adapted to. And the numbers who have been guided to the choice of vocations by these classes is large and constantly increasing.

From the manual training classes have gone out boys who are now engaged in carpentry, pattern-making, cabinet-making, and other lines of woodwork. Boys who were interested in wood-carving are now earning large wages as journeymen carvers, chiefly in piano factories. Graduates from the drawing classes are employed in the art departments of photo-engraving and lithographing concerns. There are very few printing offices in the city in which there are not one or more representatives of the Institute's printing classes.

For the purpose of teaching the boys citizenship, the Institute is organized as a commonwealth, a nation in miniature, in which there are four ProvincesAgriculture, Education, Sport, and Camp-each sending representatives to the Commonwealth Parliament, composed of thirty-six members. The Dominion of Canada has been taken throughout as the model.

The citizens of this Commonwealth are boys from twelve to eighteen years of age of every religion and nationality, and from every grade of society. They live at home and spend their spare time in playing citizen. They organize joint-stock companies, incorporated by Act of Parliament, for trading and carrying on large enterprises. They have their National Bank, with boys under bonds in charge. They have stock brokers and a stock exchange; a standing army and police constables, and inspectors of many kinds. Two printing plants on the premises are now required to publish newspapers and the necessary public documents.

The Government has its Cabinet, with Premier, Ministers of Finance, Justice, Education, Agriculture, Militia, Athletics and Secretary of State. Taxes are levied, supplies voted and expended through the several departments. Courts of justice administer the laws and inflict penalties. On rare occasions boys have been brought before a Commonwealth court who were not citizens-that is, not members of the Institute. On one occasion, when an outside boy was summoned for stealing, the boy's mother refused to allow him to come. But when given her choice of the boy's court or the regular police court, she chose the former and came with her boy, although strongly protesting and declaring his innocence. A boyjudge presided, the accused pleaded "not guilty," but evidence was given so clear and convincing that the plea was soon changed to "guilty," restitution was made, and the offender further punished by a sentence of two hours' hard labor. At the conclusion of the trial the mother called at the Superintendent's office and expressed her entire approval of the way justice had been administered. When asked if the boy would do the two hours, she replied: "He certainly will, if I have to stand over him with a stick." And he did.




In discussing this subject, which does not convey as well as it might what I wish to cover, I want to explain, as briefly as possible, the present regulations concerning the sale of seed in Canada and the amendments to the Seed Control Act now before Parliament, and to point out the means which farmers might take to protect themselves against the danger of being supplied with seed contaminated with weed seeds or of low vitality.


The Seed Control Act does three things. It provides that seed grain containing noxious weed seeds must be labelled wtih the names of the weeds therein. It fixes a standard for No. 1 clover and grass seeds, and very dirty seed has to be sent to the cleaning plant or out of the country. In framing the Act it was taken as a basis principle that the law should not try to compel farmers to sow clean seed unless they want to, only in so far as the sowing of large quantities of weed seeds is held to be a public nuisance, but that it should offer them the means of protection against sowing weed seeds unknowingly. Section 6, therefore, which deals principally with cereals, does not prohibit the sale of seed grain contaminated with weed seeds, but requires that all grain sold as seed containing seeds of any of the fourteen weeds named in that section of the Act shall be labelled with the names of the weed seeds contained therein. This surely is not a hardship to the seedsmen as it does not prevent them from selling anything at all; but it makes them provide the purchasing public with information as to the impurities contained in grain sold for seed. This has been found quite effective in checking the trade in dirty seed grain, as seedsmen find that farmers will not buy grain for seed if they know it contains weed seeds. However, there are some dealers, whom we would not dignify by calling seedsmen, who try to fool the public and evade the law by selling what they call recleaned grain, being careful not to represent it as seed. Of course if a farmer wants to buy feed grain and sow it, the law cannot prevent him doing so, but he has to take the consequences. The remedy for this is in the farmers' hands. They should make clear that it is seed grain that they want and make the dealer deliver it subject to the provisions of the Act, or, better still, grow their own seed grain and be sure of it.

Since the Act has been in force, the margin of tolerance allowed within the meaning of the word "free" in this section has been one seed of the weeds named in Section 6 per pound of cereals, and one per 1,500 of good seed for smaller seeds. When seed packages are not labelled, it is, therefore, a practical guarantee that the seeds of the weeds named in Section 6 are not present in greater proportion than is shown on the chart.


