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including 1,693 blacks or free persons of color, and 126 slaves belonging to old Dutch settlers. About two thirds of this whole number are engaged in agricultural or grazing pursuits, and the residue chiefly in manufactures and different branches of trade. The face of the country, except in seasons of drought, is described as “beautifully adorned by a covering of verdant pasturage, and the settlers, under the direction of government, have been generally scattered over it, among the fertile ravines of the hills, and the numerous clumps of elegant evergreens," * in parties of ten or more
> families together, so as doubtless to make both the best show and best use of the scenery and the soil. Graham's Town has a population of 2,000, and five or six hundred houses, built, for the most part, of wood or stone, and very pleasantly interspersed with gardens and groves of fruit-trees. The river Kowie runs directly through it. Here are a church, jail, and government-house; and sessions are held every four months, with jury trials, by puisne judges from Cape Town. Graaf Reinet is an old town, inhabited chiefly by the Dutch, and contains about 300 houses, with a new church and school-house, and a chapel for the benefit of the natives.
The climate of the Albany District is healthy and pleasant, but too dry for the best interest of either gardening or grazing. Wheat has not succeeded, and maize is considered the staple bread-corn. The peach, apricot, apple, pear, quince, pomegranate,
almond, and walnut, all flourish, the vine not so well. The trade of the district with the Caffers and other native tribes has greatly increased of late, and regular fairs have been established, which are well attended, and produce considerable income. · The articles brought in by the natives are chiefly ivory and hides, which are bartered for clothing, domestic utensils, beads, buttons, and other sundries of minor value. During five years preceding June, 1829, the imports from the interior were estimated at £50,000 at least; and in 1832, the imports into Grabam's Town alone, for several months, were rated at from £700 to £1,000 weekly. Other commercial establishments have been attached to some of the missionstations, under regulations apparently well suited to improve the condition and character of the natives who resort thither.
To the missionaries, let us here say, too much praise can hardly be given for the indefatigable zeal with which they have devoted themselves, in the face of all conceivable hazards, labors, and discouragements, to the noble task of introducing a knowledge of the Christian religion, and the arts of civilized society, among all the neighbouring tribes, and particularly among the Caffers. Their exertions have been very generally distinguished by a practical good sense which has not uniformly characterized similar movements in other countries, and least of all perhaps among the early Indians of our own. They have established settlements in the midst of the people they wished to improve ; shown them, in actual experiment, the benefit of their own agricultural, stationary, and peaceful life ; and conciliated their good will
; by kind and friendly acts; and the appearance of things, at all the stations where the natives either reside or resort, is such as might be expected from so rational a course. If the government shall do its duty so far, as to prevent or punish, in future, those encroachments of the frontier settlers on their barbarian neighbours, which have formerly been the source of every difficulty between the two parties, there is little reason to doubt that the Caffers especially, (who are universally allowed to be one of the finest races of savages in the world,) will be gradually induced to attach themselves industriously, as far as the nature of their country permits, to the cultivation of the soil. These people are supposed to be of Arabian origin. The Hottentots, who are the aborigines of the Cape territory, mingle freely with the European settlers, and make themselves serviceable in menial and mechanical capacities. The Bushmen, a troglodyte and warlike race, by some considered a variety of the Hottentot, still continue troublesome on the frontiers, and show a ferocious spirit more like that of the American Indians than of the tribes we have named above. The farther progress of the colonial settlements will probably prove fatal to this race. We had proposed to offer some comment on the treatment they have received from the whites, whether collectively or in individual cases, - both of glaring enormity,
but our limits forbid, and we do not at all regret to leave this part of our summary as it is. Those familiar with the history of the conquests and settlements made in North and South America may, without much exercise of imagination, form a sufficiently distinct conception of the details.
The indications of prosperity at Cape Town, which will always be the principal port of the Colony, must be equal to the expectations of its reasonable friends. From a file of newspapers of recent date, which lies before us, - perhaps
the best index of the real condition of things which could be furnished, — we learn that the exports from Table Bay during three months of last year, amounted to £51,929, of which £46,217 was colonial produce; - nearly one half of the whole amount being sent to England, and the residue to Mauritius, New South Wales, St. Helena, South America, Java, the East Indies, Hamburgh, and Ascension. Among the minutiæ of the official returns, were somewhat surprised to notice a place reserved for eau-de-Cologne, confectionery, haberdashery, millinery, and preserves.
The colonial commerce appears to have been regularly increasing for some years. In 1803, the number of merchant vessels, exclusive of those employed coastwise, was 83; in 1816, 131; in 1824, 135; in 1833, 298,- the tonnage this last year being 96,377. During the ten years subsequent to 1808, the number of entries was 1,062 ; during the last ten years, it was 1,950; showing an increase in favor of the last period, of no less than 890 vessels, or 89 for each year.
