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comparison of those (a natinAEUONTES) who adulterate the word of God! How little wholesome food have we for our souls, and what abundance of poison! How few are there that, either in writing or preaching, declare the genuine Gospel of Christ, in the simplicity and purity wherewith it is set forth in the venerable Records of our own Church! And how are we inclosed on every side with those who, neither knowing the Doctrines of our Church, nor the Scriptures, nor the power of God, have found out to themselves inventions wherewith they constantly corrupt others also! 3. I speak not '
now of those (WOWTOTOXO1 Tou Eatave) firstborn of Satan, the Deists, Arians, or Socinians. These are too infamous among us, to do any great service to the cause of their Master. But what shall we say of those who are accounted the Pillars of our Church, and Champions of our faith, who indeed betray that Church, and sap the very foundations of the Faith we are taught thereby ?
4. But how invidious a thing it is to shew this! Who is sufficient to bear the weight of prejudice which must necessarily follow the very mention of such a charge against men of so established a character? Nay, and who have indeed, in many other respects, done great service to the Church of God? Yet must every faithful minister say, “God forbid that I should accept any man's person. I dare not give any man flattering titles, not spare any that corrupt the Gospel. In so doing my Maker would soon take me away.” 5. Let me, however, be as short as may be upon this
and I will instance only in two or three men of renown, who have endeavoured to sap the very foundation of our Church, by attacking its fundamental, and indeed the fundamental Doctrine of all the Reformed Churches, viz. Justification by Faith alone.
One of these, and one of the highest station in our Church, hath written and printed before his death, several Sermons, expressly to prove, that not Faith alone, but Good Works also, are necessary in order to Justification. The unpleasing task of quoting particular passages out of them is superseded by the very title of them, which is this,
The necessity of Regeneration, (which he at large proves to imply holiness both of heart and life,) in order to Justification.”*
6. It may appear strange to some, that an angel of the Church of God, (as the great Shepherd terms the overseers of it,) and one so highly esteemed both in our own and many other nations, should coolly and calmly thus speak. But, O! what is he in comparison of the great Bishop Bull! Who shall be able to stand, if this eminent scholar, Christian, and prelate, in his youth wrote and published to the world, and in his riper years defended the positions that follow.
“A man is said (ež egywy dixaiovotar,) to be justified by works; because good works are the condition, according to the divine appointment, established in the Gospel Covenant, requisite and necessary to a man's justification; that is, to bis obtaining remission of sins through Christ.” Bulli Harm. Apost. p. 4.
A little after, being about to produce testimonies in proof of this proposition, he says, “ The first class of these shall be those who speak of good works in a general sense, as the requisite and necessary condition of Justification.” Then follow certain texts of Scripture, after which he adds, 66 Who does not believe that in these scriptures there is an abundance of good works required, which if a man do not perform, he is altogether excluded from the hope of pardon, and remission of sins.” Ibid. p. 6.
Having introduced some other things, he adds, “ Besides Faith, there is no one but may see, that Repentance is required as necessary to Justification. Now, Repentance is not one work alone, but is, as it were, a collection of many others : for in its compass the following works are comprehended. 1. Sorrow on account of sin. 2. Humiliation under the hand of God. 3. Hatred to sin. 4. Confession of sin. 5. Ardent supplication of the Divine Mercy. 6. The love of God. 7. Ceasing from sin. 8. Firm pur
pose of new obedience. 9. Restitution of ill-gotten goods. 10. Forgiving our neighbour his transgressions against us. 11. Works of beneficence or alms-giving. How much these things avail to procure remission of sins from God is sufficiently evident from Dan. iv. 24, where the prophet gives this wholesome advice to Nebuchadnezzar, who was at that time cleaving to his sins; “Redeem*
your sins by alms-giving, and your iniquities by shewing mercy to the poor." Ib. p. 10.
