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French, 382; taken and destroyed,


Chevy Chace, battle of, 343.
China, disputes with in 1856, 809.
Christian religion first preached in
Britain, 32.
Christianity, its introduction

Britain, 21; its triumph over the
pantheism of Rome, 27; introduced
by Augustine, 43.
"Christopher," the great ship, cap-
tured by the French, 302.
Church, state of the, temp. Henry
II., 174, 175; its exorbitant powers,
179, 181; Constitutions of Clarendon
for retrenching its enormous powers,
182, 183; evils of the contests with
the, 190, 191; its hostility to Henry
IV., 353; its conspiracy to murder
him defeated, and the traitors exe-
cuted, ib.; proposals to seize their
temporalities, 357; powerful state
of the, temp. Henry V., 363, 364;
its sanguinary persecutions, 365;
its power and influence weakened
by the introduction of printing, 411;
entirely dependent on the crown,
temp. Edward VI., 453; great
changes in the, temp. Edward VI.,
455; outrages in the, 523; the
supporter of absolutism, 538, 539;
mutiny in the, 652; the bulwark
of the country against Dissenters,
Papists, &c., 684.

Church and clergy, state of the, under
the Anglo-Saxons, 61.
Church and State, contests between,


566, 567; conflicting parties en->
gaged in the, 580, 581.
Clarence, George Plantagenet, Duke
of, conspires against the king, 392;
rejoins him, 393; smothered for
alleged treason in a butt of Malm-
sey, 396.
Clarendon, Constitutions of, for re-
trenching the powers of the Church,
182, 183; opposed by Becket, 183.
Clarendon, Hyde Lord, 611; his
dishonesty, 616.

Clarkson, Mr., the great advocate for
slave emancipation, 781.
Claudius reduces Britain, 10.
Clement, Jacques, assassinates Henry
III., 491.

Clement VI. at Avignon, 312; a
check put to his church patronage,
313, 314.

temp. William II., 134; plots
against, 507; the country ripe for
any alterations in, 562.
Church of England, Henry VIII. de-
clared supreme head of the, 440;
services of the, restored, 474, 475;
general condition of the, 518,

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Clergy, influence of the, in the reign
of Stephen, 162, 163; King John's
exactions from the, 234; allowed
to marry, 455; ignorance of the,
temp. Edward VI., 458; condition
of the, temp. James I., 519; the
supporters of absolutism, 539.
Cleveland, Duchess of, 619.
Clifford, Sir Ralph, murder of, 341.
Cliffords, family of, reduced to abject
poverty, 391.

Clive, Lord, gains the battle of
Plassy, 713, 812.

Closter Seven, convention of, 714.
Cloth of Gold, Field of, 430.
Coalition Ministry of 1852-55, 788.
Coalitions formed against Stephen,159.
Cobden, William, his efforts for re-
pealing the corn-laws, 797.
Cobham, Eleanor, 380.

Cobham, Sir J. Oldcastle, Lord of, 365.
Cobham, Henry Lord, his trial and
condemnation, 508, 509.
Coifi, the priest, 44.

Coin, the first one made in Britain,


Coinage, gold and silver, fresh issue
of, 663.

Coke, Chief Justice, the wisest lawyer

of his age, 495; dismissed from his
office of Chief Justice, 526.
Coleman, secretary to James Duke of
York, executed, 622.

Colonial enterprise of England, temp.
Elizabeth, 483.
Colonization extensively promoted,
705, 706.

Commerce, great expansion of, 705,


Common Prayer, Book of, ordered to
be read, 454.

Commons, House of, their degradation

under the House of Tudor, 503; in-
sulted by James I., 523; refuse
supplies to Charles I., 537, 539;
their resistance to Charles, and the
interference of the Peers, 555; dis-
solved, 556; their bold proceedings,
abolish the Star Chamber,
High Commission, &c., 561; their
violent proceedings, 564; their
"Grand Remonstrance," ib.; im
peach the bishops, 564, 565; five
members accused of high treason;
565; cleared by Colonel Purge, 581,
582; their" Petition and Advice" to
Cromwell, 598. (See PARLIAMENT.)
Commonwealth, the, 587-606; state

of parties under the, 588, 589; its
vigorous measures, 590; Cromwell
becomes Lord Protector, 594. (See
Analysis, 587.)

Comyn, Earl of, 274; defeats the
English army, 275; son-in-law
of Baliol, ib.; stabbed by Bruce,

Conan, "the great burgess" of Rouen,
murdered, 125.

Constantius, Emperor, 25, 27; arrives
at the Isle of Wight, 32; his death
at York, ib.

Constantine the Great, 25, 28, 32.
Continental alliance, 770.
Convention Parliament, assembling of
the, 649; their important resolu-
tions, ib.

