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scanned the cemetery it rested upon another, and another, and another little group of mourners, assembled around the open grave of their loved ones. So swiftly does the reaper, whose name is Death, ply his scythe in the hot and unhealthy land of India.
As the assembly of men separated, a settled gloom could be seen on every face. The communion with the dead was now over, and the battle of life must be resumed. Who can tell the thoughts that flitted through the minds of those who are charged with the government of this land at that moment? A feeling of helplessness seemed to prevail. Would that the feeling had been one of dependence upon the Almighty, and of determination to rule in the fear of him, by whom kings reign and princes decree justice !
J. A. E. M. Calcutta, 13th August, 1860.
(Original and Selected.)
SCOTLAND AND HER
sufferings alike. In short, Scotland joined HISTORIANS.
in expatriating the Stuarts: her historians
bawl out Jacobite songs in her face, and HITuerto it has been the lot of Scotland, hurl at her all sorts of anti-Whiggish paswith two or three honourable exceptions, to quinades. Time, that great healer of strife, be strangely misrepresented by her histor- has failed to assuage the virulence of these ians. It would almost seem as if the prayer anti-national crusaders. The tide of party of the Jewish patriarch had in her case been passion rises as high in the pages of the granted in the shape of a curse, and that, modern literature, and foams and dashes on whenever her history had to be written, her our native shores with as much fury as it "adversary wrote a book.” The conqueror did in the breasts of Scotland's foes 'cenin many a bloody field, she has fallen, in the turies ago. No cowled priest could more days of peace, into the hands of the Phili- spitefully eye his victim writhing at the stines, and the annals of her victories have stake, -no “Malignant” in the days of the been feebly or falsely recorded by the losing Charleses could gloat more intensely over party. Scotland, at the era of the Reforma- the slaughter of a poor but pious peasantry, tion, became a Protestant country ; but the -no Highland reiver could with more good history of her struggle with Popery has will plunge his skein-dhu into the purse or been written in a spirit which might well person of the Saxon from love to "royal bring a smile of complacency over the grim Charlie,"—than these writers evince in features of Antonelli in the Vatican. Scoto dealing with their countrymen of the olden land was compelled, in grief and shame, to time. At every name that Scotland delights depose the lovely Queen Mary; but her to honour they direct a shower of mud historians have taken ample revenge on her or missiles. Knox was a savage; Murray by extolling the peccant sovereign into a was a traitor; Melville was a bigot; Henheroine of romance. Scotland insisted on derson was a rebel; Renwick was a fanatic. being Presbyterian ; her annalists have made And in every possible form has this bastard it their business to hoot and hiss at the spleen sought a vent for itself of late years : national faith. Scotland became a cove- in “Lays of the Cavaliers" and of “Bothnanted nation; and thereby hangs a tale of well;" in "Domestic Annals " and newsbitter persecution. Her historians have paper articles ; in quasi-historical novels agreed to laugh at the covenanters and their adapted for railway reading, such as “ Mary
of Lorraine,” in which the whole web of in every nursery than "Jack the Gianttruth is industriously untwisted, and inno- Killer." Dr. Arnold believed it to be a cent young people are tempted to read our
complete reflection of Scripture. Coleridge history as the evil spirit was said to have esteemed it the best uninspired summary of
evangelical theology ever produced. Dr. taught his dupes to read the Lord's prayer, Cheever thinks it always keeps its hold on - backwards; and even in the pages of the heart; and James Montgomery says, Blackwood, no longer under the control of beautifully and truly, “It would be difficult Christopher North, whose generous heart to name another work in our native tongue would have spurned away, from pure rever.