In the same paper which furnishes these facts, we find notices of a project for establishing a new inarket, of the Annual Meeting of the Cape Savings Bank Society, the commerce of Port Elizabeth, the Fifth Session of the South African College (with three professors and one hundred students), and of the first report of the Georgetown Infant School. It is stated, that quite a number of these institutions are now flourishing in the Colony, some of them containing from 120 to 170 pupils; and that they have proved particularly beneficial at the missionary stations, “where nothing can exceed the eagerness with which they are adopted by both parents and children." On the whole, no person can compare
present state of the Colony, with the accounts which travellers gave of it ten years since, without perceiving an encouraging improvement in every thing which goes to constitute both national character and commercial thrift.
Slavery has ceased by legislative limitation, at the date of the publication of our siatement of the fact. This measure, though doubtless un popular with individuals, can hardly fail,
under judicious management, to conduce essentially to the improvement of the agricultural as well as moral interest, the peculiar nature of the soil and country rendering that system even less profitable, and more pernicious among the settlers, than in most other countries where it exists. It is much to be hoped that the recently appointed Governor will feel it to be his duty, - and more especially that parent authorities will feel it to be theirs, — to devote that highly
desirable attention to the great interests of the education, no less than the emancipation, of the lower classes in the Colony, which we perceive is called for in the Cape publications with the earnestness which the importance of the subject demands. In such case, this territory may prove to the English emigrant, who is pretty much broken down at home, truly a place (as Vasco named it) of Good Hope. Otherwise, we should caution him to imitate, the discretion of Diaz.
NOTICES AND INTELLIGENCE.
The Spirit of Jesus. A Sermon preached at the Installation of the Rev. D. H. Barlow, in Brooklyn, New York, September 17, 1834; by W. H. Furness. With The Charge, by the Rev. WilLIAM WARE, of New York, and The Right Hand of Fellowship, by the Rev. MR. FARLEY, of Providence. Brooklyn. 8vo.
Ordination services have, with these days of multiplication or division of churches, become among the most frequent of our public occasions. But nothing in the intellectual or spiritual world, that is good of itself, loses either of its value or its interest by commonness. And among many excellent ordination discourses we have heard or read, this of Mr. Furness has afforded more than usual satisfaction. It is on “the Spirit of Jesus," as expressed in those pregnant words, “My meat is to do the will of him who sent me, and to finish his work,” - a text and a topic altogether appropriate to such an occasion. The design of the preacher is to inculcate this spirit, - of devotedness to God and of delight in his work. It must, he urges, be our spirit, and the spirit of every human being. It must pervade and animate every Christian, minister and people, not merely for the advantages, personal or pub
lic, with which it may be followed ; not for the fame it may procure, or for the happiness it may yield, but for its own worth's sake. “ Have we any great truth to maintain or glorify, any spiritual object that we wish to accomplish, we must find our happiest reward in our labor. It must have a charm and attraction for us independently of any of its results to ourselves or to others."
This general sentiment, as contrasted with the selfishness or policy, regard to reputation or to the “recompense of reward,” by which even good men permit themselves to be chiefly actuated, is happily applied to the condition of the religious society immediately addressed. And among these dangers, common to individuals and communities in like condition, the preacher thus beautifully exposes the following.
“ When one is surrounded by what he deems great errors and unscriptural doctrines, religious systems dishonorable to God and discouraging to man, he is liable to have his mind inflamed with an angry spirit of opposition. But the hatred of falsehood is not necessarily accompanied by a love of truth. Accordingly, we find everywhere not a few ranked among Unitarians, who are no further entitled to the name than that they are opposed to the popular modes of religion. They reject the Trinity and its associated doctrines, but the simple and vivifying idea of one God, an all-animating Spirit, our perpetual Witness and Judge, has never once been entertained by them in its divine power. The sun of Truth seems to have risen behind them, and they are so engrossed with the monstrous errors it has revealed, they never turn round and lose themselves in its unutterable glory. And so from their countenances no light beams. The passions they cherish and express, they excite, and the advocates of error only become the more settled and determined in their prejudices. The true and loyal servants of Truth, her only successful ministers, are those who, forgetful of all else, delight to turn and gaze upon her radiance, until
, kindled and transfigured thereby, they reflect her light all around, and are recognised and reverenced as if they had just come down out of the central blaze of her glory.” — pp. 11, 12.
The charge, by the Rev. William Ware, of New York, abounds in excellent remarks and sound counsel, offered, as becomes a coeval and cotemporary of the individual addressed, with a graceful union of fraternal kindness and dignity. We cordially concur with Mr. Ware in the views he liere exhibits of some of the duties and dangers of the ministerial office.
“ So far as I have observed, there is no one whom men of all characters and professions are more ready to honor than a useful, conscientious minister; one, who, they see, seeks not himself, but, in the true spirit of self-sacrifice, the moral and religious welfare of those committed to him. And, on the other hand, there is no one whom