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was not universal, and that human races existed previous to the time of Adam. Of his Preadamite theory and its grounds an account is given in the following paragraphs:

"In the first Epistle to the Corinthians, where Adam is named the first man, the language is figurative and has its counterpart in the designation of Christ as the second man.' Adam and Christ are here set as landmarks in the judicial history of the race-opposite termini of imputation-and as, by the one, sin, which is the transgression of the law, entered into the world, and through sin death; so, by the other, deliverance from sin came into the world, ard by that deliverance life. As Christ was not the last man in time, so Adam was not the first man, but each stands in a definite relation to all men who have existed, or are yet to be.

“Peyrere founds his theory on that passage of the Scriptures which has in all ages furnished matter for theological speculation, the fifth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans. The words of the thirteenth verse, "for until the law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed when there was no law," is made the keystone of the argument. “The law,' in this passage, he contends, cannot mean the law given to Moses, but the law given to Adam. For the apostle is speaking of the great transgression which brought sin and death into the world; and the law men. tioned in the context is obviously related to that transgression. Law and trans. gression are correlative terms, so that the conditions which fix the one must deter. mine also the other. The transgression of which the apostle speaks was committed by Adam ; but the law of Moses was given to the Jews and transgressed by the Jews alone. Hence the law is not that which was given to Moses, but that which was given to Adam; and it was by the transgression of this law that all men were made sinners and death passed upon the race. And this the apostle directly confirms by the words: 'Sin is not imputed where there is no law.' *For,' says Peyrere, 'I cannot understand, by the most careful thinking, how it can be proved that sin was not imputed during the time which elapsed from Adam to Moses. Every event in that period shows that there was imputation of sin. Why did Cain fear when he had slain his brother, saying: “My iniquity is too great for pardon." Why should pardon be refused if iniquity was not to be im. puted to him? Why was Judah unwilling to stain his hands with the blood of his brother Joseph, or what was the stain which he feared if it was not imputation ? Abraham's faith was not imputed to him for righteousness, and the imputation of faith presupposes the imputation of sin.' In this way the sacred history is made to afford proof that sin was imputed to man from Adam to Moses. But if sin was not imputed until the law, it follows that the law referred to by the apostle is the law revealed to Adam. And this law, the grand primal law, or law of laws, is called, per excellentiam, the law.

** Having settled this question of interpretation, Peyrere is prepared to define the periods of time which the language of the passage clearly implies: the first, before the law: the second, after the law. The first is described in the words, * for until the law, sin was in the world,' etc.; but the law here mentioned is the law given to Adam, and consequently the time referred to is a period prior to the creation of Adam. During this period, according to the testimony of the apostle, there was sin in the world; for there was sin even to the law, though there was no imputation of sin. It must be admitted, therefore, that men existed before Adam, who indeed sinned, 'sed qui non peccavissent imputative,' because sin was not imputed before the law.

“Peyrere anticipated the horror with which many would receive it; but ho claims that just as the succession of day and night has not been affected by the Copernican theory of astronomy, so the doctrine that there were men before Adam practically changes nothing in the Christian faith. The fundamental fact of this faith is that men are counted guilty in Adam, but righteous in Christ. As it was not necessary that Christ should be the last of the race in order to rescue it from sin, so it was not requisite that Adam should be the first member of the series of beings on which he brought condemnation."

English Reviews. EDINBURGH REVIEW, January, 1861.-1. Church Expansion and Liturgical

Revision. 2. Japan and the Japanese. 3. The Victoria Bridge. 4. Political Ballads of England and Scotland. 5. Ocean Telegraphy. 6. Autobiography of Dr. A. Carlyle. 7. Motley's History of the United Netherlands. 8. Forbes and Tyndall on the Alps and their Glaciers.

