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stock-raising counties. The general condition of sheep was never more favorably described. Lambs, also are coming 'good and strong,' to use a favorite phrase of those reporting. The dog is again being vigorously denounced as a menace to the sheep industry. Reports concerning swine are not so unanimous as those relating to other classes of live stock, but taken altogether they may be considered as encouraging. While most of the animals are reported as healthy and promising, there has been considerable mortality among spring litters, and complaints have come from different districts of what is variously described as rheumatism, partial paralysis, or crippling of some of the growing animals."

"Pasture conditions have been very much alike all over the Province," said the August bulletin. "Fields were rendered very dry by the drouth of July, until recent rains more or less revived them. Horses look well, while cattle are reported to be rather on the lean side; but all classes of live stock are remarkably free from disease. In most dairy sections the milk flow has fallen off considerably for the time of year, owing to the bare pastures of the latter part of July. Reports regarding the prospects of winter keep are on the whole hopeful. Hay will be light, especially in Western Ontario, and straw is shorter than usual; but the opinion is general that corn and other roughage will enable good feeders to bring their stock nicely through the winter."

November reports were to the following effect: "Fall pastures were short after the long drouth earlier in the season, but most of the live stock were still on the grass as correspondents reported, and by their general condition looked as if they were able to get the usual picking off the fields. Horses are in demand at good prices. Cattle are rather thin, but healthy; in fact, no returns make mention of any serious disease existing among any class of farm animals. Beefing cattle are much scarcer than usual, and some correspondents assert that the tendency just now is more toward milk producing. Sheep are reported to be in excellent condition, but are not plentiful. Shipments of swine have been more or less steady all the season through, and there was a large supply on hand at the beginning of November; but some correspondents insist that the high price of feed and the comparatively low price of pork will cause a number of brood sows to be marketed. Silos are increasing in number all over the Province."

STATISTICS. The following table gives the total numbers and value of the several classes of live stock and poultry on hand July 1st, 1911, together with live stock sold or slaughtered, in the year preceding that date:

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The values for the several classes of poultry on hand July 1st, 1911, were as follows:--Turkeys, $607,348; geese, $349,778; ducks, $191,355; other fowl, $4,756,837.

VALUE PER HEAD. The following table gives the average value per head of live stock and poultry, for 1910 and 1911, and at five year intervals.

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DAIRYING. The November bulletin said: "With cheese commanding factory rates which at one time in the season went well over 14 cents a pound, good prices for all dairy products were assured. But as a marked shrinkage in the milk supply was the main cause of these high prices, some correspondents claim that dairy profits will be but little, if any, ahead of other years. Cheese factories and creameries have to contend more than formerly with the increasing demand for milk and cream for the growing towns and cities of the Province. The Holstein cow is now fairly in the lead as the favorite for the dairy, although the Shorthorn, the Ayrshire and the Jersey have their champions."

FODDER SUPPLIES. Spring conditions were thus described in the May bulletin: "Complaints of lack of fodder are fewer than for many years, notwithstanding the fact that cattle had to be fed later in the spring than usual. The general condition of supplies may be summed up in the language of a correspondent: 'Plenty, but none to spare'; although, of course, a few improvident farmers may have felt the pinch before the grass was ready for their stock. There is considerable hay, oats, and wheat ready for marketing should rising prices make the call worth responding to, but unless market values are very tempting most Ontario farmers now prefer to feed these products to live stock. There were good supplies of coarse fodders, such as corn silage, straw and roots, which enabled careful feeders to husband their more valuable supplies. In short, spring prospects so far as the loft, the bin, and the manger are concerned have not been so satisfactory for many a year."

November reports were to the following effect: "A majority of correspondents report a scarcity of fodder supplies, and several point out that but for corn and the silo conditions would have been serious for winter feeding. The greatest stringency will be felt in the western half of the Province, and in some of the Lake Ontario counties; but in the St. Lawrence and Ottawa, the East Midland and the northern districts a majority of the returns report a sufficiency or a surplus of hay and other fodder. Hay ranges in price fro $10 to $19, according to the manner and place of purchase. Some correspondents complain of the high price of mill feeds, bran costing from $22 to $24, and shorts $24 to $26 a ton, with relative prices for other concentrates. In order to ease the situation a number of farmers are letting some of their stockers go, and less hogs are likely to be carried. Economy will also have to be used in bedding, as straw is scarce and valuable. To sum up: While the fodder situation is not calling for alarm, it demands the exercise of much caution and thrift."

POULTRY. Poultry conditions were thus summarized in the November bulletin: "More attention than ever before is being given to poultry raising on the farm, and an improvement in their general quality is reported. Prices for both fowl and eggs have been good; but while some correspondents claim a snug gain on poultry transactions, others figure out a clear loss when the high price of feed is taken into consideration. There was an unusual scarcity of green feed this summer on account of the drouth. While more hens, geese and ducks are reported, and all these classes of fowl are as a rule in excellent condition, several correspondents refer to turkeys as being very hard to raise, and predict a scarcity."

FARM LABOR AND WAGES.

The farm labor problem appears to be as far as ever from a satisfactory solution. The May bulletin had the following to say upon the question: "Correspondents are unanimous regarding the scarcity of good farm hands. It is pointed out that on account of the lack of suitable help not only have many contemplated improvements to be left undone, but much necessary work also has to be neglected, and in this way agricultural progress is greatly hindered. The quality of the immigrant labor is usually not up to the mark, and it is too often found that most of the more expert new comers soon join the army of young Ontarians who are swelling the population of the Canadian West. The use of larger implements requiring three or four horses is the chief relief from the shortage of men. Domestic servants in rural sections are almost impossible to get at any wages."

The August bulletin said: "A majority of the returns are to the effect that farm labor has been scarce during the summer, more especially in the case of experienced men. The short stand of grain, however, rendered the work of harvesting much lighter than usual. Improved machinery and interchange of work by neighbors also helped many farmers to do without hired assistance. Wages keep up in rate, ranging from $1.25 to $2 a day-usually $1.50-and from $20 to $40 a month, with board."

The following is a summary of the November reports: "Experienced farm hands are hard to get, many having been attracted to the Canadian West. A few correspondents report an improvement in the quality of some of the more recent old country arrivals, who have come from rural surroundings, but the prejudice against trying out British city bred youths on Ontario farms appears to be as strong as ever. Correspondents consider the present rate of farm wages to be too high, but do not expect a fall, owing to the close competition for labor of the towns and cities, and of lumbering, mining,, public works, etc. To meet the situation many of the farmers are putting more of their land into pastures. using more improved machinery, exchanging labor with neighbors, and as one correspondent puts it, "cutting out" as much work as possible. The employment of more married men is suggested by several correspondents. Domestic servants for the farm are most impossible to get; town life seems to have a more irresistible appeal than ever."

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TEMPERATURES OF 1911.

TABLE I.-Showing for each month the highest, lowest, mean highest, mean lowest, and mean temperature at the principal stations in Ontario for 1911; also the annual mean for each station.

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31.6

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