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successful com] etition of that labor which keeps the prices of the great tropical staples so low as to prevent their cultivation with profit in the possessions of Great Britain, by what she is pleased to call free-labor.
"If she can destroy its competition, she would have a monopoly of these productions. She has all the means of furnishing an unlimited supply -vast and fertile possessions in both Indies, boundless command of capital and labor, and ample power to suppress disturbances and preserve order throughout her wide domain.
"Dismissing, then, the stale and unfounded plea of philanthropy, can it be that France and the other great continental powers-seeing what must be the result of the policy, for the accomplishment of which England is constantly exerting herself, and that the defeat of the Annexation of Texas is so important towards its consummation -are prepared to back or countenance her in her efforts to produce either? What possible motives can they have to favor her cherished policy? Is it not better for them that they should be supplied with tropical products in exchange for It is unquestionable that she regards the their labor from the United States, Brazil, Cuba, abolition of Slavery in Texas as a most import and this continent generally, than to be depend ant step toward this great object of policy, so ent on one great monopolizing power for their much the aim of her solicitude and exertions; supply? Is it not better that they should receive and the defeat of the Annexation of Texas to our them at the low prices which competition, cheapUnion as indispensable to the abolition of Sla-er means of production, and nearness of market, very there. She is too sagacious not to see what would furnish them by the former, than to give a fatal blow it would give to Slavery in the the high prices which monopoly, dear labor, and United States, and how certainly its abolition great distance from market, would impose? Is with us will abolish it over the whole continent, it not better that their labor should be exchanged and thereby give her a monopoly in the produc- with a new continent, rapidly increasing in poputions of the great tropical staples, and the com-lation and capacity for consuming, and whic mand of the commerce, navigation, and manu would furnish, in the course of a few genera factures of the world, with an established naval tions, a market nearer to them, and almost o ascendancy and political preponderance. To unlimited extent, for the products of their indus this continent, the blow would be calamitous be- try and arts, than with old and distant regions, yond description. It would destroy, in a great whose population has long since reached its measure, the cultivation and productions of the growth great tropical staples, amounting annually in value to nearly $300,000,000, the fund which stimulates and upholds almost every other branch of its industry, commerce, navigation, and manufactures. The whole, by their joint influence, are rapidly spreading population, wealth, improvement and civilization over the whole continent. and vivifying, by their overflow, the industry of Europe, thereby increasing its population, wealth, and advancement in the arts, in power, and in civilization.
"Such must be the result, should Great Britain succeed in accomplishing the constant object of her desire and exertions-the abolition of Negro Slavery over this continent-and towards the effecting of which she regards the defeat of the Annexation of Texas to our Union so important. "Can it be possible that governments so enlightened and sagacious as those of France and the other great continental powers, can be so blinded by the plea of philanthropy as not to see what must inevitably follow, be her motive what it may, should she succeed in her object? It is little short of mockery to talk of philanthropy, with the example before us of the effects of abolishing Negro Slavery in her own colonies, in St. Domingo, and in the Northern States of our Union, where statistical facts, not to be shaken, prove that the free Negro, after the experience of sixty years, is in a far worse condition than in the other States, where he has been left in his former condition. No: the effect of what is called abolition, where the number is few, is not to raise the inferior race to the condition of freemen, but to deprive the Negro of the guardian care of his owner, subject to all the depression and oppression belonging to his interior condition. But, on the other hand, where the number is great, and bears a large proportion to the whole population, it would be still worse. It would be to substitute for the existing relation a deadly strife between the two races, to end in the subjection, expulsion, or extirpation of one or the other; and such would be the case over the greater part of this continent where Negro Slavery exists. It would not end there; but would, in all probability, extend, by its example, the war of races over all South America, including Mexico, and extending to the Indian as well as the African race, and make the whole one scene of blood and devasta
"The above contains those enlarged views of policy which, it seems to me, an enlightened Eu. ropean statesman ought to take, in making up his opinion on the subject of the Annexation of Texas, and the grounds, as it may be inferred, on which England vainly opposes it. They certainly involve considerations of the deepest importance, and demanding the greatest attention. Viewed in connection with them, the question of Annexation becomes one of the first magnitude, not only to Texas and the United States, but to this continent and Europe. They are presented, that you may use them on all suitable occasions where you think they may be with effect, in your correspondence, where it can be done with propriety or otherwise. The President relies with confidence on your sagacity, prudence, and zeal. Your mission is one of the first magnitude at all times, but especially now; and he feels assured that nothing will be left undone on your part to do justice to the country and the Government in reference to this measure.