. 7. To instance in one point more. All the Liturgy of the Church is full of petitions for that holiness without which, the Scripture every where declares, no man shall see the Lord. And these are all summed up in those comprehensive words which we are supposed to be so frequently repeating : “ Cleanse the thoughts of our hearts by the inspiration of thy Holy Spirit, that we may perfectly love thee, and worthily magnify thy holy Name.” It is evident, that in the last clause of this petition, all outward holiness is contained: neither can it be carried to a greater height, or expressed in stronger terms. And those words, “ Cleanse the thoughts of our hearts," contain the negative branch of inward holiness : the height and depth of which is Purity of Heart, by the inspiration of God's Holy Spirit: the remaining words, “ That we may perfectly love thee,” contain the positive part of Holiness : seeing this Love, which is the fulfilling of the Law, implies, the whole mind that was in Christ.
8. But how does the general stream of Writers and Preachers (let me be excused the invidious task of instancing in particular persons) agree with this doctrine ? Indeed, not at all. Very few can we find who simply and earnestly enforce it. But very many who write and preach as if Christian Holiness, or Religion, were a purely negative thing; as if, not to curse or swear, not to lie or slander, not to be a drunkard, a thief, or a whoremonger, not to speak
* The Bishop translates pop, peruk, with the Vulgate, redeem or buy off, but the proper and literal meaning is break off. A, C.
or do evil, was religion enough to entitle a man to heaven! How many, if they go something farther than this, describe it only as an outward thing! As if it consisted chiefly, if not wholly, in doing good, (as it is called,) and using the means of grace! Or should they go a little further still, yet what do they add to this poor account of Religion? Why, perhaps, that-a man should be orthodox in his opinions, and have a zeal for the constitution in Church and State. And this is all! This is all the religion they can allow without degenerating into enthusiasm ! So true it is, That the faith of a devil and the life of a heathen, make up what most men call a good Christian!
9. But why should we seek further witnesses of this ? Are there not many present here who are of the same opinion? Who believe that a good moral man and a good Christian mean the same thing? That a man need not trouble himself any further, if he only practises as much Christianity as was written over the Heathen Emperor's gate, “ Do as thou wouldst be done unto.” Especially if he be not an infidel or an heretic, but believes all that the Bible and the Church says is true.
10. I would not be understood, as if I despised these things, as if I undervalued right opinions, true morality, or a zealous regard for the constitution we have received from our fathers. Yet what are these things being alone? What will they profit us in that day? What will it avail to tell the Judge of All, “Lord, I was not as other men were ; not unjust, not an adulterer, not a liar, not an immoral man.” Yea, what will it avail, if we have done all good, as well as done no harm ? If we have given all our goods to feed the poor, and have not Charity? How shall we then look on those who taught us to sleep on and take our rest, though the Love of the Father was not in us? Or who, teaching us to seek salvation by works, cut us off from receiving that Faith freely, whereby alone the Love of God could have been shed abroad in our hearts ?
To these miserable corrupters of the Gospel of Christ, and the poison they have spread abroad, is chiefly owing,
II. Secondly, That general corruption in practice as well as in doctrine. There is hardly to be found, (O tell it not in Gath, publish it not in the streets of Askelon,) either the form of Godliness, or the power! So is the faithful city become an barlot!
1. With grief of heart I speak it, and not with joy, that scarcely is the form of godliness seen among us. all indeed called to be Saints, and the very name of Christians means no less. But who has so much as the appearance? Take any one you meet: take a second, a third, a fourth, or the twentieth. Not one of them has even the appearance of a saint, any more than of an angel. Observe his look, his air, his gesture! Does it breathe nothing but God? Does it bespeak a temple of the Holy Ghost ? Observe his conversation; not an hour only, but day by day. Can you gather from any outward sign, That God dwelleth in his heart? That this is an everlasting spirit, who is going to God? Would you imagine that the blood of Christ was shed for that soul, and had purchased everlasting salvation for it, and that God was now waiting till that salvation should be wrought out with fear and trembling?
2. Should it be said, Why what signifies the form of godliness? We readily answer, Nothing, if it be alone. But the absence of the form signifies much. It infallibly proves the absence of the power. For though the form may be without the power, yet the power cannot be without the form. Outward religion cannot be where inward is not: but if there is none without, there can be none within.
3. But it may be said, We have public prayers, both morning and evening, in all our Colleges. It is true, and it were to be wished that all the members thereof, more especially the elder, those of note and character, would, by constantly attending them, shew how sensible they are of that invaluable privilege. But have all who attend them the form of Godliness ? Before those solemn addresses to God begin, does the behaviour of all who are present, show, That they know before whom they stand? What