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BABINGTON, Anthony, conspiracy of
to assassinate Queen Elizabeth, 484.
Bacon, Lord, minister of Queen Eliza-
beth, 480; the greatest philosopher
of his age, 495; created Lord Ve-
rulam and Lord Chancellor, 526;
accused of bribery and corruption,
Baden Hill, battle of, 48.
Badlesmere, Lord, executed by Ed-
ward II., 286.
Bal, the Druidical deity, 17.
Balaclava taken possession of by the
English squadron, 804; destruc-
tive cavalry charge at, ib.
Baldock, the chancellor, capture and
death of, 289.
Balwin de Rivers, 159.
Baldwin de Bethune, 218.
Baliol, Edward, a candidate for the
Scottish throne, 266; Edward I.
decides in his favour, 267; insults
to which he is exposed, 268; does
homage to Edward I., 269; defeats
the royal army, and is crowned at
Scone, 296; expelled, 297; driven
from the throne, 302.
Ball, John, a priest of Kent, 332; his
Ballard, a Romish priest, instigates
the assassination of Queen Eliza-
Balmerino, Lord, beheaded, 703.
Baltic, naval expedition in the, 801.
Bancroft, Archbishop, 520.
Bangor, slaughter of the Britons at,
Bank Restriction Act passed, 761.
Bannockburn, battle of, 283.
Barcelona, siege and capture of, 670.
Barnet, battle of, 394.
Baron, title of, 114.
Barons, measures of Henry II. for
weakening their power, 207; their
revolt against the tyranny of King
John, 236; extort Magna Charta,
237; excommunicated by the Pope,
239; John revenges himself upon
them, ib.; their contests, 240;
swear fealty to Louis, the young
prince of France, ib.; their contests
with John, 241; defeated at Lin-
coln, 243; their contests with
Henry III., 250, 251; expel the
foreign favourites, 250; defeat the
king's forces at Lewes, 252; destroy
the authority of Henry VI., 386.
Barton, Elizabeth, the "Maid of
Kent," 440; executed, 441.
Bayard, Chevalier, 426.
Bayeux, capture of, 373.
Bayonne taken from the English,
Beachy Head, naval action off, 657.
Beaton, Archbishop, murder of, 446.
Beauchamp of Warwick, 377.
Beaufort, Cardinal, Bishop of Win-
chester, his priestly tyranny, 379.
Beaufort, Joanna, 376.
Beaufort, Margaret, 395.
Beauvais, Bishop, captured and im-
Becket, Thomas à, his rise in the
Church, 176, 177; his birth and
parentage, 177; Archdeacon and
Chancellor of England, 177; anec-
dotes of, 178; made Archbishop of
Canterbury, 179; his hypocritical
sanctity, 180; his insolent de-
mands, ib.; his violent opposition
to the Constitutions of Clarendon,
and rebellious spirit, 183, 184;
evils of the contests with, 188, 189;
his reconciliation with the king,
195; his arrival at Canterbury,
196; murder of, 197; consternation
at the deed, 199; declared a saint
and martyr, ib.; the king does
penance at his tomb, 205.
Bedford, John Plantagenet, Duke of,
defeats the allied squadrons of
Spain, Genoa, and France, 371;
his measures, 375, 376; defeats the
French army at Verneuil, 376.
Bedloe, the informer, 622.
Belasis, Mr., imprisoned, 556.
Belesme, Robert de, Earl of Shrews-
bury, charges against, 143; his ba-
nishment, 144; his reinstatement,
Belgæ, the, 94 n.
Belgium separated from Holland, 784;
Prince Leopold elected sovereign,
Belleisle, naval victory of, 704.
Benedict X., Pope, 87.
Benedict XIII., the rival pope of
Gregory XII., 358.
Benevolences declared illegal, 540;
exacted by Charles I., 542.
Bengal army, revolt of the, 810,
Beorn, the Saxon Thane, death of, 81.
Berkley, Sir Maurice, 463.
Berkley Castle, murder of Edward II.
Bernicians, the, 40.
Bertha, wife of Ethelbert, 43.
Bertrand de Guesclin, 321; his mili-
tary prowess and tactics, 322, 323.
Bertrand de Gourdon slays Richard I.,
Berwick, flight of Edward II. to, 284.
Berwick, James Duke of, one of the
greatest commanders of the age,
Bible, translation of the, 318, 454,
521; perverted to the justification
of the most odious crimes, 588.
Bigod, Roger, Earl of Norfolk, 273.
Billeting of soldiers as a penalty de-
clared illegal, 540.
Bishoprics of Ireland partly abo-
Bishops, impeachment of the, 564,
565; James the Second's proceed-
ings against seven of them for re-
fusing to read the "Declaration of
Indulgence," 642, 643; their trial
and acquittal, 643, 644.