For these smaller seeds there is a different classification. Two distinct grades are made and a limit is set on the quantity of weed seeds that may be sold. Apparently, many farmers and seedsmen do not realize the difference between No. 1 and the lower grades of seeds or there would be a greater effort to secure the No. 1

article. Section 7 names nine more weeds, the seeds of which are commonly found in small seeds, and states that no timothy, alsike or red clover seed shall be rated No 1, or otherwise represented as first quality, unless it is free from the seeds of the weeds named in this section and the one preceding. In addition to this, No. 1 must contain out of every hundred seeds not less than 99 of the kinds represented, or seeds of other useful or harmless grasses and clovers, and must germinate not less than 90 per cent. The margin of tolerance allowed within the meaning of


Ontario Corn Growers' Exhibit-Canadian National.

"free," as used in Section 7 in defining No. 1 seed, is one weed seed per 1,500 of the good seeds, as in Section 6.

Section 8 defines the maximum weed seed contamination that is allowed in timothy, alsike and red clover that may be sold for seed in Canada, which is placed at five of the weed seeds named in the Act per thousand of the good seed. This is the prohibitive line to which some seed vendors have given the name "Government standard," and in some cases have tried to make that name pass as a representation of high quality. How misleading this is will be shown below.


We have, therefore, two distinct standards for these seeds, and it is of vital importance that farmers and retail seedsmen get these firmly fixed in their minds, so that they may purchase and sell seeds more intelligently. The chart will illustrate these standards more clearly.


Weed seeds named in Section 6 allowed before labelling is required

Cereals, 1 per pound.

Small seeds, 1 to 1,500 of good seed.


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In the first place, you will notice that No. 1 seed must contain not more than one of the weed seeds named in the Act per 1,500 of the good seeds, while in the lower grades there may be five per thousand, or seven and a half times as many. What this means is brought out more clearly when we bring it to the number of weed seeds per pound. Roughly speaking, there are 82,000 seeds of timothy in an ounce, 43,000 alsike and 18,000 red clover. One weed seed per 1,500 of timothy means approximately 880 per pound, while five per thousand means 6,560 per pound. On the same basis, No. 1 alsike must not contain more than 480 weed seeds per pound, while the second grade may have as many as 3,392 per pound. No. 1 red clover must not have more than 192 weed seeds per pound, while the second grade may contain 1,172 before it is prohibited for sale.

On the basis of percentage purity, No. 1 seed may be 99.935 per cent. pure and still contain the maximum number of weed seeds, while the lower grade may be 99.5 per cent. pure and still contain the maximum number of weed seeds. This illustrates clearly how misleading a percentage purity statement may be, and little value should be attached to it unless you have with it a statement of the nature of the impurities.

But a standard of purity, so far as the weeds named in the Act are concerned, seven and a half times as high for No. 1 as for the lower grade seed is only one point where the No. 1 standard is much higher. There are two others of almost equal importance. As stated before, in No. 1 seed at least 99 out of every hundred seeds must be of the kind represented or of some other useful or harmless grass or clover. This means that the seeds of such weeds as foxtail, pigweed, sheep sorrel or black medick, which are not considered noxious enough to be named in the Act, must not be present in greater proportion than one per cent. The possible contamination per pound by noxious weed seeds other than those named in the Act, under No. 1 standard, is represented on the chart. On the other hand, in the lower

grades there is no limit to the impurities of this nature that may be present. In our inspection work we have found cases where clover has been adulterated with black medick to the extent of fifty per cent or more, and sheep sorrel, foxtail and other weeds of this nature may be present in any proportion. There is nothing in the Act to hinder seedsmen from selling such seed so long as it is not represented as No. 1 quality.


While on this point I may explain the meaning of the stars on the chart placed before the alfalfa and the 64 per cent. germination. The amendment now before Parliament provides for the classification of alfalfa the same as now given for timothy, alsike and red clover. The figures for alfalfa indicate the number of weed

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seeds allowed in the different grades. As will be explained more fully later, a minimum percentage germination is provided in the amendment for the different classes of seeds. The lowest germination that will be allowed for timothy and red clover is 64 per cent., but up to the present there have been no restrictions so far as second rate seed is concerned.

How To GET No. 1 SEED.

From what has been said, you will readily see that there is a wide difference between No. 1 and the second quality. In fact, second rate seed may be so badly contaminated with noxious weed seeds that it is dangerous to sow it on reasonably clean land. It is therefore essential that farmers wishing to sow clean seed should purchase guaranteed No. 1 goods and use every precaution to see that the guarantee is carried out. This is comparatively simple if you go about it in the right way. Do not go to your local dealer, who may or may not know good seed when he sees it, and ask for clover seed and take whatever he may give you. Go to him early in the season and place your order for guaranteed No. 1 seed. To make sfire that the seed delivered is up to the standard, take a sample of each lot and

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