"I have said nothing as to our right of treaty with Texas, without consulting Mexico. You so fully understand the grounds on which we rest our right, and are so familiar with all the facts necessary to maintain them, that it was thought unnecessary to add anything in reference to it. "I am, Sir, very respectfully, "Your obedient Servant,
"J. C. CALHOUN." "WILLIAM R. KING, Esq., &c., &c."
The election of James K. Polk as President, and George M. Dallas as Vice-President, (Nov. 1844) having virtually settled, affirmatively, the question of annexing Texas, the XXVIIIth Congress commenced its second session at Washington on the 2nd of December, 1844-Mr. John Tyler being still acting President up to the end of the Congress, March 4th following.
Dec. 19. Mr. John B. Weller, (then member from Ohio, now Senator from California) by leave, introduced a joint resolution, No. 51, providing for the annexation of Texas to the United States, which he moved to the Committee of the Whole.
Mr. E. S. Hamlin of Ohio moved a reference of said resolve to a committee of one from each State, with instructions to report to the House,
"1st. Whether Congress has any constitutional power to annex a foreign, independent nation to this Government; and if so, by what article and section of the Constitution it is conferred; whether it is among the powers expressly granted, or among those which are implied; whether it is necessary to carry into effect any expressly-granted power; and if so, which one.
"2d. Whether annexation of Texas would not extend and perpetuate Slavery in the Slave States, and also, the internal slave-trade; and whether the United States Government has any constitutional power over Slavery in the States, either to perpetuate it there, or to do it away.
3d. Whether the United States, having acknowledged the independence of Texas, Mexico is thereby deprived of her right to reconquer that province.
"4th. That they report whether Texas is owing any debts or not; and, if she is, what is the amount, and to whom payable; and whether, if she should be annexed to the United States, the United States Government would be bound to
pay them all.
5th. That they report what treaties are in existence between Texas and foreign governments; and, if she should be annexed to the United States, whether the United States Government would be bound, by the law of nations, to fulfill those treaties."
The question on commitment was insisted upon, and first taken-Yeas, 109 (Democrats); Nays, 61 (Whigs); whereupon it was held that Mr. Hamlin's amendment was defeated, and the original proposition alone committed.
Jan. 10th, 1845. Mr. John P. Hale, N. H., (then a Democratic Representative, now a Republican Senator) proposed the following as an amendment to any act or resolve contemplating the annexation of Texas to this Union:
"Provided, That immediately after the question of boundary between the United States of America and Mexico shall have been definitively settled by the two governments, and before any State formed out of the territory of Texas shall be admitted into the Union, the said territory of Texas shall be divided as follows, to wit: beginning at a point on the Gulf of Mexico, midway between the Northern and Southern boundaries thereof on the coast; and thence by a line running in a northwesterly direction to the extreme boundary thereof, so as to divide the same as nearly as possible into two equal parts, and in that portion of said territory lying south and west of the line to be run as aforesaid, there shall be neither Slavery nor involuntary servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.
"And provided further, That this provision shall be considered as a compact between the people of the United States and the people of the said territory, and forever remain unalterable, unless by the consent of three-fourths of the States of the Union."
Mr. Hale asked a suspension of the rules, to enable him to offer it now, and have it printed and committed. Refused-Yeas, 92, (not two-thirds;) Nays, 81.
Yeas-All the Whigs and most of the Democrats from the Free States, with Messrs. Duncan L. Clinch and Alex. H. Stephens of Georgia, and Geo. W. Summers of Va.
Nays--All the members from Slave States, except the above, with the following from Free States:
NEW-HAMPSHIRE.-Edmund Burke, Moses Norris, jr-2.
NEW-YORK.-James G. Clinton, Selah B.
PENNSYLVANIA. James Black, Richard Brodhead, Henry D. Foster, Joseph R. Ingersoll, Michael H. Jenks-5.
ОнIо.-Joseph J. McDowell-1.