9. The Kingdom of Italy. 10. Naval Organization. WESTMINSTER REVIEW, January, 1861.-1. Ancient Danish Ballads.

2. Alcohol : What becomes of it in the Living Body. 3. Canada. 4. Bible Infallibility: “Evangelical Defenders of the Faith.” 5. The Neapolitan and Roman Questions. 6. American Slavery : the Impending Crisis. 7. Cavour and Garibaldi. 8. Dante and his English Trans

lators. NORTH BRITISH REVIEW, February, 1861.—1. India Convalescent. 2. Shel

ley and his Recent Biographers. 3. Large Farms and the Peasantry of the Scottish Lowlands. 4. Lord Dundonald. 5. Modern Necromancy. 6. Engineering and Engineers. 7. The Political Press-French, British, and German. 8. Home Ballads and Poems. 9. Hessey's Bampton Lecture. 10. Dr. Carlyle's Autobiography. 11. Lord Palmerston and our

Foreign Policy. LONDON QUARTERLY REVIEW, January, 1861.–1. Canada and the North

west. 2. The Welsh and their Literature. 3. The United Netherlands. 4. The Iron Manufacture. 5. Italy. 6. The Dogs of History and Ro

7. The Income-Tax and its Rivals, JOURNAL OF SACRED LITERATURE AND BIBLICAL RECORD, October, 1860.

1. Elijah at the Brook Cherith, and at Zarephath. 2. Düsterdieck and others on the Apocalypse. 3. The Morality of Religious Controversy. 4. Exegesis of Difficult Texts. 5. The Genealogies of our Lord. 6. Epiphanius on the Day of the Crucifixion Passover. 7. Preaching to the Spirits in Prison, etc. 8. On the Parables of the New Testament.

9. The Genesis of the Earth and of Man. 10. The Atonement. BLACKWOOD's EDINBURGH MAGAZINE, January, 1861.-1. The Political

Year. 2. The Purist Prayer-Book. 3. Uncivilized Man. 4. English Embassies to China. 5. Horror: a True Tale. 6. What's a Grilse ? 7. Norman Sinclair : an Autobiography-Part XII. 8. A Merry Christ

9. The Indian Civil Service-Its Rise and Fall. February, 1861.–1. School and College Life : its Romance and Reality.

2. Carthage and its Remains. 3. Spontaneous Generation. 4. The Transatlantic Telegraph-Iceland Route. 5. Norman Sinclair: An Autobiography-Part XIII.

6. Biographia Dramatica. 7. Judicial Puzzles—Eliza Fenning. 8. The Foreign Secretary.



French Reviews. REVUE DES Deux MONDES, Octobre 15, 1860.-1. De L'Avenir Religieux

des Sociétés Modernes. 2. La Centralisation en France. 3. Mademoiselle du Plessé, Seconde et Dernière Partie. 4. L'Angleterre et la Vie Anglaise.—X.-L'Armée et les Volontaires - II. Institutions et Meurs Militaires des Anglais, le Camp D'Aldershott. 5. Les Peintres Flamands et Hollandais en Flandre et en Hollande—I. Les Peintres Flamands Primitifs. 6. Economie Politique—Du Rachat des Chemins de fer par

l'Etat. 7. Une Fantasie Esthétique Genevoise. Novembre 1, 1860.-1. Trois Ministres de l'Empire Romain sous les Fils

de Théodose—I. Rufin. 2. Beaux-Arts—Du Principe des Expositions, le Concours en Grèce et de nos Jours. 3. Miss Tempête. 4. Etudes d'Economie Forestière-Les Praduits Forestiers de la France et Les Essais d'Acclimation. 5. Le Salarie et le Travail des Femmes-III. Les Femmes dans la Petite Industrie. 6. Le Cardinal Alberoni et une Expédition en Sicile au XVIIIe siècle. 7. De l'Allemagne en 1860, Les

Gouvernemens et les partis Au-Dela du Rhin. Novembre, 15, 1860.-1. Une Parque, Scènes de la Vie Anglaise, Première et Animales. 6. Deux Episodes Diplomatiques—I. Dernières Négociations de l'Empire, Ouvertures de Francfort et Conférences de Chatillon.