of which so many editions have been printed,
of which so many readers have lived and ence for Scotland, the unpatriotic, pope- died, the character of whose lives and deaths clawing intruder,-not to speak of Memoirs must have been more or less affected by its of Montrose and of Claverhouse, which lessons and examples, its fictions and realiremind us of the Bourbons of Naples, who, ties." Not only do the common people not content with trampling on the liberties confirm the high character of the "Pilof their subjects, insulted them by setting learned and great, but the common people
grim's Progress" thus expressed by the up in their streets monumental statues of were the first to see and prize the peerless the tyrants that had enslaved them. Nor excellence of Bunyan's great work, which will we go far wrong if we class with these their superiors now universally acknowwriters, whose minds have been denational
ledge. ised by the prejudices of education, or will continue to be read by multitudes of the
So long as the English language lives, it something worse, another set of would-be young at the very period when the imaginahistorians,-clerical or academical,—whose tion and heart are most easily and permasmall ambition it is to pilfer a character for nently affected by all the golden stores of liberality by taking a shy at John Knox and heavenly truth with which the fascinating the Reformers over the walls of the institu- pages of Bunyan overflow. It is all-impor
tant, therefore, that Bunyan's Pilgrim tions which they founded,—who are "willing should be guarded with sacred care. Selfto wound and yet afraid to strike,”—and are interest and superstition have both tried to rewarded by the applause of prelatic and pervert him to their own vile ends, and cavalier critics on either side of the border, make gain of Bunyan's fame. accompanied by that stare of surprise and
In regard to the former, an honest publisher
-"There are some malicious sneer of ill-disguised contempt with which a
men of our profession of lewd principles, company of professional bon-vivants greet hating honesty, and coveting other men's the sallies of some half-tipsy presbyter who rights, and which we call land-pirates. One ventures to take part in their orgies.
of this society is Thomas Bradyl, a printer,
whom I actually found printing my book for Bpoke like an oracle! they all exclaim,
himself and five more of his confederates ; And add Right Reverend to Smug's honoured name. but, in truth, he hath so abominably and Last and most contemptible of all come basely falsified the true copy and changed those who, in the form of school, and even the notes, that they have abused the author of nursery books, would poison the streams and if it doth steal abroad they put a cheat
in the sense and the proprietor of his right, of knowledge at their fountain-head—the upon the people." child-strippers and kidnappers of history, My object at present is the same as the who, with the smile of parental fondness on old publisher's—to prevent a cheat from their lips, are fumbling among the best being put upon the people, not by an altered principles and affections of the young, and issued, but an enlarged “ Pilgrim's Pro
Pilgrim's Progress," such as Popery has wiling them away from their natural pro- gress," one-third of which is a forgery. The genitors.-Witness.
first edition of the “ Pilgrim's Progress was published in 1678. Only one copy of
it is known to exist, the greater part of it BUNYAN'S
likely having been taken to Massachusetts "PILGRIM'S PROGRESS."
by emigrants. Various changes were made
by Bunyan in successive editions. At the By the Rev. Dr. Edgar.
end of the first part, which for a time con
stituted the whole book, he gave a hint that LORD MACAULAY declared Bunyan superior he might add to it. He had good cause to in genius to Baxter or Howe, and that the complain that selfish men had used this for Pilgrim's Progress” is a greater favourite their own vile ends.
'Tis true, some have of late, to counterfeit tory Notes by the Rev. W. Mason;" and My Pilgrim, to their own my title set ; Yea, others half my name and title, too,
the third part begins thus :-“ After the to Have stitched to their books to make them do. former dreams concerning Christian and But yet they by their features do declare
Christiana, I fell asleep again, and the Themselves, not mine to be, whosesoe'er they are. visions of my head returned upon nie."
