Изображения страниц

LONDON REVIEW, October, 1860.-1. English, Literary and Ver

nacular. 2. Recent Discoveries in Eastern Africa. 3. Ruskin on Modern Painters. 4. The Methodist Episcopal Church and Slavery. 5. Lebanon—The Druses and Maronites. 6. Sicily. 7. England at the Accession of George III. 8. Etheridge's Life of Dr. Coke. 9. Henry Drummond. 10. Italy in Transition.

BRITISH QUARTERLY REVIEW, October, 1860.-1. Ireland-Her

Past and Present. 2. Atkinson's Travels - Amoor, India, and China. 3. Glaciers. 4. Heinrich von Kleist. 5. Burton's Lake Regions of Central Africa. 6. Modern Painters. 7. Egyptology and the Two Exodes. 8. Christian Races under Turkish

Rulers. 9. Hours with the Mystics. The article on Egyptology is learned and original. The first part presents, and treats with refutation and ridicule, the stupendous programme of hypothetical history invented by Bunsen for the twenty thousand years anterior to the dates of authentic history. This

programme is founded not upon the monumental records of Egypt, but partly upon the supposed demands of linguistic development, and arises very much from applying to that department the principles of Darwin as applied to species; and partly upon the historical records of Manetho, who extends Egyptian history into a stupendous round of mythical ages, terminating with a period ruled over by “Ghosts and Heroes.” The writer discredits Mane tho by showing that he is unreliable even for the historic period, as tested by the monumental inscriptions.

The latter part of the article furnishes a very ingenious argument, founded on the latest developments of Brugsh, identifying the Pharoah of the Exodus with Thothmes II. of the monuments, predecessor of Thothmes III., the great conqueror. Of Thothmes III. there remain some magnificent inscriptions upon his templo palace at Karnak, cotemporaneous and almost autobiographical, fixing their own dates with indisputable accuracy, furnishing history “more precious than the lost decades of Livy.” These records supply the date of the accession of Thothmes III., which the reviewer astronomically ascertains to have been May 5, 1515; and “with the sunset of the preceding day would commence the tvelfth day of the second lunar month, counting from the equinox.” Now, assuming this to have been the day of the demise of the preceding monarch, it is identical with the day of the submersion of the Exodic Pharoah in the Red Sea. For Moses says, that from the overthrow to the arrival of Elim was “three days,” that is, voxonpepa, measured from sunset to sunset. This would make them arrive at Elim on the fourteenth, and leave there on the fifteenth. Just so it is said by Moses : “They took their journey from Elim ... on the fifteenth day of the second month."

We suppose Chevalier Bunsen would consider so striking an adjustment of Manetho demonstrative of his accuracy; but, in the case of Moses, it is too nice a coincidence to be valid.



is Believing. 2. The Papal Government. 3. Tickler II. among the Thieves ! 4. The Reputed Traces of Primeval Man. 5. The Romance of Agostini, Part II. 6. The Fresco-Paintings of Italy - The Arundel Society. 7. Proverbs. 8. The Meeting. 9. Progress. 10. Strength. 11. Norman Sinclair: An Autobi

ography, Part IX. In a former number of our Quarterly we referred fully to the discovery of certain hatchet-shaped flint stones, excavated from such geological depths, in Amiens and Albeville, France, as to indicate in the minds of the savans, the existence of the human race at an immensely distant period anterior to all history. The Blackwood contains an article, signed with the letters H. D. R. (the initials we presume of Henry D. Rogers, now Professor in Glasgow University,) narrating a visit to and full examination of the localities and objects in question, and furnishing the results. We can give only his conclusions:

1. To the question, Are the so-called flint-implements of human workmanship or the results of physical agencies? my reply is, They bear unmistakably the indications of having been shaped by the skill of man.

2. To the inquiry, Does the mere association in the same deposit of the flint. implements and the bones of extinct quadrupeds prove that the artificers of the flint-tools and the animals coexisted in time? I answer, That mere juxtaposition of itself is no evidence of cotemporaneity, and that upon the testimony of the fossil bones the age of the human relics is not proven.

3. To the query, What is the antiquity of the mammalian bones with which the flint-implements are associated ? my answer is, That, apart from their mixture with the recently discovered vestiges of an early race of men, these fossils exhibit no independent marks by which we can relate them to human time at all. The age of the diluvium which imbeds the remains of the extinct mammalian animals must now be viewed as doubly uncertain, doubtful from the uncertainty of its coincidence with the age of the flint-implements, and again doubtful, if even this coincidence were established, from the absence of any link of connection between those earliest traces of man and his historic ages.