Convents, their numbers and wealth,

Convocation, Wolsey's imperious con-
duct to the, 434.

Cook, Captain, discoveries of, 761.
Cope, Sir John, defeated, 701, 702.
Copenhagen, British attack on, 744.
Corboil, William, Archbishop, 158.
Coritani, the, 94 n.
Corn-laws, distress and dissatisfaction

arising from the, 756, 757; agita-
tion for repealing the, 793; Lord
J. Russell's proposal for an eight-
shilling duty, 793; leading sup-
porters of the repeal, 794; Sir
Robert Peel's repeal of the, and
benefits thence arising, 795.
Cornavii, the 18, 94 n.

Cornwall, overrun by the Normans,
104; rebellion in, 418, 452.
Cornwallis, Lord, taken prisoner at
York Town, 730; Viceroy of Ire-
land, 738; subdues the Irish rebels,
and captures the invading French,

Corunna, victory of, 746.
Cosens, Bishop of Durham, 542.
Costumes of the people in the four-
teenth century, 337.

Council of Regency, temp. Henry III.,


Counties of England, 94.
Courtrai, the French defeated at, by
the Flemings, 275; battle of, 295.
Covenant formed in Scotland, 552.
Covenanters of Scotland, 556; pecu-
niary offering made to the, 561; in-
surrection of the, 623,
Cranmer, Thomas, Archbishop, s
humble chaplain, 438; made Arch-
bishop of Canterbury, 440; annuls
Henry's marriage with Catherine,
ib.; persecution of, 447; influence
of, 456; supports the Reformation,
457; his imprisonment, 462; Mary's
hatred to, 466; his forced recanta-
tion, 468; his execution, 469; his
high character, ib.

Crecy, battle of, 306; great number
slain at, 307.

Cressingham, the English treasurer,
killed, 271.

Crevant, victory of, 875.
Crew, John, imprisoned, 556.

Crimean war, 801, 803-808; gross
mismanagement of the, 806.
Criminal code of England the oppro-

brium of Europe, 767.

Cromwell, Oliver, his first speech in
Parliament, 543; his first appear-
ance among the parliamentary
forces, 569; his re-organization of
the troops, ib.; his Ironsides vic-
torious at the battle of Marston
Moor, 570, 571; appointed com-
mander of the parliamentary forces,
573; gains the battle of Naseby,
573; attempt to arrest him, 577;
declines negotiation with the king,
579, 580; closes the House of Com-
mons, 582; the undisputed master
of the army, ib.; his great qualities
ib.; Lord-Protector of the Com-
monwealth, 587-600; his success-
ful campaign in Ireland, 590; his

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victorious career in Scotland, 591,
592; pursues Charles II. into Eng-
land, and compels him to fly, 593;
his great ascendancy, ib.; becomes
Lord-Protector of the Common-
wealth, 594; his vigorous adminis-
tration 595 et seq.; forcibly dis-
solves Parliament, 595; and re-
forms another one, 596; refuses
the crown, 598; his high character,
599; nominates his son Richard to
the Protectorate, 600; his death,
ib.; his four children ib.; his body
hung on a gibbet at Tyburn, 609.
Cromwell, Richard, nominated as the
successor of his father, 600; suc-
ceeds to the Protectorate, 601
feebleness of his government, 602;
is compelled to restore the "Long
Parliament," 602; his resignation,
603; his imbecile character and
death, ib.

Cromwell, Thomas, defends Wolsey,
487; created Earl of Essex, and
becomes a great favourite of Henry,
444; his fall and execution, 445.
Crown, acceptance of the, refused by
Cromwell, 598; struggle between
the supremacy of, and the people,
632; lost prerogatives of the, 721.
Crusades to the Holy Land, com-
mencement of the, 132; crusade
temp. Henry II., 207; the king's
preparations for, arrested by the
rebellion of his sons, 208; prepara-
tions for the third one under
Richard I., 213; under Prince Ed-
ward in 1268, 256; Prince Richard,
Earl of Cornwall, departs for the,

Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, 798.
Culloden, battle of, 703.
Cumberland, Duke of, at the battle of
Fontenoy, 699; defeats the Pre-
tender at Culloden, 703; his butche-
ries, ib.

Cenobeline, the British king, 11.
Cuthbert, St., of Durham, 161.


Danes invade Britain, 50; capture
York and the whole of East Anglia,
54; their incursions and ravages
during Ethelred's reign, 70; their
massacre, 71; their vengeance, 72;
effect the conquest of England, ib.
Dangerfield, the murderer of Titus
Oates, hanged, 633.
Danish-English occupation, 49 et seq.
Danish and Anglo-Saxon territories,
56; their government and laws,

DALRYMPLE, Sir Hugh, 746.
Dalrymple, Sir John, 659.
Damnonii, the, 94 n.

