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" doubted not but that the King's fpeech, like the "Orations of fchines, had left in their minds a "fting; and as an Hiftorian faid of Nerva, that having adopted Trajan, he was immediately "taken away, ne poft divinum et immortale fallum, aliquid mortale faceret, fo he could not dare, "after his Majefties divinum et immortale di&um, "mortale aliquid addere.
"This is not inferted," adds the acute and neglected Hiftorian, " to fhew the pregnancy and genius of the man, but the temper of the times, "wherein men made themselves lefs than men, by making Kings little lefs than Gods. In this "the Spanish bravery is much to be admired, and "the French do not much come short of them, who do not idolize their Kings with Sacred, Sovereign, Immortal and oraculous expreffions, " but in their humbleft petitions give him the title Sir, tell him their business, and demand justice " of him. But where these adulations are ad"mitted, though it doth not strike fuddenly into "fome incurable disease, yet the fame hand can "make them confume, and in the end waste to "nothing."
JAMES HOWELL, Esq.
THIS learned writer took up his pen very early in the difputes between Charles and his Parlia
ment. He wrote several pamphlets on the fide of the King. In one of them, called " The "Land of Ire," he has this obfervation:
Touching the originals of Government and Ruling Power, queftionless the first amongst "mankind was that natural power of the father "over his children, and that defpotical superin"tendance of a master of a house over his family. "But the world multiplying to fuch a mass of people, they found that a confused equality and " a loose unbridled way of living like brute ani"mals to be fo inconvenient, that they chose one person to protect and govern, not fo much out " of love to that perfon, as for their own conveniency and advantage, that they might live "more regularly, and be fecured from rapine and oppreffion; as also, that justice might be ad
ministered, and every one enjoy his own without "fear and danger. Such Governors had a power "invested in them accordingly; alfo to appoint "fubfervient able Minifters under them, to help "to bear the burden."
Mr. Howell, in his "Italian Profpective," thus defcribes the fituation of England during the time of the Republic:
"The King's fubjects," fays he, "are now "become perfect flaves; they have fooled them"felves into a worfe flavery than Jew or Greek "under the Ottomans, for they know the bot
tom of their fervitude by paying fo many "Sultaneffes for every head, but here in Eng"land people are now put to endless unknown tyrannical taxes, befides plundering and accise, "which two words, and the practice of them, (with ftorming of towns,) they have learnt of "their pure brethren of Holland. And for plunderings, thefe Parliamenteer Saints think they <f may rob any that adheres to them as lawfully
as the Jews did the Ægyptians! 'Tis an unfom"mable maffe of money these Reformers have <'s fquandered in a few years, whereof they have " often promis'd, and folemnly voted, a public "account to fatisfie the kingdom; but as in a
hundred things more, fo in this precious pár"ticular they have difpenfed with their votes: they have confum'd more treasure with pretence to purge one kingdom, than might have "ferved to have purchafed two; more (as I am credibly told) than all the Kings of England fpent of the public ftock fince the Saxon Con
queft. Thus they have not only* beggared "the whole Ifland, but they have hurl'd it into "the most fearful chaos of confufion that ever
• A poor woman being afked by one of the Puritanical Leaders, if she did not think the Government of her country much better by the fyftem of reform made by his party? her answer was, that she only perceived one effect from it, which was, that she paid double taxes.
"poor country was in. They have torn to pieces the reins of all Government, trampled "upon all Laws of Heaven and of Earth, and "violated the very dictates of Nature, by forcing "mothers to betray their fons, and the fons "their fathers; but especially that Great Charter, "which is the Pandect of all the laws and liber"ties of the free-born fubject, which at their ad"miffion into the Houfe of Parliament they are
folemnly fworn to maintain, is torn to fritters: " befides thefe feveral oaths they forged themselves, "as the Proteftation and the Covenant, where they voluntarily fwear to maintain the King's "honour and rights, together with the establish'd "laws of the land. Now I am told, that all Acts
of Parliament in England are Laws, and they "carry that majefty with them, that no power can suspend or repeal them but the fame power that "made them, which is the King fitting in full "Parliament; but thefe mongrel Politicians have "been fo notorioufly impudent as to make an in"ferior Ordonance of their's to do it, which is "point-blank against the fundamentals of the Go"vernment of England and their own oaths; which "makes me think that there never was such a pack of perjured wretches upon earth, such "monsters of mankind."
Howell seems to have been fo weary of the oppreffion caused by the Republican Government
of England, that though a Royalift, and a strong partifan of Charles the First, yet in one of his pamphlets he compliments Cromwell upon affuming the title of Protector, and compares him to Charles Martel.
VERY little is known of this extraordinary perfon, who by a wonderful concurrence of circumstances prefided at the trial of his Sovereign. He is mentioned, however, occafionally in " Ludlow's "Memoirs," as diftinguished for his attachment to a Republican form of Government, and for his deteftation and abhorrence of any attempt to place the government of this country in any one hand whatever.
"In a debate in Parliament, during the Protec"torate of Cromwell," fays Ludlow, "" whether "the fupreme legiflative power of the nation fhould "be in a fingle perfon, or in the Parliament; in "this debate Sir Arthur Haflerig, Mr. Scott, and "many others, particularly the Lord Prefident
Bradshaw, were very inftrumental in opening "the eyes of many young Members who had "never before heard their interefts fo clearly "stated and afferted, so that the Commonwealth