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the hands of a young Scottish clergyman, . tian Churches. (Cheers.) I know that talented, learned, eloquent, of whom the statements of this kind are apt to be great Andrew Fuller said in his scarce ex- received as savouring of what are called travagant admiration, that if he would loose and latitudinarian views of docAing his notes aside and preach extem- trinal matters, but I believe this is a pore, he might be king of Scotland. The misapprehension. I have no doubt that young clergyman had been ambitious and particular Churches have been placed in worldly-minded, and was still an unre. circumstances in which truths of comnewed man.

But a protracted illness paratively minor importance on which had led him to serious thoughts, and intelligent Calvinists and Presbyterians prepared the soil of his heart for the seed might not unnaturally disagree,-in cir. of the book that now came in his way. cumstances in which they were called He read it, and in the letter in which he upon to make a decided stand, at all gives the account of it, he declares that hazards, for the greatness of those it wrought "a great revolution in all his truths, subordinate though they be. This opinions about Christianity." It was is, however, a question of circumstance, that book which made Thomas Chalmers a question of fair construction of God's “a new man,” which fitted him to be the providential indications, and the question leader of the evangelical movement in still remains whether, apart from these Scotland, which led him to give forth special circumstances or general grounds, stirring appeals and utterances which we are called upon to go further, as an have thrilled the hearts of others also indispensable and universal basis of union across oceans and continents, and which or ground of disunion, than just the prepared him to be the means of the honest and intelligent profession of Cal. exodus of the Free Church from State vinism in doctrine and Presbyterianism control.

in government ? (Great applause.) My Here we pause.

But the stream, one conviction is that, apart from those of the fountain-heads of which we have special providential peculiarities of posifound in that old torn copy of “ Bunyan's tion, which may sometimes impose a Resolution," still flows on, and other distinct and explicit duty on particular centuries, along banks yet unexplored, Churches, an intelligent, honest, and shall drink from the waters of this river cordial agreement in the great doctrines of life. If any are disposed to underrate of Calvinism and the fundamental prin. the importance of a wide dissemination ciples of Presbyterianism, ought to be of sound religious literature, let them ordinarily and usually an adequate ground correct their error in the study of this for the union of Christian Churches-not lineage of a single book.– New York merely for the recognition of other Observer.

Churches assister Churches, but for actual union. (Cheers.) Events in providence may stand in the way, but

believing that to be a great general prinA BASIS OF UNION.

ciple, and seeing how much Calvinism and Presbyterianism were

the great There is another thing, said Dr. Cun- characteristics of the Reformation, I pingham, I would not like to abstain believe that ordinarily there is ground for from saying, though I am aware it blame and censure somewhere if Churches trenches somewhat on a point where brought in providence into close contact there is some room for misconception, with each other, and combined in an and where, I think, we sometimes mani- intelligent profession of Calvinistic and fest an undue measure of jealousy and Presbyterian doctrine, are not united. suspicion. I believe that since Presby. (Great applause.) It may be sometimes terianism and Calvinism were the great a difficult question to say where the distinctive characteristics of the Refor- blame lies, and to settle the construction mation as a whole, and especially of the of times, places, and circumstances; but Scottish Reformation, I believe that on I believe that is a great general principle the same ground Calvinism and Presby. which ought to be set forth, and which, terianism—without going minutely into however difficult it may be to set it forth points on which intelligent and honest as a great general truth, ought to be Calvinists and Presbyterians differ from pressed on men's attention-though not each other-afford a fair and adequate forced upon them apart from circumbasis for the harmonious union of Chris- stances. It ought to be allowed to

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"seed " in their minds, that in due time den to itself, and unprofitable to others. it may produce its proper fruit. I believe I will not lay up too much, and utter this to be the great common ground of nothing, lest I be covetous; nor spend Protestantism ; and I am the more im- much, and store up little, lest I be prodigal pressed with this when I think of the and poor.-Hall. fearful mischief produced at the Reformation by the quarrels and dissensions These are the signs of a wise man: to into which the Reformers were so soon reprove nobody, to praise nobody, to blame plunged. Nothing is more deplorable in nobody; nor ever to speak of himself as an the history of the Church of Christ than uncommon man.—Epictetus. the extent to which, on points of no great importance, the Reformers quar. Observation and instruction, reading and relled among themselves, and laid the conversation, may furnish us with ideas, foundation of divisions which, in course but it is the labour and meditation of our of one single generation, arrested the own thoughts which must render them whole course of the Reformation, and either useful or valuable. left professing Christendom up to this day in substantially the same condition, as regards the relative strength of Pro