ILLINOIS.-Orlando B. Ficklin, Joseph P.
Total Democrats from Free States, 17.
Dec. 12th.-Mr. C. J. Ingersoll of Pa., from the Committee on Foreign Affairs, reported a Joint Resolution for annexing Texas to the Union, which was committed and discussed in Committee of the Whole from time to time, through the next month.
Jan. 7th.—Mr. J. P. Hale presented resolves of the Legislature of New Hampshire, silent on the subject of Slavery, except as thoroughly in favor of Annexation, and follows:
'Resolved, That we agree with Mr. Clay, that the re-annexation of Texas will add more Free than Slave States to the Union; and that it would which will exist as long as the globe remains, be unwise to refuse a permanent acquisition, on account of a temporary institution."
Jan. 13th.-Mr. Cave Johnson of Tenn. moved that all further debate on this subject be closed at 2 P. M. on Thursday next. the Nays from Slave States). Carried-Yeas, 126; Nays, 57; (nearly all
Jan. 25th.-The debate, after an extension of time, was at length brought to a close, and the Joint Resolution taken out of Committee, and reported to the House in the following form; (that portion relating to Slavery, having been added in Committee, Tennessee: on motion of Mr. Milton Brown (Whig) of
"Resolved, by the Senate and House of Rep resentatives in Congress assembled, That Congress doth consent that the Territory properly included within, and rightfully belonging to, the Republic of Texas, may be erected into a new State, to be called the State of Texas, with a republican form of government, to be adopted by the people of said republic, by deputies in convention assembled, with the consent of the existing government, in order that the same may be admitted as one of the States of this Union.
"2. And be it further resolved, That the forelowing conditions, and with the following guarangoing consent of Congress is given upon the foltees, to wit:
adjustment by this Government of all questions First. Said State to be formed, subject to the of boundary that may arise with other govern
ments; and the Constitution thereof, with the proper evidence of its adoption by the people of said Republic of Texas, shall be transmitted to the President of the United States, to be laid before Congress for its final action, on or before the 1st day of January, 1846.
"Second. Said State, when admitted into the Union, after ceding to the United States all pub lic edifices, fortifications, barracks, ports, and harbors, navy and navy-yards, docks, magazines, arms, armaments, and all other property and means pertaining to the public defense, belong ing to the said Republic of Texas, shall retain all the public funds, debts, taxes, and dues of every kind which may belong to, or be due or owing said republic; and shall also retain all the vacant and unappropriated lands lying within its limits, to be applied to the payment of the debts and liabilities of said Republic of Texas; and the residue of said lands, after discharging said debts and liabilities, to be disposed of as said State may direct; but in no event are said debts and liabilities to become a charge upon the United States.
"Third. New States of convenient size, not exceeding four in number, in addition to said State of Texas, and having sufficient population, may hereafter, by the consent of said State, be formed out of the Territory thereof, which shall be entitled to admission under the provisions of the Federal Constitution. And such States as may be formed out of that portion of said Territory, lying south of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north latitude, commonly known as the Missouri Compromise line, shall be admitted into the Union, with or without Slavery, as the people of each State asking admission may desire; and in such State or States as shall be formed out of said Territory, north of said Missouri Compromise line, Slavery or involuntary servitude (except for crime) shall be prohibited."
Mr. Cave Johnson of Tenn. moved the previous question, which the House seconded Yeas 113; Nays 106-and then the amendment aforesaid was agreed to-Yeas 118; Nays 101.
Yeas, 114 Democrats, and Messrs. Milton Brown of Tenn., James Dellet of Ala., and Duncan L. Clinch and Alex. H. Stephens of Ga. (4), Southern Whigs.
Nays, all the Whigs present from Free States, with all from Slave States, but the four just named; with the following Democrats from Free States:
MAINE. Robert P. Dunlap, Hannibal Hamlin
VERMONT. Paul Dillingham, jr.-1. NEW HAMPSHIRE.-John P. Hale-1. CONNECTICUT.-George S. Catlin-1. NEW-YORK.-Joseph H. Anderson, Charles S. Benton, Jeremiah E. Carey, Amasa Dana, Richard D. Davis, Byram Green, Preston King, Smith M. Purdy, George Rathbun, Orville Rob inson, David L. Seymour, Lemuel Stetson-12. OHIO.-Jacob Brinckerhoff, William C. McCauslen, Joseph Morris, Henry St. John-4. MICHIGAN. James B. Hunt, Robert McClel
Yens, all the Democrats from Slave States, and all the Democrats from Free States, except as below; with Messrs. Duncan L. Clinch, Milton Brown, James Dellet, Willoughby Newton, of Va. (who therefrom turned Democrat), and Alex. H. Stephens of Ga. (now Democrat), from Slave States.
Nays, all the Whigs from Free States; all those from Slave States except as above; with the following Democrats from Free States, viz.:
NEW-HAMPSHIRE.-John P. Hale, John R.
VERMONT.-Paul Dillingham, jr.-1.
Benton, Levi D. Carpenter. Jeremiah E. Carey,
OHIO.-Henry St. John-1.
MICHIGAN. James B. Hunt, Robert McClelland-2.
Total Democrats from Free States 23. So the resolve passed the House, and was sent to the Senate for concurrence.
In Senate, several attempts to originate action in favor of Annexation were made at this session, but nothing came of them.
Feb. 24th. The joint resolution aforesaid from the House was taken up for consideration by 30 Yeas to 11 Nays (all Northern Whigs). On the 27th, Mr. Walker of Wis. moved to add an alternative proposition, contemplating negotiation as the means of effecting the meditated end.
Mr. Foster (Whig) of Tenn. proposed the following:
terms and conditions of such admission, it shall "And provided further, That in fixing the be expressly stipulated and declared, that the State of Texas, and such other States as may be formed out of that portion of the present Territory of Texas lying south of thirty-six deg. thirty min north latitude, commonly known as the Missouri Compromise line, shall be admitted into the Union with or without Slavery, as the people of each State, so hereafter asking admission, may desire: And provided furthermore, That it shall be also stipulated and declared, that the public debt of Texas shall in no event become a charge upon the government of the United States."
The question was first taken on the first (Slavery) proviso of the foregoing, which was defeated, by Yeas and Nays, as fol
YEAS-For the Slavery Proviso: Messrs. Archer, Va.
Barrow, La. Bayard, Del. Berrien, Ga. Clayton, Del. Crittenden, Ky. Foster, Tenn. Hannegan, Ind. Huger, S. C.
Mangum, N. C.
All Whigs but three (in Italics).
The other branch of the amendment was voted down. Yeas, 20 (Whigs); Nays, 31 (25 Democrats and 6 Whigs).
Various amendments were proposed and voted down. Among them, Mr. Foster, of
Dix, N. Y.
Woodbury, N. H.-33.
The Walker amendment aforesaid was car
Tenn., moved an express stipulation that ried, by Yeas 27, to Nays 25, as follows:
Slavery should be tolerated in all States formed out of the Territory of Texas, south of the Missouri line of 36° 30'. RejectedYeas, 16 (Southern Whigs, and Sevier of Arkansas); Nays, 33.
Mr. Miller, of N. J., moved to strike out all after the enacting clause, and insert:
"That the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized and advised to open negotiations with Mexico and Texas, for the adjustment of boundaries, and the annexation of the latter to the United States, on the following basis, to wit:
"I. The boundary of the annexed territory to be in the desert prairie west of the Nueces, and along the highlands and mountain heights which divide the waters of the Mississippi from the waters of the Rio del Norte, and to latitude fortytwo degrees north.
"II. The people of Texas, by a legislative act, or by any authentic act which shows the will of the majority, to express their assent to said annexation.
"III. A State to be called 'the State of Texas,' with boundaries fixed by herself, and an extent not exceeding the largest State of the Union, be admitted into the Union, by virtue of this act, on an equal footing with the original States.
"IV. The remainder of the annexed territory, to be held and disposed of by the United States as one of their Territories, to be called 'the Southwest Territory.'
"V. The existence of Slavery to be forever prohibited in the northern and northwestern part of said Territory, west of the 100th degree of latitude west from Greenwich, so as to divide, as equally as may be, the whole of the annexed country between slaveholding and non-slaveholding States.
"VI. The assent of Mexico to be obtained by treaty to such annexation and boundary, or to be dispensed with when the Congress of the United States may deem such assent to be unnecessary.
"VII. Other details of the annexation to be adjusted by treaty, so far as the same may come within the scope of the treaty-making power."
Rejected by the following vote:
YEAS-For Mr. Miller's Substitute:
YEAS-For Walker's Amendment:
NAYS-Against the proposed Annexation: | South of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north
The joint resolve being thus returned to the House as amended by the Senate, a vote was almost immediately taken on concurring, and the amendment of the Senate was assented to Yeas, 134; Nays, 77. [A strict party vote, except that Mr. Dellet of Alabama, (Whig) voted in the majority]. So the Annexation of Texas was decreed, and in the following terms :
latitude, commonly known as the Missouri Compromise line, shall be admitted into the Union with or without Slavery, as the people of each State asking admission may desire. And in such State or States as shall be formed out of said ter ritory north of said Missouri Compromise line, Slavery or involuntary servitude (except for crime) shall be prohibited.
"And be it further resolved, That if the President of the United States shall, in his judgment and discretion, deem it most advisable, instead of proceeding to submit the foregoing resolution to the republic of Texas, as an overture on the part of the United States, for admission, to negotiate with that Republic; then,
"Be it resolved, That a State to be formed out of the present Republic of Texas, with suitable extent and boundaries, and with two representatives in Congress, until the next apportionment of representation, shall be admitted into the Union by virtue of this act, on an equal footing with the existing States, as soon as the terms and conditions of such admission, and the cession of the remaining Texan territory to the United States, shall be agreed upon by the Governments
JOINT RESOLUTION FOR ANNEXING TEXAS TO of Texas and the United States.
"Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled, That Congress doth consent that the territory properly included within, and rightfully belonging to, the Republic of Texas, may be erected into a new State, to be called the State of Texas, with a Republican form of government, to be adopted by the people of said Republic, by deputies in convention assembled, with the consent of the existing government, in order that the same may be admitted as one of the States of this Union.
"SEC. 2. And be it further resolved, That the foregoing consent of Congress is given upon the following conditions, and with the following guaranties, to wit:
"First. Said State to be formed, subject to the adjustment by this Government of all questions of boundary that may arise with other Governments; and the constitution thereof, with the proper evidence of its adoption by the people of said Republic of Texas, shall be transmitted to the President of the United States, to be laid before Congress for its final action, on or before the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and forty-six.
"Second. Said State, when admitted into the Union, after ceding to the United States all public edifices, fortifications, barracks, ports, and harbors, navy and navy yards, docks, magazines, arms, armaments, and all other property and means pertaining to the public defense, belong, ing to the said Republic of Texas, shall retain all the public funds, debts, taxes, and dues of every kind which may belong to, or be due or owing said Republic; and shall also retain all the vacant or unappropriated lands lying within its limits, to be applied to the payment of the debts and liabilities of said Republic of Texas; and the residue of said lands, after discharging said debts and liabilities, to become a charge upon the United "Third. New States of convenient size, not exceeding four in number, in addition to the said State of Texas, and having sufficient population, may hereafter, by the consent of said State, be formed out of the territory thereof, which shall be entitled to admission under the provision of the Federal Constitution; and such States as may be formed out of that portion of said territory lying
TEXAS having been annexed during the summer of 1845, in pursuance of the foregoing joint resolution of the two Houses of Congress, a portion of the United States Army, under Gen. Taylor, was, early in the Spring of 1846, moved down to the east bank of the Rio Grande del Norte, claimed by Texas as her Western boundary, but not so regarded by Mexico. A hostile collision ensued, resulting in war between the United States and Mexico.
that a considerable sum should be placed by It was early thereafter deemed advisable Congress at the President's disposal, to negotiate an advantageous Treaty of Peace and Limits with the Mexican government. A Message to this effect was submitted by President Polk to Congress, August 8th, 1846, and a bill in accordance with its suggestions laid before the House, which proceeded to consider the subject in Committee of the Whole. The bill appropriating $30,000 for immediate use in negotiations with Mexico, and placing $2,000,000 more at the disposal of the President, to be employed in making peace, Mr. David Wilmot, of Pa., after consultation with other Northern Democrats, offered the following Proviso, in addition to the first section of the bill:
"Provided, That as an express and fundament. al condition to the acquisition of any territory