Danby, Earl of, minister, 619, 621.
Dane-geldt, 71; tax of, 120; aboli-
tion of, 171.

Danelagh, territory of, 56.

Danish fleet, capture of the, 744.
Danube declared free, 809.
D'Argentine slain at Bannockburn,

Darnley, Lord Henry, murdered, 478.
Dauphin of France married to Mary
of Scotland, 471.

David I., King of Scotland, 157;

enters into hostilities against King
Stephen, 160, 161.

David II of Scotland taken prisoner,

David, Prince, brother of Llewellyn,

262; barbarously executed, 263.
Davison, Mr. Secretary, charged with
the obloquy of Queen Mary's death,

Day, imprisonment of, 457.
"Defender of the Faith," papal title
conferred on Henry VIII., 482.
Deirians, the, 40.

Delhi, butcheries of, 811; capture of,
and punishment of the Great Mogul,

Derby, Lord, his Ministry of 1852,
788; of 1855, ib.

De Ruyter, the Dutch admiral, 594;
sails up the Thames and Medway,
Derwentwater, Earl, beheaded for
treason, 686.
Desborough, General, 602; member
of a military government, 605.
De Spensers. (See SPENSERS.)
Dettingen, battle of, 699.
De Witt, Admiral, 615.
Dictum, 'The, 255.

Digby, Sir Everard, the Gunpowder
plot conspirator, 513, 514.

Digges, Sir Dudley, 537; made Mas-
ter of the Rolls, 543.

Dighton, murderer of the Royal
Princes of York, 400.
Dilkes, Admiral, his naval victories
over the French, 681.

Divorce of Henry VIII., discussions
on the, 437, 438; decision of the
Pope against, 439; the universities
in favour of, 440.

Dobuni, the, 7, 94 n.
Dominican friars, great number of,


Doomsday Book, 113 et seq.
Douglas, Earl, ravages the north of
England, 285.

Douglas, the Regent of Scotland,
slain, 297.

Douglas, the Scottish chief, 343.
Douglas, Earl, defeated at Homildon

Hill, 354.

Downes, John, 584.

D'Oysel, the French General, 477.
Drake, Admiral Sir Francis, his va-
lorous career, 482; his gallantry
against the Spaniards, 489.
Drogheda, storming of, 590.
Druidism, its extinction, 21.
Druids, the priests of ancient Britain,

8; their religious ceremonies, 9;
their sacrifice of human victims, ib.;
their temples, altars, cromlechs,
and barrows, ib.; their baleful su-
premacy, 10; their hostility to the
Romans, 16; their slaughter, 17.
Dudley, the infamous informer, 420;
executed, 425; father of the Duke
of Northumberland, 453.
Dudley, Lord Guildford, married to
Lady Jane Grey, 458; his execu-
tion, 464.




Henry IV., 360.

Dunbar, battle of, 592.
Dunblane, battle of, 685.

Duncan, Admiral, his victories, 736.
Dunkirk sold to the King of France,
612; demolition of its walls, 678.
Dunois of France, 376, 377.
Dunstan, St. (See St. Dunstan.)
Durbam, Lord, sent to Canada as
Lord High Commissioner, 791.
Durotriges, the, 94 n.
Dutch, their naval operations against
the Spaniards, 492; destroy the
Spanish squadron at Dover, 554;
our naval contests with the, 594,
595, 613-15; joined by Louis XIV.,
615; their great efforts, ib.; sail up
the Thames and Medway, and burn
Chatham, 616; Charles's secret al-
liance with France against the,
617; war declared against them,

618; their naval action off Beachy
Head, 657. (See FLANDERS and


EADMER, Abbot of St. Albans, 138.
Ealstan, Bishop, 51.

Earls, their great power in our early
history, 79.
East-Angles, kingdom of, 39, 40, 48,

94 n.

East India Company, its establish-
ment, 812; its prosperous career,
813; their government of India
transferred to the Imperial Crown
of England, 814.
East-Saxons, kingdom of the, 94 m.
Ecclesiastical Commission, court of,

Ecclesiastical States annexed to the
French empire, 747.

Edda, the, 44.

Edgar, reign of, 66; his fortunate
position, ib.; his wife Elfrida, 66,
67; his debaucheries and crimes,

Edgar, son of the Atheling, 85.
Edgar Atheling, 100, 104; his flight,


Edgehill, battle of, 586.

Edgitha, or Edith, daughter of Earl

Godwin, marries Edward the Con-
fessor, 80; her imprisonment, 82;
her liberation, 85.

Edinburgh captured by Bruce, 281.
Edmund, the Saxon king, 61.
Edmund II. (Ironside), son of Ethel-
red, death of, 73.