Hasty conclusions are the mark of a testantism and Popery, as at the period of fool; a wise man doubteth; a fool rageth the death of the first Reformer. (Hear,

and is confident; the novice saith, “I ain hear.)

sure that it is so;" the better learned anThere is something very deplor

swers, able in this, and we have often to lament prithee, inquire.” Some men are drunk with

“Peradventure it may be so; but, I how largely the great ends for which the fancy, and mad with opium. It is a little Christian Church is established are lost learning, and but a little, which makes men by us-ends at which we are bound to conclude hastily. Experience and humility aim. I could not feel myself warranted teach modesty and fear.–Jeremy Taylor. in abstaining from pointing out this great lesson which the Reformation so plainly and palpably teaches. Surely no

Affectation is the greatest enemy both of man can look back on the history of the doing well, and good acceptance of what is Reformation without seeing that this is

done. I hold it the part of a wise man to one of the lessons it is fitted to impress than go before him.-Hall.

endeavour rather that fame may follow him on our minds. In looking back to that period we are called upon also to realise our own sins and shortcomings, and to One very common error misleads the consider what are the lessons it teaches opinion of mankind, that, universally, as to our duty, and the relation we ought authority is pleasant, submission painful. to maintain in regard to other branches In the general course of human affairs, the of the Church of Christ, and especially very reverse of this is nearer the truth. to consider what can be done to combine Command is anxiety; obedience, ease. all who hold the Head, and maintain Paley. right views of the organisation of the Church of Christ, and to unite them I will, to-morrow, that I will, against their great common enemies,

I will be sure to do it;

To-morrow comes, to-morrow goes, Popery and Infidelity. (Loud and pro

And still thou art to do it. lodged applause.)

Thus still repentance is deferred 1

From one day to another;
Until the day of death is come,

And judgment is the other. 1

Druxelius on Bternity. WORDS OF THE WISE. The ear and the eye are the mind's receivers, but the tongue is only busied in FACTS ABOUT CHINA.

espending the treasure received. If, there. | fore, the revenues of the mind be uttered The Court and Government of China

as fast or faster than they are received, it figures for the first time this year in the cannot be but that the mind must needs celebrated Almanach de Gotha— that thick, be bare, and can never lay up for purchase. 32mo. chronicler of crowned heads, ducal But if the receivers take in still with no families, republican rulers, and statistics of atterance, the mind may soon grow a bur civilised nations. Japan has no place in the


finely-printed pages of this diplomatic in number, as follows: of the interior, annual, while the Sandwich Islands are fully finance, worship, war, justice, public-works, reported, and every important spoke in its foreign affairs, and the censorship. political wheel clearly designated. The

There are twenty-three provinces, and three reason why China, her Emperor, ministers, of these are subdivided in their government. provincial governors, generals and admirals, The list of governors, under-governors, -mandarins all-appear in the ninety- secretaries, &c., is quite formidable in seventh number of the Almanach de Gotha appearance, and to pronounce the names is, that she has entered into diplomatic rela- with our occidental barbaric tongues, is tions with the Western “ Barbarians.” Next something equivalent to reciting an Ethio. year we shall hope to see Japan-in many pian song. T'he chief officers in the cabinet respects the Asiatic England—faithfully are Messrs. Hwai-leang, Pang-wan-Chang, represented in this little but eminent statis- Sui-Lin, Ung-Sin Tsun. The commandertical work to which we have referred. in-chief of the Keih-Lin province is King