Black Prince at the battle of Crecy,
306. (See EDWARD.)
Black Sea, naval expedition in the,
801, 807; disastrous storm in the,
Blue Bonnets of Scotland, their unex-
pected wealth received from the
delivering up of Charles I., 576.
Blunt, the director of the South Sea
bubble, 689, 690.
Boadicea, the British queen, 17; de-
feated and slain, 18.
Blackfriars Bridge built, 761.
Blake, Admiral, his naval operations
against the Spaniards, 501; ap-
pointed admiral of the fleet, 590;
retreats before the Dutch, 594; de-
feats the Dutch, 595; attacks and
burns the fleet of Spanish galleons
near the Canaries, 600.
Blanche of Castile sends succours to
Prince Louis of France, 243; at
war with England, 246.
Blenheim, battle of, 669.
Blois, royal house of, 156-171.
Blois, Count of. (See STEPHEN.)
Blondel, the troubadour, romantic
story of, 221.
"Bloody Assizes," 636.
"Bloody Mary," title of, applied to
Queen Mary, 470.
Bloody Statute, passing of the, 449.
Blore Heath, battle of, 387.
Blucher, General, at the battle of
Bohemia, blind king of, slain, 307;
James the First's interference with,
527; national agitation respecting,
Bohun, Humphrey de, Earl of Here-
Boleyn, Anna, history of, 435, 436;
married to Henry VIII., 440; be-
Bolingbroke, Henry of, eldest son of
John of Gaunt and cousin of
Richard II., 333, 343; minister of
Richard, 343; made Earl of Derby
and Duke of Hereford, 345; his
quarrel with Mowbray, Duke of Nor-
folk, 345, 346; banished, 346; his
return, 347; his assumption of
power, 348; proclaimed king, ib.
(see HENRY IV.).
Bolingbroke, St. John, Lord, 679; im-
peachment of, 683.
Bonaparte, Napoleou, recaptures Tou-
lon, 743; made general of the army
of Italy, 735. (See NAPOLEON I.)
Bonaparte, Josephi, King of Spain,
745; insurrection against, ib.
Bonaparte, Jerome, King of West-
Bonaparte, Louis, King of Holland,
Bonaparte, Lucien, 745; his epic
poem on Charlemagne, ib.
Boniface VIII. seized and insulted by
the French, 273.
Bonner, Bishop, imprisonment of,
457; his cruel persecutions, 467.
"Book of Sports," 550.
Bordeaux taken from the English,
Boroughbridge, battle of, 286.
Boscawen, Admiral, 714.
Boston, U. S., popular outbreak at,
Bothwell, husband of Mary Queen of
Bothwell Bridge, Covenanters de-
feated at, 623.
Boucher, Joan, executed for denying
the divinity of Christ, 456.
Boufflers, General, 663.
Boulogne, Henry the Eighth's expe-
dition against, 447; capture of,
447, 449; Napoleon's hostile atti-
tude at, and threatened invasion,
Bourbon, Duke of, sacks Rome, and
imprisons the Pope, 434; is killed,
Boyne, battle of the, 655.
Brackenbury, keeper of the Tower,
Braddock, General, 711.
Bradshaw, president, who tried King
Charles, 582; his body hung at
Brandon, Sir William, slain, 405.
Breadalbane, Earl of, 659.
Breda, peace of, 616.
Brenville, battle of, 148.
Brest taken possession of by the
British, 330; captured by Admiral
Breteuil, De, 140.
Bretigni, peace of, 320.
Bretons, their indignation against
King John, 231.
Brigantes, the, 18, 94.
Bright, John, his efforts for repealing
the Corn-Laws, 794.
Bristol, assault on, 569,
Bristol, Lord, 529, 530.
Britain, Celtic occupation of, 1 et seq.;
the different possessors of, 2; geo-
graphy of, 3; pursuits of the in-
habitants, ib.; their traffic and in-
tercourse with foreigners, 4, 5;
invaded by Julius Cæsar, 5; com-
paratively unknown at that period,
7; first dawnings of civilization
and art, 8; priests of, ib; conquests
of Vespasian and Ostorius Scapula,
14; invaded and reduced by Clau-
dius, 16; general state of before
the departure of the Romans, 28;
exposed to the attacks of the
northern barbarians, 29, 34; 80-
licits the Romans for assistance,
but in vain, 35; invaded by the
Danes, 50, 54. (See GREAT BRI-
British Museum established, 715.
Britons, Ancient, 2; their first expe-
dition to Gaul against Julius
Cæsar, 5; their resistance to the
Roman invasion, 6; their religion,
8, 9; slaughter of, at Bangor, 44.