Edmund, son of Henry III., 249.
Edred, reign of, 61.

Edward I., son of Alfred, his reign,

Edward II., the Saxon king, 68; as-
sassinated, 69.

Edward, the Outlaw, 85.
Edward III., the Confessor, son of
Ethelred, 73, 76; reign of, 78; his
death, 88; laws of, 88. 89; reve-
rence in which his laws were held
by the later Saxons, 142.
Edward, Prince, son of Henry III.,
250, 251; taken prisoner by Simon
de Montfort, 252; his plots against
Montfort and the newly-constituted
Parliament, 253; defeats De Mont-
fort at the battle of Evesham, 254;
his crusade to the Holy Land, 256;

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his long absence, 257. (See ED-

Edward I., reign of, 258-278. (See
Analysis, 258.)
Edward, Prince, son of Edward I.,
knighted, 277.
Edward II. born at Carnarvon, and
styled Prince of Wales, 278; reign
of, 279-290. (See Analysis.)
Edward III., reign of, 291-327. (See
Analysis, 291.)

Edward the Black Prince (son of
Edward III.), at the battle of
Crecy, 306; in Languedoc, 315; his
conquests in the South of France,
315; at the battle of Poitiers, 318;
his victories in France, 321, 322;
his death, 324.
Edward IV. proclaimed king during
the life-time of Henry VI., 389;
reign of, 390-397. (See Analysis,

Edward V. succeeds to the throne,
but is never crowned, 898; mur-
dered in the Tower, 400. (See Ana-
lysis, 398.)
Edward, Prince (afterwards Ed-
ward VI.), birth of, 443.

Edward VI., reign of, 450-458. (See
Analysis, 450.)

Edwin, Earl of Northumberland, 100.
Edwin, King of Northumbria, 44.
Edwy, reign of, 65; his contests with
St. Dunstan, ib.

Egbert, the first sole monarch of the
kingdom, 47; his death, ib.; its con-
sequences, 48.


Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV.,
402; her hand solicited by Richard
III., ib.
Elizabeth,Princess (afterwards queen),
birth of, 441; declared illegitimate,
450; imprisonment of, 464; Queen,
reign of, 472-501. (See Analysis,

Egypt, Napoleon's expedition to, 739.
Elba, Napoleon banished to, 750; his
escape from, 751.

Elderslie, Knight of. (See WALLACE.)
Eldon, Lord, his unconstitutional de-
finition of treason, 757; his horror
of reform, 767, 768; his Tory fana-
ticism, 770; withdraws from the
woolsack, 772.

Eldred, Archbishop of York, 101, 106.
Eleanor, Queen of Henry II., her
detestable character, 203; widow
of Henry, 229, 230.
Elfrida, wife of Edgar, 66, 67, 69.
Elgin, Lord, sent as high commissioner
to China, 810; directs his forces to
India, ib.

Elgiva, wife of Edwy, 65.
Eliot, Sir John, 537, 538; imprison-
ment of, 543.

Elizabeth, Princess, daughter of
James I., married to the Prince
Palatine of the Rhine, 522.
Ella, King of Northumbria, 52, 54.
Ellenborough, Lord, 748; made go-

vernor-general, 814,

Emma, queen of Canute, 74, 76, 80.
Empsom, the infamous informer, 420;
executed, 425.

England, state of society in, under
the Saxon rule, 91, 92; geogra-
phical and political divisions of,
previous to the Norman Conquest,
94 n.; general survey of, under the
Norman conqueror, called Dooms-
day, 113-115; its position relative
to the Duchy of Normandy, 124;
the Norman barons interested in
uniting her under the same sove-
reign, 125, 126; state of, at the
close of Richard I.'s reign and the
beginning of John's, 225, 227; al-
tered position of, temp. Edward I.,
259; state of, in the fourteenth
century, 295, 296; prosperous career
of her arms after the battle of
Crecy, 311; the entire revenue of,
temp. Henry V., 371; assumes the
station of the first of Protestant
powers, 482. (See BRITAIN and

Episcopacy, vain attempts to intro-
duce it into Scotland, 550, 552.
Episcopal Church, tyranny of the, 613.
Eric, son of Hengist, 38.
Eric of Norway, 266.
Ermine-street road, 23 n.
Erskine, Lord, 743.
Essex, Saxon kingdom of, 39, 40;
men of, 384.

Essex, Robert Devereux, Earl of, cap-
tures Cadiz, 492; assails the Spanish
settlements, ib.; incurs the displea-
sure of the queen, 493; appointed
viceroy of Ireland, 494; negotiates
a peace with the rebel O'Neil, ib. ;
charges against, ib.; his mad re-
bellion, 495; his condemnation and

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