The facts about the government function- Chun; another official rejoices in the name aries of China are very briefly stated, but of Ching-Chi; the commanding general of are worth translating, for, in a very short the province of Ili has a name decidedly space, they give a clearer notion of the Italian, viz.: Chalafontae ; while one of the Celestial Empire than many long treatises. Presidents, Mr. Chin Fu-Ugan, in the war The Emperor Hienfung (in the Canton department, must be an Irishman. The dialect Hanfung) is the seventh of the reign- literary chancellor of the province of Nagening dynasty of the Tsings (which succeeded Hevui has a name that is rather executional in 1644 to that of the Mings). The present in appearance-Shang-Hang-Yu. Then we Emperor is the two hundred and forty- have officials with such musical names as fourth issue, if we may believe Chinese Mr. Wu-Ting-Tung, Mr. Pang-Yuen-Sung, history, from the year 2842 before the and Mr. Hu-Sing-Gin, (the last syllable is Christian era. This is decidedly cool; for, very suspicious, doubtless indicating the by placing figure against figure, we find theme which Hu sings). that the first Chinese Emperor must have The population in 1859 was estimated lived five hundred years cotemporaneously from the census, taken for purposes of with Methuselah, and a Chinese Emperor taxation, to be 415,000,000! There is no must have been in the Ark with Noah. reason to doubt these figures. What wonder But, leaving these musty regions of anti- fills the mind when we think that the quity, we ascertain that Heinfung com- empire of China contains more than onemenced his reign at the death of his father, third of the human family! While we on the 26th of February, 1850, but, out of cannot but call these myriads of Chinese unrespect for the memory of his father, he dates civilised, we must not yet include them in the his accession to power from February, 1851. category of wild Africans, Australasians and The present Emperor will be 29 years old Esquimaux. They have many of the appliin August next. His name, Heinfung, is ances of the most civilised nations, coupled not his family appellation. It is his official with vices that do not find their equal name, and signifies Perfect Felicity. His amongst the lowest nations of heathenism. father's name (Tankwang) means The Splen. But their very numbers are appalling in dour of Reason.

view of reform. The greatest hope for The different functionaries of government China is that her masses are reading people, are mandarins, divided into nine classes, and and can be reached through the printed the civil authorities always have precedence page. What will be the effect of the great of the military. The cabinet has four armed movement now putting forth by presidents or ministers, and any quantity of England and France no one can tell. under-ministers. The departments are eight | Journal of Commerce.


CHINA. Extract from letter of the Rev. George time daily to the inculcation of Scripture

as before. Mr. Jones gives a portion of his Smith, dated Swatow, 20th April, 1860 :

truth. He is also feeling more able to “There is little of a novel character to sub-make known the Gospel to the people at mit to the consideration of the Committee. large. The villages around Tathanpore Tathanpore is now the constant residence of gladly welcome the foreign missionary, and Mr. Jones. The school is conducted there give hope of successful labour. At Swatow

the way has not been opened for resuming done there; while the great objection to a school. Our premises are too contracted Swatow as a Mission station is, that it is a to allow of school and chapel, with room for mart of trade, where people chiefly come for the inmates of the house, while we have not business, where families are exceedingly found it an easy matter to enlarge our few, and those who may appear much imdwelling. It is also most desirable to have pressed, perhaps return to their homes, and a Christian teacher, who, I trust, will be we never see them again. Once, however, raised up in answer to believing prayer. the country thrown open, one or two misOur main work consists in preaching the sionaries will be quite inadequate to the Gospel, and, for doing so, our opportunities work. There are seven or eight burgh are very many. We cannot point to much fruit towns, which would require, at once, at as yet, but we must sow in faith and hope, and, least one missionary each; while, under the in due time, we shall reap, if we faint not. government of these, are thousands of vil

“The longer I am here I see more and more Jages and market towns, with populations reason to believe that it was of God that the varying from a few hundreds to upwards of mission to Teay Chew (Tie Chin) should be 100,000. I feel certain that this departundertaken by us. Foreigners, for some time ment presents one of the most compact, past, have hardly dared to visit Swatow; most accessible, most populous, and most but God has been as a wall of fire around necessitous mission-fields in China. Swatow our Mission, so that we have suffered no is the most centrical point in the department, harm.

although it is, in some respects, undesirable “People from all parts of Teay Chew come as a place of residence for a foreign misto our place of worship, and many of them sionary. urge me to visit their homes. The great advantage of a Mission at Swatow is, that

“ Yours sincerely, the whole department soon learns what is



Hatices of Books.