Upon the special question involved in this general query, What time must it have required for the physical geography adapted to the pachyderms of the antediluvian period to have altered into that now prevailing, suited to wholly different races ? the geological world is divided between two schools of interpretation, the tranquilists, who recognize chiefly nature's gentler forces and slower mutations, and the paroxysmists, who appeal to her violent subterranean energies and her more active surface-changes.

4. To the last interrogation, How far are we entitled to impute a high antiquity to these earliest physical records of mankind from the nature of the containing and overlying sedimentary deposits ? my response again is, That as the two schools of geologists now named differ widely in their translation into geologic time of all.

phenomena of the kind here described, this question, like the preceding, does not admit, in the present state of the science, of a specific or quantitative answer.

In conclusion, then, of the whole inquiry, condensing into one expression my answer to tho general question, Whether a remote prehistoric antiquity for the human race has been established from the recent discovery of specimens of man's handiwork in the so-called diluvium, I maintain it is not proven; by no means asserting that it can be disproved, but insisting simply that it remains Not Proven.

ECLECTIC REVIEW, October, 1860.-1. The Pauline Doctrine, No. II.

2. A Contrast; or, Theological Differences. 3. The Province of Reason. 4. Church Principles and Life. 5. Egypt's Place in Universal History. 6. The Social Affections. 7. Home Evangelization. 8. The Story of the Caliph Hakem, the Divinity of

the Druses. The fifth article is a brief critique upon Bunsen's demand for an immense ante Mosaic chronology. Bunsen's positions are thus given :

First. That the immigration of the Asiatic stock from Western Asia (Chaldea) into Egypt is antediluvian.

Secondly. That the historical deluge, which took place in a considerable part of Central Asia, cannot have occurred at a more recent period than the Tenth Millennium, B. C.

Thirdly. That there are strong grounds for supposing that that catastrophe did not take place at a much earlier period.

Fourthly. That man existed on this earth about 20,000 years B.C., and that there is no valid reason for assuming a more remote beginning of our race.-P. 386.

A large amount of this hypothetical chronology is based upon Bunsen's theory that language is developed from a monosyllabic germ, namely, the Chinese, by agglutination, grammatical formations, and syntactical organization:

Thus we have a chain, of which the links are: A, Chinese; B, the oldest Turanian formations, or Tibetan ; C, Hhamism, the language-development of ancient Egypt; D, Semism; E, the harmonious and perfected organism of language, or Arism. As all things in the physical world tend upward to find their acme and perfection in man, so in language, from first to last, there is an organic life-struggle after the form which completes human utterance by the formation of articulated sentences—Arabic, Sanscrit, Greek, and Latin, being the highest results of the process. In these, in different degrees, is discerned the symmetrical organism which is the perfect instrument of the consciously creative mind.-P. 390.

This theory has, perhaps, about the same validity as M. Comte's assumption of the development of the human race through three philosophic stages of infancy, manhood, and age. The refutation is also similar :

A quite sufficient answer to this conjectural scheme of lingual development is found in the fact of the co-ætaneous existence, even at the present day, of all those varieties of language. Living representations are found still, among the spoken languages of the world, of Sinism, Turanism, Semism, and Arism: so that what we find cotemporaneous now, we are under no obligation to esteem consecutive at an earlier period of man's existence upon earth. Half-a-dozen modes of linguistic progress may have run their course cotemporaneously in the world, their characteristic differences and modes of procedure being due to the genius of the respective human races of families, rather than to any essential law of precedence among themselves. The indisputable fact, that the rule of development appears checked in the case of whole nations and quarters of the globe, which have sottled down into imperfect modes of lingual expression as the final result of their experiment in language-making, and that there, at this low point of progress, they are sure to remain as long as the sun and moon endure, while others have pushed on to the acme of minute and accurate expression in a copious vocabulary and complicated syntax, and all this, although holding intercourse with nations in higher stages of linguistic development than their own, tells against the pretty pattern which the Baron has drawn, and asserts independent lines of collateral development, and not derivative subordination.

Furthermore, against the supposition of Chinese being the parent, in its primitive simple grammar, of the more developed but still simple grammar of the Egyptians, is the statement to be urged that the Egyptian grammar is not a simple one but one well-developed, bearing therefore, in this respect, no resemblance to the early Chinese. Hhamism is, in its grammatical structure, sheer Semism, or Arism in an early stage of development; just as, on the other side, Japhetism is likewise Semism, or Arism in a more finished stage, the affinities on both sides testifying to their common parentage, and thus to the unity of the human race.

The vocal element of the Chinese language claims no share in the parentage of the Hhamitic tongues, because that vocal element is independent of the characters. The written character of the whole Chinese nation is the same; so that an epistle written in any one dialect conveys precisely the same sense in any other dialect. But the sounds attached to the syllabic character are arbitrary, so that the inhabitants of the north and south of the Celestial Empire are as unintelligible to each other, when they speak, as if a hopelessly dumb person attempted to communicate by word of mouth with one as hopelessly deaf; but both Chinamen and infirm men become mutually intelligible directly they take a pen in their hand, and commit their thoughts to paper.