These forgeries are all lost, and in 168+ Here is a double fiction,-first, that this was published the genuine second part of third part is the production of Bungan; Bunyan's immortal work, which he tried to and secondly, that Mason wrote notes on it, protect against "land-pirates " by the fol. both of which are false. As this forgery, lowing notice :-"I appoint Mr. Nathaniel like every other, should be exposed, and as Ponder, but no other, to print this book certain of its contents are pernicious, I beg John Bunyan, January, 1684." The last attention to the following facts :sentence of this part is, "Shall it be my lot 1. John Bunyan is remarkably distinto go that way again, I may give those that guished, as Lord Macaulay has clearly desire it an account of what I here am shown, for the plainness and purity of his silent about. Meantime, I bid my reader simple Saxon-English style. Whole pages adieu.” What were his purposes none can of his contain scarcely a word above two tell now, for these are the last words of the syllables. Bunyan's style, says Cheerer, “ Pilgrim's Progress that John Bunyan grew out of his habitual and exclusive fami
liarity with the English Bible. He little In 1692 there appeared a forgery claiming thought he was thus acquiring a mastery to be a third part of Bunyan's “Pilgrim, over the purest form of the English lanwhich so far succeeded in deception as to guage. Not spoiled by other books, his reach a sixth edition in 1705. In 1708 it child-like spirit spoke in the simple, sweet was publicly denounced as an imposture. Saxın language of home and childhood, The London Quarterly Review says that full of grace, and easy to all. How entirely this forgery—“The Adventures of Mr. Ten- different from this is the language, style, and der Conscience — is most unworthy to be whole structure of the third part, as any one bound up, as it sometimes is, with Bunyan's may see from multitudes of such passages matchless parable." But bound up it still as these-"They lay an embargo on their unhappily is, and therefore I now write. faith ; " " thus having habituated and used John Newton asserts that a common hedge- themselves to a jocular vein ; “ stands stake deserves as much to be compared with capitulating with temptations ;
is "returned Aaron's rod as this poor performance to be thanks to the Sovereign Giver of all good obtruded on the world as the production of gifts, the Creator and Preserver of all manJohn Bunyan. But John Newton is in his kind, for refreshing them with his good grave, and the world is professedly much creatures ;' "the non-ultra of law and wiser than in his day, yet this poor perfor- Gospel; “ in him all the vices of the mance is obtruded as John Bunyan's still. world disembogue themselves as in a comDr. Ryland says that when an anonymous mon emunctory." It is not necessary to scribbler tried to obtrude his stuff on the multiply examples, as they may be found in world as a third part of “ Pilgrim's Pro- every page, nor specify instances of bad gress,” the cheat was soon discovered, and grammar, which also abound. that every Christian of good taste could as 2. Another grand characteristic of Buneasily see the difference as between fine yan, wholly denied to his poor imitator, is a cambric and coarse sacking. But Dr. Ry. rich humour and dazzling wit, properties of land and John Newton had both too high true genius, such as break forth with greatan estimate of the public understanding and ness and beauty in “ John Gilpin," eren Christian taste, for it is quite common for from the deep darkness of Cowper's melangood Christians of taste and discernment to choly, which, as a wise man says, makes the read the third part without even a suspicion fancy chuckle while the heart doth ache. that it is a forgery; and, to the shame of 3. Even in the peculiarities or, as some Philip, in his life of Bunyan, he says, deem them, defects or obscurities of Bun“ The third part may not be Bunyan's, but yan, the difference between the sterling and it is the production of a man of real genius. the counterfeit appears, for example, in his Bunyan's first biographer claims it for him, use of “a” for “ have," and of the word though his first editor does not even mention“ end.” it. I should be glad
find that it was 4. Though a learned gentleman, who Bunyan's." As being truly and really wrote against Bunyan, calls him so very Bunyan's, it is now in different editions dirty a creature that he disdains to defile circulated; one, for example, published in his fingers with him, yet there is not, in all London, another by Milner and Sowerby, his works, an offence against refined sentiHalifax. The latter of these is entitled, ment, genuine modesty, or Christian taste. “ The Pilgrim's Progress, in three parts, by Not so with his sordid imitator, who, in his John Bunyan, to which is added Explana- third book, writes and repeats things so
vile that they deserve a place in Dean | Physician, but by a strong crutch of lignum Swift's “ Gulliver" or " Tale of a Tub." vitæ, which Goodwill gave him, telling him
5. There are other differences of far that it had a particular virtue to stay the greater importance, one of which is, the bleeding of wounds. Forthwith he was difference in the respect paid to Goodwill, much comforted, eased, and supported by who opens the wicket-gate, by Christian, the crutch ; for no sooner was he in possesChristiana, and Mr. Tender Conscience, sion of it, but his wounds abated bleeding, who is the hero of the forged book third. and, by the time it grew warm in his hand, Both Christian and Christiana give him it sent forth a certain odoriferous perfume, high honour, calling him Lord, and ask him which exceedingly refreshed his spirit, and to remove the burden of their sin; and he found himself becoming stronger and Bunyan, too, describes him as the Lord at stronger by the healing virtue of this wonthe head of the way, who by word and deed derful crutch. grants pardon. On the contrary, neither 7. All this smacks strongly of Popery; from the author nor hero of the third book and the Popish character of the forgery is have we any intimation of the Divine nature still farther manifest, first, in its multitude of Goodwill; he is a mere man, and no of misquotations of Scripture, and, secondly, more ; he may be gatekeeper for a Unita- in its numerous quotations from the Apocryrian Elysium, but he could not open the pha as of Divine authority. How a biogate of the narrow way which leads to John grapher of Bunyan like nilip could wish Bunyan's heaven.