The se

The Blood of Christ.-The Friends of working classes, have been compiled with

Jesus. By the Rev. Wm. REID, M.A., so much care, and under such excellent di.
Author of “Streams from Lebanon." rection, as to make them well suited to
London: James Nisbet & Co.

those in higher stations. “The Illustrated THESE two small volumes are admirably Natural History” is, by its elegant bindand revival. The first contains the full subject matter, in every way fitted for any adapted for times of religious awakening ing and illustrations, no less than by its and clear statements as to the nature and drawing-room. If there has been a fault design of the sacrifice of Calvary; and the in Mr. Cassell's publications generally, it joy, and peace, and present salvation,

has been an over-popularising of the subwhich faith" therein secures. Its appeals ject, to the detriment of more sterling matare most moving and tender.

ter. In the present instance the popular cond, "The Friends of Jesus," consists of element is as prominent as ever; but the a series of letters to young converts (actu- subject is one which, the more it is popually written to real parties), which are rich larised the more interesting it becomes

. in those counsels, cautions, and suggestions,

If there be a fault, and we are loth to find needed by the lambs of the flock. We one in so charming a volume, it is that wish for these books a wide circulation. the engravings are too profuse. DrawThey are instinct with life and love.

ings of the animals themselves, or of their

skeletons ; the comparing of the skeleton Cassell's Popular Natural History. Vol. I. of one animal with that of another, or the

TUlustrated by upwards of 500 Engrav- grouping of animals, are all more or less ings. London : Cassell, Petter, & interesting and useful. But when we have Galpin.

the heads

of six monkeys ranged in a row,

one scarcely differing from the others in Joux CASSELL has long been known to the any perceptible degree; or when we find

public as an enterprising publisher. Many two or three drawings of the jaws of dif| of his books, although avowedly for the ferent animals, but so alike that it requires

considerable study to discover the points England” already published. The five of difference, such illustrations convey no parts contain a record or some of the most idea to the mind, and only serve to weary stirring events of the latter end of last cenin the contemplation. With this exceptury-one of the

most eventful periods of tion, the volume is all that could be de- English history. They take in the American sired. It contains descriptions and anec- rebellion, and the first indications of the war dotes of all kinds of monkeys, of the bat, the that was so soon to overspread Europe. The hare, the mole, and the bear, besides several letter-press is by Mr. William Howard, other animals of the same species not so whose name will, to many, be à sufficient generally known. The whole work will be guarantee for its value; the illustrations are completed, we believe, in four volumes. of some of the most striking incidents of the

time, and are well executed. Cassell's Ilustrated History of England.

Parts I., II., III., IV., and V. London : Idols in the Heart. A Tale. By A. L. O. E. Cassell, Petter, & Galpin.,

T. Nelson & Sons, London and Edin

*þurgh. These are the first five monthly parts of what, when completed, will form, if we may A WELL-WRITTEN story, with a very good judge from the specimens before us, a most moral. The title is not brought very proexcellent History of England, from the minently forward in the book; but this, if a death of Ge the Second to the present fault, is one on the right side. It is certainly time. It is intended to be a continuation of preferable to a continual effort to make the the four volumes of * Cassell's History of tale itself subservient to the title.

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To the Editor of the English Presbyterian Messenger. DEAR SIR,-Mr Henderson's letter in the (the parties involved in it, I ask for the June Messenger may be satisfactory to the evidence upon which it rests. Hexham congregation, and it may have The fact that ministerial income in our removed the not very unnatural impression, Church is low, is no proof of Mr. Henderthat Mr. Henderson wrote his first letter on son's charge. It may be proof that, as a the above subject under the influence of church, we have an expenditure which unfriendly feelings toward the Church he exceeds our income; that we are liying too was leaving. But both his letters appear to expensively, and attempting, as

a little me very unsatisfactory in other respects. church, to maintain a machinery which is He makes in the first, and repeats in the only suitable for a large church. second, a charge which I believe to be prove that the givers are few, and that entirely unfounded, viz.-That “ English the inadequate supply of funds is in spite of Presbyterians allow their ministers, to be their anxious liberality. It may prove that surrounded by miserable straitnesses.” Mr. the policy of our Church has something in Henderson's charge is conveyed in language it so obnoxious to English tastes, that it the most explicit and unmistakable. It is cannot command a footing on English soil. specific, moreover, not general. It is not It may prove any or all of these, but none of that ministerial income in England is low, these are what Mr. Henderson charges the but that English Presbyterians suffer their membership of our Church with. Assuming ministers to be so situated. The language that our members are capable of a larger seems intended to convey the impression liberality, he charges them with " suffering that English Presbyterians, knowingly and their ministers to be surrounded with heartlessly suffer this state of things, and miserable straitnesses." When the evil of that in so doing they are unfavourably pre- which Mr. Henderson complains may be eminent in the ranks of English dissent. referred to one or more of so many causes,

Now, Sir, I take the liberty of question- it would have been courteous in him to bave ing the truth of this charge ; and, as one of mitigated the severity of his charge by

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