Brittany, the great fief of, 303.
Brittany, Duke of, 376; supported by
Henry VII., 414,
Broke, Lord Willoughby de, 415.
Brougham, Lord, an advocate for
educating the poor, 768.
Brownists, punishment of, 491.
Bruce, Alexander, brother of Robert
Bruce, executed, 278.
Bruce, David, Prince of Scotland,
292; enters Scotland and expels
Baliol from the throne, 802.
Bruce, Edward, crowned king of
Ulster, 284; defeated and slain near
Bruce, Nigel, brother of Robert Bruce,
hanged at Berwick, 277.
Bruce, Robert, the Norman, 161.
Bruce, Robert, Lord of Carrick, a can-
didate for the Scottish crown, 266;
raises the standard of revolt, 270;
excites an insurrection against
English domination, 276; stabs
Earl Comyn, ib.; crowned at Scone
as Robert I. of Scotland, ib.; his
active measures for resisting Eng-
lish invasion, 277, 278; his energy
and activity in defending Scotland
against the English invasion,
Bruce, Thomas, brother of Robert
Bruce, executed, 278.
Bruges, flourishing state of, in the
fourteenth century, 298, 299; arti-
sans of, 372.
Brunswick, House of, 682 et seq.
Buckingham, Edward, Duke of, pro-
motes the usurpation of Richard
Duke of Gloucester, 399; conspires
in favour of Henry Duke of Rich-
mond, 401; betrayed and executed,
Buckingham, Edward Stafford, Duke
of, executed, 432.
Buckingham, George Villiers, Duke of,
favourite of James I., 524; extra-
ordinary honours conferred upon
him and his family, 525; his great
influence, 526; goes with Prince
Charles on a secret mission to
Madrid, 529; his arrogance, 533,
535; sent as special ambassador to
bring home Henrietta Maria of
France, 534; insulted by Cardinal
Richelieu, ib.; his treachery, 585;
impeached by Parliament, 537;
his hatred of Cardinal Richelieu,
539; his rash expedition against
the island of Rhé, ib.; his intended
expedition to Rochelle, 541; his
Bunker's Hill, battle of, 761.
Burgesses first summoned to Parlia-
Burgh-on-the-Sands, death of Edward
I. at, 278.
Burgoyne, General, his defeat and
surrender at Saratoga, 727.
Burgundians, 33; at war with the
Orleanists, 356, 359.
Burgundy, Duke of, 372, 376,
Burgundy, Duchess of, 413; recog-
nises Perkin Warbeck, 416.
Burgundy, Philip of, 417.
Burleigh, Lord, his hostility to the
Earl of Essex, 493.
Burley, Sir Simon, executed, 342.
Burton, his sentence reversed, 558.
Butchers, fraternity of, in Paris, 366.
Bute, Earl of, his great influence, 720;
retires from office, 721; Prime
Minister, 760; his resignation, 761.
Bye, religious sect so called, 507.
Byng, Admiral Sir George, destroys
the Spanish navy, 687; trial and
execution of, 708.
Byron, John, geographical discoveries
Byron, Lord, death of, 773.
CABAL MINISTRY, 617.
Cabul taken possession of, 813.
Cade, Jack, rebellion of, 383; is slain,
Cadiz, Drake's attack on, 488; cap-
tured by the English, 492.
Caen, capture of, 373.
Calais, siege of, 308; surrender of,
310; peace of, 319; capture of, 371,
373; captured by the French, 471.
Caledonians defeated by Agricola, 23;
defeated by Severus, 32.
Calendar, alteration of the, 707.
California, discovery of gold in, 797.
Camden, Marquis, 722, 724.
Camelodunum, capture of, 10, 11.
Cameronians of Scotland, 625; san-
guinary persecutions of, 628.
Campbell, Sir Colin (afterwards Lord
Clyde), appointed Commander-in-
Chief in India, 812; his victorious
Campbells of Glencoe, 659.
Campeggio, the papal legate, 437.
Canada, French settlement of, 710;
conquest of, 713; rebellion in, 787,
790; its causes, 789; its suppression,
791; Lord Durham sent as Lord
High Commissioner, ib.
Canning, Right Hon. George, 768;
appointed Secretary for Foreign
Affairs, 769; his political liberalism,
ib.; his declaration against the
French invasion of Spain, 770; ac-
knowledges the independence of
the Spanish American colonies, ib.;
becomes Prime Minister, 771; his
death, 772; his genius and talents,
Canning, Lord, Governor-General of
Cannon, first introduction of, 318.
Canterbury, monks of, driven out of
England, 241; Stephen Langton
appointed to the See of, 232.
Cantii, the, 94 n.
