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Giles, London, to L'Illustration created an immense sensation. He afterwards illustrated Eugene Sue's Wandering Jew, Balzac's novels, and other works. He died in 1866.

in number) are of equal length, and the feet are completely webbed. The males can be distinguished from the females by the shape of the muzzle, which is much smaller at the extremity. The only exGavazzi (gå-våt'sē), ALESSANDRO, tant species occurs in South and Eastern a popular Italian preacher Asia, especially in the Ganges. It feeds and political agitator, born at Bologna on fishes and small prey. 1809; died at Rome 1889. At the age of Gavotte (ga-vot), an air for a

fifteen he became a monk of the Barnadance with two strains, bite order, at twenty he was professor each of four or eight bars, in or of rhetoric in the College of Naples, and time, the starting notes occupying half soon after made his mark as a pulpit a bar. Like the minuet, it has been orator. In 1846 he was chaplain general introduced for free treatment into suites, of the Roman patriotic league. Subse- sonatas, etc. The name is said to be quently he threw off his papal allegiance derived from the Gavots, the inhabitants and joined the agitation which ended in of the Gap, in France. the The French

(ga), poet,

Gay born near Barnstaple in 1688, and apprenticed to a silk mercer in London. In 1711 he published his Rural Sports, which he dedicated to Pope, with whom he formed a close friendship. In

occupation of Rome drove him into exile, when he traveled through Britain and America lecturing against the Church of Rome, his power as an orator evoking much enthusiasm. He was with Garibaldi in 1860, and made subsequent visits 1712 he became secretary to Anne, to Britain gathering funds for the Free Duchess of Monmouth, and his mockItalian Church, in the interests of which heroic poem, Trivia, or the Art of Walkhe lectured, preached, and traveled on ing the Streets of London, appeared in deputation work till a short time before the same year. In 1714 his caricature of Ambrose Philips' pastoral poetry was published, under the title of the Shepherd's Week, and dedicated to Lord Bolingbroke, by whose interest he was appointed secretary to the Earl of Clarendon, in his embassy to the court of Hanover. In 1715 appeared his burhis next piece, the farce, Three Hours lesque drama of What d'ye Call It? but 1720 he published his poems by subscripAfter Marriage, altogether failed. tion, in 1723 his tragedy, The Captives, and in 1726 his well-known Fables. His Beggar's Opera, the notion of which seems to have been afforded by Swift, was first acted in 1727, at Lincoln's Inn Fields, where it ran for sixty-three nights, but the lord chamberlain refused to license for performance a second part


entitled Polly. The latter part of his life was spent in the house of the Duke of Queensberry, where he wrote his sonata Acis and Galatea and the opera Achilles. He died in 1732.

his death.

(gā'vel-kind), an old
English tenure, by which
the land of the father was at his death
equally divided among his sons, or in
default of sons, among the daughters.
The issue of a deceased son inherited the
father's part. Collaterally, also, when
one brother died without issue all the
other brothers inherited from him.
Gavelkind, before the Norman conquest,
was the general custom of the realm; it
was then superseded by the feudal law
of primogeniture, and only retained in
Wales and Kent. The custom continued
in Wales till the time of Henry VIII;
in Kent all land is still held in gavelkind
unless specially disgaveled by act of

Gavial (ga'vi-al; Garialis Gangeti-
cus), the Indian
characterized by the narrow, almost cyl


Head of Gavial or Gangetic Crocodile (Gavialis Gangeticus). indrical jaws which form an exceedingly elongated muzzle. The teeth (about 120


French authoress, born at Paris in 1776; maiden name, Nichault de Lavalette. She was first married to a financier, M. Liottier, from whom after six years she was divorced to marry M. Gay, a receiver general under the empire. Her salon was a famous resort for the men of letters and artists of the time. She died at Paris in 1852. Her chief works are Laure d'Estell (1802), Anatole (1815), Le Moqueur Amoureuse (1830), Scènes de Jeunes Ages (1833), La



Duchesse de Châteauroux (1834), Les the Ecole Polytechnique, and then sucSalons Célèbres (1837), and Le Mari ceeded Fourcroy as professor of general Confident (1849). For her daughter, chemistry in the Jardin des Plantes. In DELPHINE GAY, see Girardin (Madame 1831 he entered the chamber of deputies, de). and in 1839 he was made a peer of but never took an

in politics. He was especially celebrated for his researches into the chemical and physical properties of gases and vapors. For many years he edited, in conjunction with Arago, the Annales de Chimie et de Physique; and many of his numerous memoirs were published in this or in the Comptes Rendus. He also published, along with Thénard, Recherches Physicochimiques, in which some of their most important discoveries are described. Other works are his Cours de Physique and Leçons de Chimie.