his hero proved ignorant of the Bible, and 6. Another essential difference is, that enamoured with the Apocrypha, is more Bunyan's pilgrims receive blessings solely than I can tell. through the instrumentality of the truth of 8. I shall not dwell on the falsehoods God's Word, while with Mr. Tender Con- and nonsense contained in the forged part, science the case is far different. Is Chris. but merely furnish two specimens. tian or Christiana convicted, converted, first sin that ever was committed in the comforted, made triumphant? All are by world was eating.” means of the truth, the truth of God alone. “ Though it be not certain whether it This is the true Protestant, the true evan-proceeded from some natural contagion in gelical principle, which honours the Bible the fruit which Adam ate, or from the and the God of the Bible. Sadly and far venomous breath of the Serpent, or some away from this is the doleful road of Tender other hidden cause, yet we are sure that, no Conscience.
sooner had he tasted the fatal morsel, but a A sorry figure he certainly cuts,-"all strange alteration befell him; the faculties over bedaubed with the filth of the Slough of his soul were dislocated and disjointed : of Despond. Being all over clammed with this was the effect of irregular eating.” it, he goes at a slow pace, his head hanging 9. The last and chief subject to which I down, his hands quivering, and his feet solicit attention is, that this wretched protripping; and a speck or two of the dirt duction contains a laboured defence of being spattered near his eyes makes him Popish fasting and of Popish nunneries, not dim-sighted, so that he gropes along like under these names, or in an open, above. one that is blind." How is he delivered out board way, yet still as thoroughly Popish as of this dreadful state ? Not certainly in the the Puseyite writers of the " Tracts for the way Bunyan would have described, but Times" could wish, and in the true spirit partly by his own penitence, and partly by of Miss Sellon and the Bishops of Exeter a miracle, for we are told that, while he sat and Oxford. crying, a bright cloud hovered over his head, Let the Christian public, therefore, be which, gradually descending, overshadowed warned and vigilant. In these times of him; and out of the cloud a hand was rampant Romanism and Puseyism—in these reached forth, which, with the tears that times when, as Dr. Campbell, in the British ran like rivers from his eyes, washed the Standard, has so clearly and faithfully dirt off his eyes, and his whole body, so that shown, the University of Oxford, the great in a moment, as it were, his sight and head-quarters of aristocratic and Episcopal strength were restored again." All this education, has become head-quarters of takes place before Mr. Tender Conscience Puseyism and scepticism-in these times has entered the strait gate at all. After he when the agents of Popery, male and female, has been admitted by Goodwill, of whom he are ceaselessly active in undermining truth has nothing better to say than that he and liberty-here is a vile, degrading, and seemed to be a person worthy of reverence Jesuitical production, bourd up with the by his grave countenance, and whom he “ Pilgrim's Progress,” professing to be part merely asks to tell him where he might find of the “ Pilgrim's Progress," sold in ignor. one that had skill to probe his wounds and ance by Christian booksellers, and read in cure them, if not morial. How does he get ignorance by large numbers at a period of healed ? Not by the balm of the Great life when injuries may be done to immortal
minds never to be healed. Let all book. I the daughter of Knox-when, not because sellers, therefore, stop the sale of Bunyan's she loved her husband little, but because “ Pilgrim's Progress" in Three Parts, and she loved Christ more, she said she all lovers of truth and honesty prevent its would rather receive (kep) his head there circulation. The taste for reading spreads; than see him betray his Master. I let us wisely work the Press.-- British recognise it in that inexpressible exhibi. Standard.