Partie. 2. Nouvelle Exégèse de Shakspeare D'Après une Théorie An. glaise sur la Question des Races. 3. La Chute de l'Empire d'Occident (Récits du Vo Siècle, de M. Amédée Thierry.) 4. La Lombardie et la Société Milanaise Depuis la Dernière Guerre de l'Independance. 5. Controverse sur la Question d'Orient a Propos d'Ecrits Récens. 6. Sciences -La Génération Spontanée et les Travaux de M. Pouchet. 7. Pierre

Landais et la Nationalité Bretonne, Première Partie. Décembre 1, 1860.-1. L'Angleterre et la Vie Anglaise—XI. Les Volun

taires de l'Armée Britannique et l'Ecole de Hythe. 2. Quinze jours au Désert, Souvenirs d'un Voyage en Amérique, Papiers Posthumes. 3. Une Parque, Scènes de la Vie Anglaise, Dernière Partie. 4. La Nouvelle Election Présidentielle et les Partis Aux Etats-Unis en 1860. 5. Pierre Landis et la Nationalité Bretonne, Seconde Partie. 6. Economie Rurale

de la Belgique--Les Flandres. Décembre 15, 1860.-1. L'Irelande en 1860, ses Griefs et sa Nationalité.

2. Histoire Naturelle de l'Homme-Unité de l'Espèce Humaine, le Règne Human, Première Partie. 3. L'Italie depuis la Paix de Villafranca—I. La Révolution Italienne et la Papauté. 4. De l'Esclavage aux Etats-Unis-I. Le Code Noir et les Esclaves. 5. Les Finances et les Travaux Publics de l'Espagne. 6. La Lande-aux-Jagueliers, Scènes et Récit du Bas-Anjou. 7. Leibnitz et Hegel, D'Après de Nouveaux Documens. 8. Portraits Poétiques—Madame Desbordes-Valmore et ses

Poésies Posthumes. Janvier 1, 1861.-1. Le Roi Louis-Phillippe et l'Empereur Nicholas (1841

1843.) 2. Les Mineurs du Harz, Souvenirs d'un Voyage dans l'Allemagne du Nord. 3. De la Statistique en France et des Progrès de la Richesse Public. 4. Conquête de la Mer. 5. L'Esclavage aux EtatsUnis-II. Les Planteurs et les Abolitionistes. 6. Histoire Naturelle de l'Homme-Unité de l'Espèce Humaine-II. L'Espèce, la Variété et la Race. 7. Deux Jours de Sport a Java, Scènes de la Vie Indo-Hollandaise. 8. Des Derniers Budgets de la France et de l'Accroissement des

Dépenses. Janvier 15, 1861.–1. La Comptesse d'Albany-I. Louise de Stolberg et

Charles-Edouard. 2. L'Empoissonnement des Eaux Douces—Les Poissons Sédentaires et les Poissons Voyageurs, Mæurs, Production, Elève et Acclimatation des Diverses Espèces. 3. Le Général Sir Robert Wilson au Camp Russe en 1812, Souvenirs de Guerre et de Diplomatie. 4. Leibniz et Bossuet d'Après leur Correspondance Inédite. *5. Histoire Naturelle de l'Homme-Unité de l'Espèce Humaine—III. Races Végétales

7. Les Voyageurs en Orient-VI. De la Moralité des Finances Turques. Février 1, 1861.-1. L'Italie Depuis Villafranca—II. Le Roi François II.

et la Révolution de Naples. 2. Joseph de Maistre et Lamennais-Les Tendances Communes et les Résultats Définitifs de leur Philosophie. 3. La Comtesse d'Albany-II. La Reine d'Angleterre et Victor Alfieri. 4. Histoire Naturelle de l'Homme-Unité de l'Espèce Humaine—IV. Des Variations dans les Etres Organisés. 5. Les Finances de l'Empire. 6. La Fauvette Bleue, Récit des Bords de la Loire. 7. Les Fantaisies

d'Histoire Naturelle de M. Michelet. REVUE CHRETIENNE, Octobre 15, 1860.-1. Madame de Maintenon. 2. Une

Excursion dans l'Italia du nord dans l'Automner 1860. 3. Le Temple

de Jerusalem. 4. Ch.-Victor de Bonstetten. Novembre 15, 1861.-1. Quelques Réflexions sur l'Avenir de la Religion

Réponse à M. Renan. 2. Port-Royal (2e article.) 3. Un Aperçu sur Goethe. 4. Un Nouveau Système de Traduction des Evangeles.