Gaya the chief town of a dis-
trict of the same name in Ben-
gal, on the right bank of the Phalgu, a
tributary of the Ganges, 260 miles N. w.
of Calcutta. It consists of an old and
a new town. The former occupies a
rocky height, is inhabited chiefly by
Brahmans, and being regarded as a place
of great sanctity, is annually visited by
vast crowds of pilgrims. The latter,
called Sahibganj, is the trading quarter,
and the seat of administration where the
European residents dwell. The place
abounds with objects of Hindu worship,

and almost every height in the vicinity
is the a legend. Pop.
The district has an area of 4712 square


(ga'nor), WILLIAM J.,

jurist, at Whitestown, New York, in 1851. He went to Brooklyn in 1873 and worked on Brooklyn and New York newspapers while studying law. Was admitted to the bar in 1875, and took part in many important cases, becoming known nationally for his work in breaking up rings in the Democratic party and in securing the conviction of John Y. Kane for election frauds. He was elected judge of the Supreme Court of New York in 1893 and again in 1907, for twelve years, declined a nomination for mayor of Brooklyn in 1897, also for governor of New York and for judge of the Court of Appeals, and in 1909 was elected Democratic mayor of New York. As such he gave eminent satisfaction by THUR, historian, born in his earnest efforts to improve conditions Louisiana in 1805; died in 1895. He was in that city. In the nominating convensecretary of state of Louisiana 1846-53, tion for governor in 1910 he declined to and presiding judge of the city of New let his name be used. He was shot by a Orleans. He wrote History of Louisiana disappointed office-seeker in the summer and Louisiana: Its History as a French of 1910, receiving a serious but not a Colony. fatal wound. He died September 11, 1913.

Gayarre (gi-å-rå'), CHARLES AR

Gay-Lussac (ga-lus-ak), LOUIS Jo- Gaza (g'za), an ancient town of

Syria, originally a city of the Philistines, near the Mediterranean, 50 miles s. s. w. of Jerusalem. The modern town, Ghuzzeh, is a principal entrepôt for the caravans passing between Egypt and Syria. The population has increased apidly of recent years and is now estimated at 16,000.

SEPH, a French chemist and physicist, born at St. Léonard (Haute-Vienne) in 1778; died at Paris in 1850. He was educated in the Ecole Polytechnique from 1797 to 1800, and afterwards in the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées, but preferring chemistry, he entered Berthollet's Ecole Laboratory. In 1802 he returned to the Polytechnique Gaza (gå'zȧ), THEODORE, a Renais as demonstrator of chemistry, and in sance scholar, born at Thessa1804 performed his two balloon ascents lonica about 1405; died in Calabria in for scientific purposes, the first with 1478. He came to Italy about 1430; Biot, the second by himself, an account became teacher of Greek at Ferrara; of which appeared in the Journal de was patronized by Pope Nicholas V, CarPhysique. In 1806 he was elected to dinal Bessarion, and King Alfonso of the Academy of Sciences. In 1808 he Naples. Gaza labored for the diffusion was appointed professor of physics at the of Greek literature, not only by teaching, Sorbonne, a post he held for twenty-four but also by his writings, and especially years, in 1809 professor of chemistry in by Latin translations of the Greek clas

GYAL (gi'al), a species of OX (Bos frontalis) found wild in the mountains of Northern Burmah and Assam, and long domesticated in these countries and in the eastern parts of Bengal. The head is very broad and flat in the upper part, and contracts suddenly towards the nose; the horns are short and slightly curved. The animal has no proper hump, but on the shoulders and forepart of the back there is a sharp ridge. The color is chiefly a dark brown. Its milk is exceedingly rich, though not abundant.


sics. His chief work is a translation of the writings of Aristotle on natural history.


an alkali and an acid, as carbonate of soda and tartaric acid, which yield carbonic acid when mixed with water. It Gazelle (ga-zel'; Gazella dorcas), generally consists of two globes, one the type of a sub-family of above the other, connected by a tube, the antelopes (Gazelina), which includes lower for containing water, and the upsome 23 species of small, mostly desert- per the ingredients for producing the gas. loving form s. The vessel is made air-tight by means of Its color is a a screw-top, and when water is gently light fawn upon introduced into the upper globe from the the back, deep- lower, by inclining the vessel so as to ening into dark- fill about a half of the former, chemical brown in a wide action takes place, and the carbonic acid band which evolved gradually saturates the water in edges the flanks the lower globe. When this has taken and forms a place, the aerated water can be drawn off line of demarca- by opening a stopcock at the top attached tion between to a second tube which reaches almost to the color of the the bottom of the lower globe.

upper portions Gean (gen), a kind of wild cherry-
of the body and
tree (Prunus Avium), common
the pure white in Britain. The fruit is smaller than
that of the common cherry, of a red color
when unripe, and a deep purple or black
when it arrives at maturity. The flavor
is superior to that of most cherries. The
wood is used for furniture and other

Gearing (gering), in machinery, the

parts collectively by which motion communicated to one portion of a machine is transmitted to another, generally a train of toothed wheels. There are two chief sorts of wheel gearing, viz. spur-gearing and beveled gearing. In the former the teeth are arranged round either the concave or convex surface of a cylindrical wheel in the direction of radii from the center of the wheel, and are of equal depth throughout. In beveled gearing the teeth are placed upon a beveled surface round a wheel which if the slope of the bevel were continued would form a cone.


Gazelles (Gazella dorcas)

of the abdomen. The eye of the gazelle is large, soft, and lustrous. Both sexes are provided with horns, round, black, and lyrated, about 13 inches long. It seems to be confined to the north side of the Atlas Mountains, Egypt, Abyssinia, Syria, Arabia, and South Persia.

Gazette (ga-zet'; from gazzetta, a small Venetian coin, which was the price of the first newspaper), a newspaper, especially an official news paper. The first gazette in England was published at Oxford in 1655. On the removal of the court to London the title of London Gazette was adopted. It is now the official newspaper, and published on Tuesdays and Fridays. It is the organ by means of which all state intelligence, proclamations, appointments, etc., are promulgated, and in which declarations of insolvency are published. A similar official newspaper is published also in Edinburgh and Dublin. Gazetteer (gaz-e-ter'), a geographin Westmoreland County, ical dictionary; a book Pennsylvania, in 1819; died in 1873. He containing descriptions of natural and became an engineer officer in the Mexican political divisions, countries, cities, war, and then the first United States towns, rivers, mountains, etc., alphabeti- postmaster of San Francisco. Returning cally arranged. Among the more impor- to the East in 1856, he became governor tant general works of this kind are of Kansas Territory and restored order McCulloch's Geographical Dictionary, there, but resigned in 1857. During the Johnstone's Dictionary of Geography, Civil war he served with distinction and Blackie's Imperial Gazetteer, Lippincott's became a brigadier general, and at the Pronouncing Gazetteer (based upon close major general. In 1866 he was Blackie's), Saint Martin's Nouveau Dic- elected governor of Pennsylvania and retionnaire de Géographie Universelle, and elected in 1869. Ritter's Geographisch-Statistisches Leri

Geary (ge're), JOHN WHITE, born

kon. are
confined to particular countries.
(gaz'u-jen), an appa-
Gazogene ratus used for manu-

facturing aerated water on a small scale
for domestic use, by the combination of

Gebang Palm (ge-bang), the Co

rypha a fanleaved palm of S. E. Asia. Geber (geber), an Arabian chemist or alchemist, often designated the father of chemistry, who flourished during the eighth century. He was



acquainted with nearly all the chemical brother of former, British railroad expert,
processes in use down to the eighteenth member of the Imperial War Cabinet,
century. His writings describe various inspector-general of transportation, ano
kinds of furnaces and other apparatus, First Lord of the Admiralty, born in
and cupellation, distillation, and other India in 1876.
chemical processes; the

composition, and properties of the metals
then known-gold, silver, copper, lead,
tin, and iron, and the functions of mer-
cury, sulphur, and arsenic. He is the
reputed author of an immense number of
works, as well on metaphysics, language,
astronomy, etc., as on chemistry.
Gecko (gek'ō), a name common to
the members of a family of
nocturnal lizards (Geckotida), char-
acterized by the general flatness of their
form, especially of the head, which is
somewhat of a triangular shape; the
body is covered on the upper part with
numerous round prominences or warts;
the feet are rather short, and the toes of
nearly equal length and furnished with
flattened sucking pads by means of which
the animals can run up a perpendicular
wall, or even across a ceiling. The great-
est number feed on insects and their
larvæ and pupæ. Several of the species
infest houses, where, although they are
perfectly innocuous, their appearance
makes them unwelcome tenants. One
species is common in N. Africa and S.
Ged (ged), WILLIAM, the inventor of

Geddes, JENNY, the name tradition

gives to a street fruit-seller who, during the tumult in St. Giles' Church, Edinburgh, in July, 1637, when the dean attempted to introduce the Episcopalian service-book, threw her stool at his head exclaiming, Villain! dost thou say mass at my lug?' This tumult led to events which annulled Episcopacy and restored Presbyterianism. The honor of the exploit has been claimed for a Barbara Hamilton, wife of John Mein, merchant in Edinburgh, but Jenny Geddes, the street fruit-seller's claim, has always been the popular one, and recently a memorial brass was placed in St. Giles to her memory.

Geefs (gifs), GUILLAUME, a Bel-
gian sculptor, born at Ant-
werp 1806, died 1883. Among his most
important works are the monument to
the Victims of the Revolution of 1830 at
Brussels; a statue of Rubens in front of
Antwerp Cathedral; statues of King
Leopold, etc. His brothers JOSEPH
(died 1860) and ALOYS (died 1841)
were also sculptors of reputation.
Geel (gal). See Gheel.

stereotyping, born in Edinburgh Geelong (ge-long), an Australian

seaport colony of Victoria, near the head of the west arm of Port Philip Bay, 45 miles southwest of Melbourne. The town is well laid out, and there is an extensive botanical garden and several public parks. There are three jetties in the bay, alongside of which ships of the largest tonnage can load and discharge. There are wool mills, tanneries, ropeworks, etc., and a considerable trade is done in wool. Pop., inclusive of suburbs, 23,311. Geestemünde (gas'te-mun-de), a


about the beginning of the eighteenth
century; died in poor circumstances in
1749. He first practiced his great im-
provement in the art of printing in 1725;
and some years later he entered into a
partnership in London, the result of
which was the production of two prayer-
books only. He returned to Scotland in
1733, and published a stereotype edition
of Sallust.
Geddes (ged'es), ALEXANDER, a Ro-
man Catholic divine, poet, and
miscellaneous writer, was born in Banff,

Scotland, in 1737; in London 1802.


seaport town North Prussia, in Hanover, at the mouth British anatomist, soldier, ad- of the Weser, separated from Bremerministrator, cabinet minister, educator haven by the Geeste. Extensive docks and diplomat, born in 1879, son of Auck- were constructed here in 1857-63. The land Campbell Geddes of Edinburgh. He port is strongy fortified, and the trade served in the South African war and the is increasing rapidly. The industries inEuropean war; was director of recruit- clude shipbuilding, iron-founding, engiing, minister of national service, president neering, etc. Pop. 23,625. Geestendorf. of the local government board, and in formerly a separate town, has been united 1919 minister of reconstruction. He was with it since 1889.

professor of anatomy in Edinburgh, Dub- Geez
lin, and McGill University (Canada). He
was appointed principal of McGill Uni- Gefle
versity, but rescinded his acceptance on
being offered the post of ambassador to same
the United States in 1920.-SIR ERIC, miles

(gez), the name of an Ethiopian language. See Ethiopia.

(vef'le), a seaport of Sweden,

near the mouth of a river of name in the Gulf of Bothnia, 50 N. of Upsala. It stands on both



sides of the river and two islands formed Geisha

(g'sha), in Japan a singing by it, and has an excellent harbor. It and dancing girl. Geisha girls has manufactures of linen, leather, to begin their training as professional enterbacco, sail-cloth, etc.; shipbuilding yards; tainers at a very early age and are a and an extensive trade in deals, tar, feature of Japanese social life. pitch, iron, etc. Pop. 29,522.


Geissler's Tubes (gis'lér), from the name of Heinrich Gegenbaur (ga'gen-bour), anatomist, born at Würz- Geissler, a philosophical instrumentburg, Germany, in 1826. He studied maker of Bonn, who produced tubes made biology, became professor of anatomy at of very hard glass, and containing highly Jena in 1858 and at Heidelberg in 1873. rarefied gases. Each end of the tube has He wrote several able works, chief among which is his Outline of Comparative a platinum wire sealed into it to serve as an electrode. When a discharge of term Gehenna (ge-hen'a), a used electricity from an induction coil is caused in the New Testament as to take place in these tubes, very brilequivalent to a place of fire or torment, liant effects may be produced. and rendered in the authorized (and the Gela (jela), one of the most imporrevised) version by hell and hell-fire. It is a form of the Hebrew Ge-hinnom, the valley of Hinnom, in which was Tophet, where the Israelites sometimes sacrificed their children to Moloch (II Kings, xxiii, 10). On this account the place was afterwards regarded as a place of abomination, and became the receptacle for the refuse of the city, perpetual fires being kept up in order to prevent pestilential effluvia.

tant ancient Greek cities of Sicily, situated on the south coast of the island between Agrigentum and Camarina; founded in 690 B.C. by a colony of Cretans and Rhodians. The colony was remarkably prosperous, and in 582 B.C. sent out a portion of its inhabitants, who founded Agrigentum. In 280 Phintias, the tyrant of Agrigentum, utterly destroyed Gela. Its site has been the subject of much controversy. Gelada (gel'a-da), a singular Abys

Geibel (gibl), EMANUEL, a German

poet, born at Lübeck in 1815; sinian baboon, remarkable died 1884. He studied at the universities for the heavy mane which hangs over the of Bonn and Berlin, and resided a year shoulders, and which only grows when or two in Greece. He published in 1840 the animal is adult. It is called Gelada his first collection of poems, which Ruppellii, in honor of Dr. Ruppell, its reached its hundredth edition in 1884. discoverer.

In 1843 he published a tragedy, King Gelasius (je-la'si-us), the name of Roderick; in 1846 the epic König two popes-GELASIUS I Sigurd's Brautfahrt. A second collection and II. The former, who held the see of his poems appeared in 1848-Junius- from 492-496, founding on the alleged lieder (June Songs'). Other collections primacy of Peter, was one of the first were issued later. He was honorary who openly maintained that the Roman professor of æsthetics and poetry in the bishop alone was entitled to regulate University of Munich 1851-69, but spent matters of faith and discipline, though in his later days in his native town. He practice he had not then attained any wrote also Brunhild, a tragedy; The such superiority. GELASIUS II, pope Loreley, an opera in rhyme; and several for only one year (1118-19), and origiother plays, but his fame rests on his nally called John of Gaeta, was elected lyrics, which are immensely popular. by the party hostile to Henry V, but Geikie (ge'ki), SIR ARCHIBALD, geol- was obliged to give way to Gregory ogist, born at Edinburgh in VIII, supported by the emperor, and 1835. He was appointed to the geologi- shortly after died in the monastery of cal survey in 1855; became director of Clugny. the Scottish survey in 1867; was profes- Gelatine sor of geology and mineralogy in Edinburgh University 1870-81, and in 1881 became director general to the United Kingdom survey, and head of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. He is the author of numerous manuals, etc., on geology.

Geikie, JAMES (1839-1915), geologist,

brother of Archibald Geikie, born at Edinburgh. Author of The Great Ice Age, Outlines of Geology, etc.

(jel'a-tin), a concrete animal substance, transparent, and soluble slowly in cold water, but rapidly in warm water. It is confined to the solid parts of the body, such as tendons, ligaments, cartilages, and bones, and exists nearly pure in the skin, but it is not contained in any healthy animal fluid. Its leading character is the formation of a tremulous jelly when it solution in boiling water cools. Gelatine does not exist as such in the animal tis

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