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before attempting to handle the injured man. If he is in contact with two wires. this can be done by throwing a metal bar or wet cloth across the two wires. If he is in contact with one wire, a short circuit may be established by connecting a piece of wire or metal with the earth and dropping it against the wire.

Where it is necessary to cut a live wire with improvised means, an axe with a dry wooden handle may be used, providing that in all cases the feet are properly insulated from contact with the earth. Where the contact is by one limb lying across the wire, this may be quickly removed by use of a dry board or wooden pole. The treatment usually followed in cases of emergency after being freed from contact with the current, is to lay the injured person flat on his back in some place where there is plenty of air, loosen all clothes about the neck and chest, and observe carefully if he is breathing. If so, encourage respiration by ordinary means such as fanning, slapping the chest with towels wrung out of cold water, passing ammonia back and forth beneath his nose, and preventing the tongue from dropping back into the throat or acting as a valve over the windpipe. If the patient is not breathing at all, then start artificial respiration without delay. Two, or at most three persons can do this with advantage by placing a coat or blanket in the form of a roll under the shoulders and chest so that the head drops back a little. Let one take a position at the head while the other two take positions on either side of the patient; it would be the duty of the one at the head to see that there is no obstruction to the free passage of air through mouth or throat. The person at the sides should each grasp an arm firmly with both arms, carrying same together to the floor, and again to a position well above the head, drawing at the same time firmly up on the shoulders so as to visibly expand the chest. Hold in this position an instant and then repeat the movement, and at each effort the chest should be compressed to expel the air and prepare the patient for the next inspiration. The frequency of these movements may be gauged by natural breathing.

Where an accident is attended only by a cessation of respiration, prompt observance of the above treatment is known to be very effective, and in most cases results in recovery.

Burns caused by electricity may be successfully treated in the same manner as burns from any other cause. It should be borne in mind however, that the treatment of burns, broken bones or other injuries should always be deferred until the respiration is satisfactorily restored.

The foregoing are but a few of the features incidental to the installation and operation of an electric plant, and as previously stated, my purpose in directing attention to this feature of our industrial conditions rests largely on the results of recent investigations, which have shown the great lack of knowledge displayed by the majority of persons subject to the dangers ever present through the operation or recourse to these forces.

In many cases even the owners and management treat the danger lightly and look upon it with indifference. This may be easily understood on the ground that its dangers are concealed, even to the expert the dangers are not visible.

If these dangers were in the form of a ghastly machine with revolving knives, or a large saw with its lance-like teeth or a boiling cauldron, it would require no argument to convince the owner of its danger. Employees would possibly shrink from such dangers or at least exercise special care in approaching or operating such devices, but there is no visible warning in the deadly effects ever present in systems operated by electric forces.

These forces being rapidly developed throughout this Province as a motive power for factories, I trust these few references will remind owners and operators of the necessity for greater care in the installation and operation of same.

A list of accidents is herein appended.

All of which I have the honor to submit.

Most respectfully yours,

JAMES T. BURKE,

Chief Inspector of Factories.

REPORT OF INSPECTOR HENRY A. CLARK

SIR, I have the honor to submit a report of the inspection of Factories and Shops in the district assigned to me during the year 1911.

I am pleased to report that during the year many new factories have been built with the most improved machinery, while many others have extended their plants during the year to meet the increasing demand for the out-put, which called for watchfulness on the part of the Factory Inspectors.

CANNING FACTORIES.

There was a shortage in some kinds of fruits and vegetables for canning purposes this season, and some factories have not run as steadily or as long as other seasons, but I was pleased to note the changes that have been made in the last year or two for the better handling of the fruits. I have had two new factories put up in my district this year which are an improvement on some of the other canning factories as stated on former occasions. The legislation pertaining to the canning factories in our Factory Laws is so limited that a Factory Inspector has no power in many features of public interest.

EVAPORATION FACTORIES.

From a sanitary standpoint I am not prepared to speak so favorably of most of them, but I have some very fine plants in my district, and hope to have the poor ones up to the standard soon.

OVERTIME PERMITS.

During the year I have had many applications for overtime permits to work female employees until nine o'clock in the evening. I take the liberty of saying here that I am not in sympathy with the present system of overtime permits, as I think overtime work is a losing proposition to both employers and employees, the seasons in which overtime is worked vary with the industries, and undoubtedly is a hardship on young girls. The prohibition of overtime is the only remedy that would do away with it, and a stated number of hours a week for girls (as in the state of Michigan) would have better results where the law permits females in stores, factories, and offices to work only fifty-four hours a week, and no overtime permits are allowed.

CHILD LABOUR.

I do not know that I have anything to add to what I have written in past reports. I am pleased to state that very few cases of child labor have come to my notice during the past year, but the Inspector has to be on the lookout, and I hope to see the day when child labor will be a thing of the past.

FIRE ESCAPES.

Careful attention has been given by me to the fire escapes on factories where the internal egress was not safe or sufficient to meet the demand in cases of emergency. Good fire escapes have been provided in accordance with the specifications as passed in 1909. I think better results would be brought about if all buildings were brought under the Factory Inspector, as towns and cities do not look after this important matter as they should, and I think it would be the means of better results. Every building in which many, or few, are employed should have at least two main stairways and doors opposite sides.. When we reflect on the awful spectacle of devouring flames sweeping wholesale to destruction the imprisoned inmates of the shop, factory, hotel or school, we can not avoid the conclusion that the law on fire escapes cannot be too vigorously enforced, yet we hear so often the cry of expense.

MACHINERY.