tion of deep emotion in aged men and youths—pastors, elders—of the Church, as in Synod and Assembly met, they
with uplifted hand, and tearful eye, INFLUENCE OF A CALVINISTIC uttered the vow, or, with hand lowered, GREED ON THE EMOTIONS. subscribed the document by which they
pledged themselves to the defence of I CLAIM for Calvinistic doctrine, that Scotland's faith and liberties. That land while giving precedence to the under- of orthordox creed and catechisms-of standing, it does not less work on the what some may call rough, uncomproheart and affections. It is, I hold, a mising zeal—is eminently a land of senwrong imputation, to say that it has no timent. Where, on its soil, do I not alliance with deep feeling, or adaptation to find myself in sight of classic ground? our emotional nature. I believe that the On many a spot I feel as the patriot deep reverence for the sovereignty of would feel at Marathon, or the man who God-and that preference too of doctrine revels in the stirring memories of ancient to ritualism, or symbolism, which dis- lore and religion combined, would feel on tinguished our reforming ancestors of the shores of Iona. In that land of the Scotland and Ireland, and England, in mountain and the flood, where is the part—this care to give the right place to place on which one might not bow down, the Divine authority, and to Divine influ- and worship the God who nerved the ence, may be seen to have secured, as we men of other times to do his work, and might expect, along with the rights of vindicate his truth? Go with me, in God, a sacred regard to the rights of the imagination, from the Cairns of Gallocreature, and the obligations of social way, or the Martyrs' corner in the life. Nay, were we to speak of the cemetery of Dumfries-more sacred than religion of the affections, or the influence the “ Poets' Corner" at Westminsterof system on our emotional nature, I yet I love the poets--or, starting from know not where to look for finer speci- further south, from Wigton and Solway mens of all that is deep in feeling, and sands, where, within the range of the exalted in sentiment, than to the history rapid tide, those daughters of Scotland of the confessors of our native land. 1 undauntedly waited the returning wave, speak of Scotland, but I identify with it which stifled the voice that confessed the Protestant Ireland. I have stood on King of kings. I pass by many a mossBothwell Bridge, and mused, but I have capped stone, with its half-obliterated also walked round the walls of London memorials. I come within sight of the derry; and I know not if the annals of Necropolis of a city I much love-of chivalry itself can supply better examples that stalwart figure, with Bible in hand of all that is lofty and noble in the -Knox, I mean. From an elevation, development at once of the intellectual almost above Glasgow Cathedral-that and of the emotional in man, than is to finest remnant of mediæval architecture ! be seen in Scotland's history. I see it -he looks down on ten generations of in the female, as well as in the masculine the dead, who learned from him the mind. I recognise it in their composed lessons which they taught to their chil. but daring magnanimity in hours of dren; and caught from him the spirit of crisis-in the disinterestedness of their vigilance, with which they guarded their self-sacrificing devotion at the shrine of offspring's best inheritance. I pass by piety and patriotism; I see it in the Edinburgh's venerable Friarground, and ladies of the covenant-in the nocturnal Aberbrothock's dismantled towers, and visit of that high-born maiden to the find myself, after this brief round of cell of the proscribed martyr, unpro- fancy's travel, at St. Andrews. I stand tected, alone, if so be she could but on the grave of Rutherford. A little bring within the reach of his hiding- apart, I see the place where aged Mill place, bread for the concealed confessor confessed the truth amidst the flames; of Christ. I read it in the language of the spot, too, where Wishart burned ;