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WINSTON'S

CUMULATIVE

LOOSE-LEAF

ENCYCLOPEDIA

A COMPREHENSIVE

REFERENCE WORK

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

THOMAS E. FINEGAN, M.A., PD.D., LITT.D., LL.D. Formerly Superintendent of Public Instruction Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

In Ten Volumes

ILLUSTRATED WITH PHOTOGRAPHS, MAPS, DRAWINGS AND
COLOR PLATES; INCLUDING SEVEN COLOR PLATES FROM
THE J. L. G. FERRIS COLLECTION OF AMERICAN HISTORICAL
PAINTINGS, BY SPECIAL PERMISSION OF THE ARTIST

THE JOHN C. WINSTON COMPANY

CHICAGO

PHILADELPHIA

TORONTO

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KEY TO PRONUNCIATION

Three methods are used to indicate the pronunciation of the words forming the headings of the separate articles:

(1) By dividing the word into syllables, and indicating the syllable or syllables to be accented. This method is followed where the pronunciation is entirely obvious. Where accent marks are omitted, the omission indicates that all syllables are given substantially the same value.

(2) Where the pronunciation differs from the spelling, the word is re-spelled phonetically, in addition to the accentuation.

(3) Where the sound values of the vowels are not sufficiently indicated merely by an attempt at phonetic spelling, the following system of diacritical marks is additionally employed to approximate the proper sounds as closely as may be done:

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ch is always as in rich.

d, nearly as th in this Sp. d in Madrid, etc.

g is always hard, as in go.

h represents the guttural in Scotch loch, Ger. nach, also other similar gutturals.

n, Fr. nasal n as in bon.

eu, a long sound as in Fr. jeûne, ====
Ger. long ö, as in Söhne, Göthe
(Goethe).

eu, corresponding sound short or medi-
um, as in Fr. peu=Ger. ö short.
ō, as in note, moan.

o, as in not, frog-that is, short or
medium.

The consonants, b, d, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, ng, p, sh, t, v, and z, when printed in Roman type, are always given their common English values in the transliteration of foreign words. The letter c is indicated by s or k, as the case may be. For the remaining consonant sounds the following symbols are employed:

r represents both English r, and r in foreign words, in which it is gen

ö, as in move, two.

û, as in tube.

u, as in tub: similar to è and also to a.
, as in bull.

ü, as in Sc abune-Fr. û as in dû,
Ger. ü long as in grün, Bühne.
ů, the corresponding short or medium
sound, as in Fr. but, Ger. Müller.
oi, as in oil.

ou, as in pound; or as au in Ger. Haus.

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