The proper guarding of machinery is the question that is always with us, there are a few branches of engineering or industrial work where experience is of greater value than in equipping the machinery in a factory with safe guards. The variety of sources of factory accidents makes it a very hard matter to tell where trouble is likely to occur, and many dangerous conditions in well organized plants are only brought to light and guarded after an unexpected accident, so it is the unusual causes for accidents that must be watched for, and for which guards must be provided "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure" is a policy of providing an adequate guard to prevent the repetition of any accident which occurs in the factory no matter how unusual, and is being followed by many of the progressive manufacturing companies. It is a plan which all managers may well adopt. In providing safeguards for machinery there are two points of primary importance: first, the guard must be positive in its action, and as nearly, if you will allow me, fool-proof as it can be made, so that it will be impossible for the operator of the machine or those who come in its vicinity to be injured; secondly, it must be designed in such a way as to interfere as little as possible with the operation and output of the machine. It has been found that the employees of many factories are averse to the installation of guards on the machines which they use, owing to their belief that such a step makes their work more difficult. In such cases it is necessary for the management to educate the employees up to the point where they appreciate the fact that the guards are put on for their benefit, at the same time using strict discipline to maintain the maximum efficiency of all safety measures. Intelligent men are not slow to appreciate the value of safeguards and it is usually an easy matter to secure their hearty co-operation in work of this kind after the first prejudice against a new system has been cleared away.

LAUNDRIES.

The employees of the laundries in my district are very good excepting, some of the Chinese laundries. I have inspected all Chinese laundries in my district, and have had a number of these cleaned up, so I am getting them in good shape.

INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION.

I had the pleasure of being one of the representatives of our Province, our Chief Inspector being the other, to the Twenty-fourth Annual International Convention of Factory Inspectors, held in Chicago and Lincoln, Neb. Some very able and instructive papers were read, dealing with many phases of factory life by those who have had long experience with those problems and from these as Inspectors we were able to learn a great many new things, and bring back home some valuable ideas, and I am sure it is a great benefit to meet and exchange views on our work.

ELEVATORS.

The most important feature of the inspection of elevators is the protection of hatchways and cables. The automatic limit stop is sometimes loose, and when needed in case of a controlling cable breaking, is not effective. All elevators should have a slack cable device so as to stop the machine in case the car gets beyond control. Freight elevators should have a grip lock of the controlling cable to enable the person loading or unloading car at any floor to lock the cable so that the car cannot be operated at any other floor until he is through. I often found the gates propped or nailed up and left in that position until a visit from the Inspector, when the usual excuse is in order "No one guilty."

POLISHING ROOMS.

The great trouble in this line, seems to be the installation of the exhaust fan system. Very few are put in properly, a great many are done by guess work, and some inexperienced party is called into install the same. He may not have the slightest knowledge of handling air. They are put up with as many elbows and turns a possible, and the main cause of objection or criticism is largely due to improper construction. The success of the fan depends upon proper speed and construction and the right proportion to the work allotted to it and the correct system of piping and hoods. In regard to hoods no two places seem to have them alike. I am of the opinion that better results could be obtained if parties who are about to install an exhaust fan would consult the Inspector before doing so.

CONCLUSION.

I am confident that the manufacturers and laboring classes of this district appreciates the good work done in their behalf by your Department, and will be ever willing and ready to co-operate with you in the promulgation of any further legisla tive acts that will tend to the betterment of industrial conditions generally throughout the Province.

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REPORT OF INSPECTOR ARTHUR W. HOLMES.

SIR, I have the honor of submitting to you a report of the inspection of factories and shops in the district assigned me for the year 1911.

I am pleased to report that it has been a year of prosperity, manufacturing plants are all busy and prospects are good for a continuation.

In making a report of this kind from year to year a certain amount of repetition is unavoidable, as the Inspector has to deal with much the same conditions year after year. However, I am pleased to report that the changes made are all for progress. No one has recognized the benefit of improved conditions quicker than the average employer of labor. From a financial standpoint alone it pays to have the very best improvements known. It is discouraging to the Inspector at times, and very annoying to the employer, after installing new lavatories to find them choked up and the walls defaced by obscene writing; and while it may be only one or two in a factory who are guilty of these practices it reflects on the whole staff. The same may be said of guards provided for machines or dangerous places. We often find them not in use. Various excuses are offered: that they cannot work with one or that they have run a machine for a number of years and never had an accident. In several States laws have been enacted whereby the worker who removes a guard from a machine and neglects to replace it incurrs a penalty for doing so.

SANITATION.

A very necessary requirement to every mercantile and manufacturing estab lishment is a sufficient number of closets for the use of the occupants. The Factory Act prescribes the number-one for every twenty-five people and it is surprising the number of new building erected that are short of this accommodation. It is not a pleasant duty to have to inform a factory owner who has just finished a new building that he has to instal more closets. It means a general ripping up of the place and a great deal of extra expense which could have been avoided by the architect had he made himself familiar with the Act. I have had a few cases of this come under my notice during the year. It is a disgrace to a city like Toronto to have such a large number of pit or outside closets as exists at the present time. I know of one place where about fifty people use a large pit closet almost in the centre of the city, where sewers exist, and a plentiful supply of water is to be had. No excuse is valid for such a condition of affairs. We frequently find the location of closets in the worst possible place, in a dead corner of the building, where it is impossible to secure fresh air or dispose of the foul, without some artificial means. What is therefore required is a little intelligent judgment when installing a lavatory plant so that an abundance of light and pure air may be obtained.

CHILD LABOR.

I have had very few violations of this regulation come under my notice this year. In speaking with a member of the clergy on this subject who seemed to be deeply interested in it, I informed him that so far as I knew the Act was being fairly well lived up to, but if at any time he heard or knew of any factory where children under fourteen were employed I would be pleased to have him accompany me to the place. A few weeks later the reverend gentleman called me up by phone to say that he

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