Canton, capture of, 810.
Canute, invasion of, 78; elected king
of England, ib.; his reign and cha-
Cape Breton ceded to France, 705.
Cape of Good Hope taken possession
Capel executed, 590.
Caractacus defeated and taken pri-
soner, 15, 32.
Caransius assassinated, 32.
Carew, Sir Peter, his rebellion, 463.
Caribert of Paris, 43.
Carisbroke Castle, Charles's flight to,
579; his attempt to escape from,
Carnarvon, first Prince of Wales born
Caroline, Queen of George II., death
Caroline, Queen of George IV., pro-
ceedings against, 765; Bill of Pains
and Penalties rejected, 766; her
conduct at the coronation of George
IV., ib.; her death, 767.
Carr, Robert, the favourite of James
I., afterwards Viscount Rochester
and Earl of Somerset, 521, 523;
his infamous character, 523; mar-
ries the divorced wife of the Earl
of Essex, ib.; his misery, 524; his
trial and disgrace, 524, 525.
Carrickfergus, King William lands at,
Carthagena, Admiral Vernon's failure
Cassivelaunus, the British king, 11.
Castlemaine, Lady, 611.
Castlereagh, Lord, his tyrannical
measures, 756, 757; commits sui-
Catesby, the gunpowder plot conspi-
rator, 513, 514.
Catherine of Braganza, queen of
Charles II., 611, 622, 623.
Catherine of France married to Henry
V., 372; his widow, 389.
Catherine de Medicis instigates the
massacre of St. Bartholomew, 481.
Catherine of Spain married to Prince
Arthur, son of Henry VII., 420.
Catholic emancipation, agitation on
behalf of, 771, 773, 774; bill for,
Catholic powers, their bitter hostility
against Protestantism, 481, 482.
Catholics. (See ROMAN CATHOLICS.)
Catieuchlani, the, 94 n.
Cato-street Conspiracy, 764, 765.
Caurasius, the Roman general, 25.
Cavalier, a name opposed to the
Cavaliers, armour of the, 338, 339;
defeated at Marston Moor, 571.
Cavaliers and Saints, 588.
Cawnpore, massacre of, 811.
Caxton, the introducer of printing,
Cecil, Robert Lord, Minister of Queen
Elizabeth, 473, 480; his death,
Celtic occupation of Britain, 1-11.
Celts, race of, 1; the early occupants
of Britain 2 et seq.; existing re-
mains of, 2; their reduction to
Chalgrove Field, fight at, 569.
Chalons, Count de, defeated by Prince
Edward in a tournament, 260.
Chancery, Court of, first established,
Chandos, Sir John, 317.
Charles of Blois, 303; made prisoner,
Charles, elector of Bavaria, 698.
Charles, prince, son of James I., 522;
Duke of Buckingham's influence
over, 526; goes on a secret mission
with Buckingham to Madrid to nego-
tiate a marriage with the Infanta,
529; affianced to Henrietta Maria
of France, 531. (See CHARLES L.)
Charles I., reign of, 532-586. (See
Charles I. of Spain, and V. of Ger-
many, 427. (See CHARLES V.)
Charles II. of England, rebellion in
Scotland in favour of, 591; crowned
at Scone, 592; advances into Eng-
land, 593; makes his escape from
England, ib.; apparent hopeless-
ness of his restoration, 599; ap-
plies for the hand of Cromwell's
daughter, ib.; comes to terms with
General Monk, and is proclaimed
king, 606; reign of, 607–630. (See
Charles Edward, the Pretender, his
visit to Scotland, 700. (See PRE-
Charles III. of Austria claimant of
the Spanish throne, 669.
Charles IV. of France, death of, 298.
Charles V. of France, character of,
321; summons Edward to appear
before him as his vassal, 322.
Charles V., Emperor of Germany,
427, 429; his detestable character,
429; his visits to Henry VIII., 430,
Charles VII., 375; his contests for
the crown, 379 et seq.
Charles VIII., Henry VII.'s secret
league with, 415.
Charles X. driven from the throne of
Charles XII., King of Sweden, 687.
Charente, defeat on the, 247.
Charlotte, Queen, Princess of Meck-
lenburg-Strelitz, married to George
III., 729; death of, 762.
Charlotte, Princess, death of, 758.
Charter of Forests confirmed by
Edward I., 272.
Charters first granted to cities and
Chartism, dangers of, 792; its leaders,
793; the five points of the Charter,
Chartist demonstrations, 796.
Chatham burnt by the Dutch, 616.
Chatham, William Pitt, Earl of, 724.
Chaucer, Geoffrey, 340.
Cheney, Sir John, slain, 405.
Cherbourg taken possession of by the
British, 330; surrenders to the