But the existence of a syllabic language like the Chinese to the present day, crystallized in forms so different from the linguistic cultivation of the rest of the great races of the world, is a very forcible argument against the derivation of the Egyptian from it, and against the rashness that would assign any specific period as essential for the process of its evolution into more perfect forms. If the Chinese, according to Bunsen, was virtually the same kind of tongue 15,000 years ago, before the great cataclysm, as it is now, having withstood the progressive tendency of humanity, and all the influences of time and change, there is nothing in this characteristic of the language to contribute any help toward forming correct ideas of the period of man's existence upon earth. The language which survives 15,000 years may have existed 30,000 years, for any evidence which its imperishable and unchanged forms of vocalization present to the contrary. If this argument tells negatively upward, it tells in the same way downward, and has at least the effect of neutralising that portion of the Baron's argument which claims specific periods for the production of peculiar characteristic or radical changes in tongues.-Pp. 391, 392.

French Reviews.

REVUE DES DEUX MONDES, Septembre 1, 1860.-1. Le Marquis

de Villemer, Quatreime Partie. 2. Politique Coloniale de la France-Les Antilles Françaises, la Martinique et la Guadeloupe Depuis L'Emancipation. 3. Thomas Jefferson, sa Vie et sa Correspondance-ÎV. Jefferson dans la Retrait, sa Mort. 4. La Poésie Hongroise au XIX Siècle-Les Rapsodes de l'Histoire Nationale. 5. Légendes et Paysages de l'Inde--L'Ile de Ceylan, son Histoire et ses Meurs. 6. Un Essai d'Histoire Idéale, Merlin l'Enchanteur. 7. Etudes de Cavalerie-Les Chasseurs d'Afrique. 8. Chronique de la Quinzaine, Histoire Politique et

Littéraire. 9. Les Romans d'Hier et d'Aujourd'hui. Septembre 15, 1860.-1. L'Angleterre et la Vie Anglaise-L'Ar.

mée, les Volontaires et les Ecoles Militaires--I. L'Arsenal de Woolwich. 2. Le Marquis de Villemer, Dernière Partie. 3. La Sculpture Contemporaine en France-Charles Simart. 4. Littérature Anglais-Une Thèse sur la Mariage en Deux Romans. 5. La Syrie et la Question d'Orient-I. Les Affaires de Syrie. 6. La Guerre du Maroc, Episode de l'Histoire Contemporaine de l'Espagne. 7. Du Mouvement Moral des Sociétés d'Après les

Derniers Résultats de la Statistique. Octobre 1, 1860.-1. Une Mission en Suisse Pendant les Cent-jours,

Papiers Inédits. 2. De l’Equilibre et de l'Etat des Forcés Navales en France et en Angleterre, a Propos des Nouveaux Essais Tentés Dans la Marine. 3. Industriels et Inventeurs—Christophe Oberkampf. 4. La Syrie et la Question d'Orient-II. La Turquie et la Conférence Européenne. 5. Mademoiselle du Plessé, Première Partie. 6. Des Agens de la Production Agricole I. Les Engrais Minéraux. 7. Chronique de la Quinzaine, Histoire Politique et Littéraire. 8. Essais et Notices — De l’Organisation du Nouveau Royaume d'Italie.

REVUE CHRETIENNE, August 15, 1860.-1. Les Grands Moralistes

Français, d'après le livre de Vinet. 2. Jeanne d'Albret. 3. Bacon et le Materialisme (fin.) 4. Bulletin Bibliographique.

5. Revue du Mois. Septembre 15, 1860.-1. Port Royal. 2. Madame de Maintenon.

3. Jérusalem et le Temple. 4. Nécrologie. 5. Bulletin Biblio

graphique. 6. Revue du Mois. The advancement of the principles of freedom in our country, in Church and in State, is matter of congratulation with the intellectual and Christian minds of Europe. Witness the following extracts, which we translate from this periodical:

If we direct our attention to the other bemisphere, we see the different political parties preparing themselves vigorously for the presidential election. Several candidates are in the field, but it is upon Mr. Lincoln of Illinois that the vote is bestowed of the party which has for its object the progressive abolition of slavery. Not that Mr. Lincoln is a decided abolitionist; but he is, at any rate, among the number of those who believe that slavery ought not to pass its actual limits. Such a platform has a signification of immense importance in the politics of a president of the American confederation; for it is to be noted that, according to the American constitution, to the federal power it is that the supreme authority belongs in the new territories not yet organized into states. To prevent the introduction of slavery, therefore, into the territories, is to assure for the future in the

« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »