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Literary & Scientific



Embracing the leading facts and principles of science, illustrated by engravings

with many difficult words explained at the heads of the lessons, and questions annexed for examination ; designed as exercises for the reading and study of the bigher classes in common schools. Selected from the Rev. John PLATTS' Literary and Scientific Class Book, and from various other sources; and adapt ed to the wants and condition of youth in the United States.


ADVERTISEMENT. The following Extracts are introduced as recommendatory of the design of the Literary and Scientific Class Book.

In teaching the art of reading it is an obvious waste of the precious period, devoted to education, to confine the exercises in that art to mere oombinations of words; or to compositions, the sole object of which is to prove the wit and genius of the writer ;-to compositions wbich do not teach any thing, and which, after a volume of them has been perused and re-perused for years, leave the mind in a state of listless curiosity. in proof of the justice of this remark, we need only appeal to the feelings of those persons who, while they were at school, read no other books than the selections published under the titles of Speakers, Readers, Extracts, and Beauties. As exercises in elocution, and as examples of elegant composition, such books cannot be sufficiently commended ; but they are ill adapted to the more important objects of instruction, and with regard to the purposes of general knowledge, they bear the same relation that gilding bears to gold, or pastime to useful labor.Rev. D. Blair.

It is evident that want of time will prevent the great mass of mankind from pursuing a systematic course of education in all its details ; a more summary and compendious method therefore must be pursued by them. The great majority must be content with never going beyond a certain point, and with reaching that point by the most expeditious route. A few, thus initiated in the truths of science, will no doubt push their attainments further; and for these the works in common use will suffice; but for the multitude it will be most essential that works should be prepared adapted to their circumstances. ..... It is not necessary that all who are taught or even a considerable proportion should go beyond the rudiments : but whoever feels within himself a desire and an aptitude to go further will do so,-and the chances of discovery, both in the arts ia science itself, will be thus indefanitely multiplied.-Edinburg Review, No. 81,


PREFACE. The Literary and Scientific Class Book, by the Rev. John Platts of Doncaster, England, was published in the beginning of the year 1821. " The grand object aimed at," he says in his Preface,“ is, that while the pupil reads his daily lesson he shall not only learn to pronounce words, but shall also treasure up a valuable stock of ideas, to enlarge bis mind, to interest Itis heart, god to prepare him for his finture scenes on the theatre of hle."


Phe plan and leathing title of the above-mentioned publication Lave been adopta
ed in the present work, and many of the lessons have been retained either in full,
or in an abridged and altered form. The notes, appendix, and engravings, have
been added ; and such materials bave been selected from other sources as were
judged best adapted to improve the hearts and enlarge the minds of youth in this
country. Most of the lessons have been selected with a particular reference to
the instruction which they contain on important branches of knowledge. Al-
though the work is designed for the higher classes, yet it is believed that all young
persons, who are able to read with facility, and are acquainted with the rudiments
of arithinetic and geography, may use it with advantage.


Intellectual Pleasure. Mental Improvement. Hahit of Attentive Thought. Cultivation
of Memory. Plan of Reading. Hymn to Science. Usefulness of Mathematical Studies.-
Imagination, mits Power illus'ated. Beauty and Sublimity, Illustration of. Taste, Im
provement and Pleasures of Poetry, --ils Object... Advantages of Studying History

Philosophy,--its leading Offices. The Praise of Philosophy. General Properties of Bodo
tes. Attraction of Gravitation, Sir

Isaac Newton's Discoveries. Centre of Gravity, Pyra-
mids of Egyg, Tower of Pisa, The Laws of Motion, Velocity, Momenta, Accion and
Re-action. Compound Motion, The Pendulura. Mechanical Power's, The Lever. The
Pulley, Wheel, and Axle, and Inclined Plane. The Wedge and Screw, Friction. The
Laws of Fluids, Pressure of Fluids. Spesifio Gravity of Bodies, Archimedes. Hydraulics,
Sy phon, Common Pump, Forcing Pump. The Diving Bell, and Steam Engine. Nature
and Properties of Air. The Air Pump: Tho Barometer, Uses of. Sound, Velocity of
Sound, Echo. Nature of Musical Sounds, Musical Barometer Optics, Reflection and Re:
fraction of Light. Different kinds of Lenses, Burning Glass Mirrors, Convex Reflectors.
Colours, The Prism. The Rainbow, Halo, and Parhelia. Stracture of the Eye, Angle of
Vision.' Optical Instruments, Spectacles, Microscopes. Microscopic Discoveries. The
Telescope and Telegraph. Astronomy, Progress of this Science. The Solar System,
Galileo.' The Sun, a magnificent habitable globe. Mercury and Vénus. The Earth's
Ecliptic and Zodiac, Celestial Latitude and Longitude, Day and Night, causes of Chan.
ges of the Seasons. The Moon, Harvest Moon. The Tides, explanation of. Eclipses
of the Moon and Sun. Mars, Vesta, Juno, Pallas, and Ceres. Jupiter, -his Belts, Sat-
ellites, &c. Saturn and Uranus; Saturo's Ring. Comets, Pope Callixtus, The Fixed
Stars, The Milky Way. The Constellations, Hymn to the North Star. Forms and Di.
visions of Time, Equation of Time. The Planetary System. Chemistry, Importance
and Use of, General Principles of Chemistry, Chemical Affinity. Caloric, Thermume.
tor. Atmospheric Air, Composition of Oxygen, Nitrogen, Water, Composition of, Hy-
drogen Gas." The Earths and Alkalies, Uses of Lime. Acids and Salts, Moantains of
Salt. Simple Combustibles, Carbon, Metals. Oxyds and Combustion, Exhilarating Gas.
Electricity, Electrical Machine, Experiments. Leyden Phial, Dr. Franklin's Discogery,

Thunder and Lightning. Falling Stars, Water Spouls, and Northern Lights. Gøran-
išm, Voltaic Battery. Prof. Hare's New Deflagrator, Magnetism, Variation of the Nee.
dle. Magnetical Experiments, Amusing Deceptions. Aerostation, Air Balloons, Para-
chute, Death of Rozier, Natural History, --ils Objects. Mineralogy, Characters of Min-
erals. Classification of Minerals, the Diamond. Gold -ils remarkable ductility, Silver
and Mercury, Plating with Silver, Quick-silver Mine Copper and Lead; Brass, White
Lead, Iron and lin, Importance of Iron, Use of Tin, Pewter, Zinc, Manganese, and
Antimony, their uses. Study of Geology, --its objects and uses. Geology, Stratification,
Sacred History confirmed. Relative Situation of Rocks, Decomposition of Rocks. Bio.
graphical Sketch of Linnæus. Study of Botany, a Source of Mental Improvement. Tex-
ture of Vegetables, Bark, Wood, Pith, Age of Trees, Sap and Secretions, Flowing of the
Sap, Sugar. Process of Vegetation. Roots, Stems, Buds and Leaves, Effect of Light up.
on Plants. Flower and Fruit. Classification of Vegetables, ils Importance and Use. --
Flowers, Insects in Flowers. Animal Kingdom, Study of Zoology advantageous to the
Young First Class of Animals (Mammalia,) Orders of, Birds,--their Divisions into
Orders, Moulling Reptiles and t'ishes, Electrical Fishes. Structure and Transforma.
tion of Insects. Orders of Insects, the Gossamer. Crustaceous and Molluscous Animals,
Shells. Vermes and Zoophites, Leech, Polypes. Bxistence of the Dcity, Political
Economy, Progress of Civilization. Property, unequal Distribution of. Division of La-
bour, Agriculture, ---the Strebgth of Nations. Commerce and Manufactures. Money,-
its abundance, not the cause, but the consequence of Wealth. Ship-building and Naviga-
tion. Architecture, Advantages of, --Orders of. Constitution of the United States, Sketch
of. Excellence of our Republican Government. Intelligence of the People a Means of
Safety to the Government. The government of England, King, Parliament. America :
an Extract from Bryant's Poem of the ages, Structure of the Human Body, Wonder.
ful Mechanism of the Human Voice. Siructure of the Ear, Music, Pleasures of,-Ear
Por, Painting, Cartoons of Raphael. Sculpture, Statuary, Casting in Plaster of Paris.-
«The Love of Nature, The Importance of Natural Philosophy. Mythology, Account of
the Principal Heathen Gods, and Goddesses. Hazmany of Science and Christianity, the Iufluence of an Early Taste for Reading The Mechanical Wonders of a Feather. art. of Making Pins. Clouds and Raig. Invention and Progress of Printing. Influence Hope,


The North American Review, after giving the title page and preface, adds

“ Such is Mr. Leonard's plan and he seems to have filled it out faithfully and with good judgment.”

From the U.S. Literary Gazette. This book contains a fund of knowledge, particularly in the natural and physical sciences, which we have never seen condensed within so small a compass. The selections have been made with great discrimination, and from the best authorities; the original lessons are written in a terse style ; and the materials thus made up are compiled and arranged with good taste and sound judgment. ??

From the American Journal of Educatian. « The Rev. Mr. Platt's Literary and Scientific Class Book, which is the basis of the above work, is much valued in England ; and Mr. Leonard has, we think, been very successful in adapting it to the use of Schools in the United States.

" School-books of this kind are valuable to the community, from the aid which they afford to the dissemination of useful knowledge among the whole people.. But they have an immediate and subordinate value to the young, which is not so commonly appreciated : they tend more than any other class of books, to produce a natural and chaste style of Reading.

“ The Literary and Scientific Class Book is, we think, one of the most valuable School-books that has hitherto been published. It is a work which may ac'celerate improvement every where ; but it promises to be peculiarly useful in towns and villages where there is not convenient access to extensive libraries.. From the Principal of Gardiner Lyceum, in Maine.

GARDINER, April 24, 1826) 16 SIR-I am late in acknowledging the receipt of a copy of the Literary and Scientific Clas: Book, with which I was some time ago favoured. It arrived when my time would not allow me to give it an examination. I have lately embraced the opportunity of a little more leisure to look into it, and, from what I have seen, I should think it extremely well calculated to impart a summary knowledge of the principles of science. The articles which I have read, are written with clearness, and embrace very happily the most important points of the subject to which they relate. Wisbing you merited success in your publication,

I am respectfully, Yours, Mr. JOHN PRENTISS,


ORD, Mass. April 6. I have just had the pleasure of examining the Literary and Scientific Class Book, and am so favorably struck with its merits, that I feel anxious it should be introduced in all our town Schools and Acadernies. It has too long been the practice to read in one book and study in another. In consequence of this, but few scholars are enabled to become acquainted with the outlines of Science and Literature. In a school of fifty or sixty scholars, I have not more than eight or ten who are furnished with separate books for study and recitation. Yet there are as many as forty, who would be able to recite regularly from the most useful matters, if they were provided with a book which answers the purpose of reading and study at the same time, Such is the Literary and Scientific Class Book.

Yours, &c. JAMES FURBUSH. Sir I have attentively examined the Literary and Scientific Class Book, by Rev. Levi W. Leonard--and as a reading Books for the higher classes in common Schools and Academies, musť give it a decided preference to any I have

ever seen. I am highly pleased bolh with the plan and execution of the work, and, as I give it my cordial approbation, confidently recommend it to the Public, as a Book calculated to convey much useful information, refined amusement, and important instruction.


HIRAM P. BENNETT. SWANZEY, June 15th 1826.

07 The Literary and Scientific Class Book will be a convenient and useful Manual for those persons, whether young or old, who attend Lectures on Natural Philosophy, Astronomy, Chemistry, Mineralogy, Natural History, and Botany. Those Lectures, wbich are now frequently delivered in our principal towns and villages, are often attended with little pleasure or profit, for want of some previous interest in the subjects, and acquaintance with the technical terms and leading principles. The present work, being plain and comprehensive, will remedy an evil which has heretofore been felt, and it is put at so low a price, that very few will find it beyond their means. It will be a useful book also for those who are connected with Mechanic Institutes, or Pbilosophical Institutions, which owe their origin to the liberal and enterprising spirit of the present age, and are designed to raise to a higher standard the moral and intellectual character of the great mass of mankind. F Price 75 cts... 7,50 Doz. Full Bound.



En Beading,



From Rev. John Woods, of Newport, N. H. Dear Sir, I have examined with considerable attention " Leavitt'sBasy Lessons," with which, through your politeness, I was favored some months since; and am fully prepared to say it possesses excellencies decidedly superior to any work of the kind I have ever seen. It is well fitted to form a connecting link between the Spelling Book, and the different books in reading commonly used in our Schools. The Selection is in general judiciously made. While it interests, it is calculated to leave a good impression on the youthful mind. From Professor ESTABROOK, of Amherst Collegiate Institution, Sept. 1823.

"** The Easy Lessons in Reading, for the use of the younger classes in Common Schools, by Joshưa Leavitt, Esq. is, in my opinion, the intermediate book which has long been needed in common schools." ** From a Review of the work in the Christian Spectator, by Prof. GOODRICH.

" The author of the work before us has done a real benefit to the cause of education, by compiling a book of “ Easy Lessons in Reading, for the use of the younger classes in Common Schools," with a strict reference to the real object of such a work. While it will interest children deeply, it will teach them, if judiciously used, to read in a natural and simple manner. ** We would strongly recommend it to the public, as excellently adapted to the end in view."

30P The above work is also highly recommended by Rev. Mr. Willard, of Deerfield ; Rev. Mr. Clark of Amherst, (now of Bennington, Vt.); Rev. Mr. Andrews, and Asa Keyes, Esq. of Putney, Vt. &c. &c

Price, 25 cts, single--$$2,25 e dozen.


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II. EXAMPLES and ANSWERS with BLANK SPACES, sufficient for

their operation by the Scholar.

III. To each Rule a SUPPLEMENT, comprehending, 1. QUESTIONS on the NATURE of the Rule, its Use and the manner of its OPERATIONS.


IV. FEDERAL MONEY, with rules for all the various operations in it, to reduce FEDERAL to OLD LAWFUL, and OLD LAWFUL to


V. INTEREST cast in Federal Money, with Compound Multiplication,
Compound Division and Practice, wrought in Old Lawful and in FEDERAL
MONEY; the same questions being put in separate columns on the
same page in each kind of money, these two modes of
account become contrasted, and the great advan-
tage gained by reckoning in Federal

Money easily discerned.

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VI. DEMONSTRATIONS by EngRAVINGS of the reason and nature of the various steps in the extraction of the SQUARE and CUBE Roots, not to

be found in any other treatise on Arithmetic.




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[PROPRIETOR OF THE COPY RIGHT.] Sold at his Bookstore, and by the principal Booksellers in the New-England States

and New-York.-1928

Price i0 Dollars per dosen, 1 Dullur single.


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