Religion, Theology, and Biblical Literature. Codex Alerandrinus. H KAINH AIAOHKH. Novum Testamentum Græce ex Antiquissimo Codice Alexandrino a C. G. WOIDE. Olim Descriptum: Ad Yidem Ipsius Codicis Denuo Accuratius. Edidit B. H. COWPER. Londini : Venumdant Williams and Norgate et D. Nutt. Edinburge:

Williams and Norgate. New York: B. Westermann & Loe. 1860. In the year 1638 Cyril Lucar, at one time Patriarch of Alexandria, afterward of Constantinople, was by the arbitrary decree of the Emperor of Turkey put to death. There had been in his possession a Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testament, brought probably by him from Alexandria, written in a fair hand in a large and beautiful uncial letter. This manuscript, nine years before his death, Cyril had sent by the hand of Sir Thomas Roe as a present to Charles the First, King of England, by whose order it was placed in the British Museum. Accompanying the manuscript was a Latin letter by Cyril stating that it was some thirteen hundred years old, and was written by the hand of Thecla, a noble Egyptian lady. With regard to this Thecla nothing is clearly known; but the Egyptian origin of the manuscript has formerly been held credible on good evidence, and has lately received some curious confirmation from a coincidence of some of its ornamentation with certain figures upon the Egyptian monuments. The portion containing the New Testament is a volume about ten inches wide and

fourteen high. The material is thin, fine, beautiful vellum, often discolored at the edges, which have been marred by time, and too closely cut by the culpable carelessness of the modern binder. The age of this manuscript has been variously estimated, but the opinion of the best judges places it about the middle of the fifth century. It has been heretofore held as scarcely inferior in antiquity to the Vatican manuscript. The late discovery of Tischendorf sinks it to a lower relative rank.

But one edition of this manuscript of the New Testament has hitherto been published. In 1786, under the patronage of the authorities of the British Museum, a fac-simile edition was issued under the editorship of C. G. Woide. This work was in folio, with excellent prolegomena and notes, but it has long since become scarce and expensive. Modern students are mostly indebted for their knowledge of its readings to the labors of collators. Hence, it is a great favor to the scholars of our day that a handsome edition has now been published, under the care of Mr. Cowper, in a handsome form, accessible to them at a comparatively cheap rate. It is a beautiful octavo, on fine solid paper, in a large, clear, stately type. It is kept on sale by Westermann, of whom it may be ordered.

A Text-Book of the History of Doctrines. By Dr. K. R. HAGENBACH, Pro

fessor of Theology at Halle. The Edinburgh Translation of C. W. Buch, revised, with large Additions, from the Fourth German Edition, and other Sources. By HENRY B. Smith, D.D., Professor in the Union Theological Seminary of the City of New York. Volume 1. 8vo., pp.

478. New York: Sheldon & Co. 1861. Christian students will welcome with great pleasure an American edition of Hagenbach. That so accomplished a scholar as Professor Smith has undertaken the work will be a matter of additional gratification; and we may add that it has not been permitted to pass through his hands without receiving valuable and permanent traces of his ability and research.

Hagenbach's work first appeared in Germany in 1841; Mr. Buch's Edinburgh translation in 1846. Successive editions, both in German and English, have attested the public estimation of the work. Dr. Smith has revised the translation, and made important additions from a variety of sources from the theological literature of Germany, England, and America.

The History of Doctrines, Dr. Smith remarks, has been of all the branches of theological study the most neglected in our theological courses. Perhaps a supply of this omission will be

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