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execution, 496; popular feeling in
favour of, ib.

Essex, Earl of, son of the preceding,
divorced from his wife, 523.
Essex, Earl of, leader of the parlia-
mentary forces, 568 et seq.; loses
his army in Cornwall, 572.
Essex, Thomas, Earl of. (See CROM-

Ethelbert, king of Kent, 43.
Ethelred II., reign of, 70; his con-
tests with the Danes, 70, 71; his
flight, 72; his death, 73; his sons,
Edward and Alfred, ib.

Ethelwolf defeats the Norsemen, 51.
Etymology of the names of places in
England, 93, 94.

Eugene, Prince of Savoy, leads the
army of the Empire against France,
669; one of the greatest com-
manders of the age, 674.
Europe, unsettled state of, on the
accession of Victoria, 790.

Eustace de Breteuil, and Juliana his
wife, 124.

Eustace of Boulogne, 81, 102.
Eustace de Saint Pierre, 309.
Evesham, battle of, 255.

Ewer, Col., governor of the Isle of
Wight, 581.

Exchequer, Court of, first established,
120; Charles II. breaks open its
coffers, 618.
Excommunication against King John,
233; its evils, 233, 234.
Exeter besieged by the Normans, 103.
Exeter, Henry Duke of, impoverish-
ment of, 391.
Exton, Sir Piers, 351.



Fairfax, leader of the parliamentary
forces, 571; nominated commander-
in-chief, 573.

Fairfax, Lady, 584.
Falconbridge, 357.
Falkirk, battle of, 273, 278; Wallace
defeated at, 278.
Falkland, Lord, 562: eloquence of,
564; slain, 570; his character, ib.
Falstaff, Sir John, 355.
"Family Compact" between France
and Spain, 720.

Fashions of the fourteenth century,

337, 338.

Fast days abrogated, 455.

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Feudal castles, disappearance of, 516.
Feudal lords, their peculiar privileges,


Feudal servitude, relics of abolished,


Feudal system introduced by the
Norman conquerors, 109; the whole
kingdom divided into manors-in-
chief, 110; ceremony of receiving
the feud, 110, 111; a knight's fee,
111; rights and privileges attached
thereto, 112.
Feudalism, decline of, temp. Edward
III, 295; tottering state of, $18;
strength of, terminated with the
accession of the Tudors, 407.
Feudatories in the reign of John, 227.
Fifth Monarchy-men, 602.
Finch, Lord Keeper, lectures the Com-
mons, 555; flight of, 558.
Finesterre, naval victory of, 704.
Fire of London, 616.

Fires in nearly all the cities of Eng-
land in 1087, 120.

First fruits, payment refused, 440.
Fisher, Bishop, refuses to acknow-

ledge the king's supremacy, 440;
his execution, ib.

Fisheries, encouragement of the, 705.
Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, his execu
tion, 736.

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Foreigners, their evil influence, temp.
Henry III., 247.

Forest, murderer of the royal princes
of York, 400.

Forest, New, its great extent, 117.
Forest bounds, royal exactions on,

Forest laws, their oppressive charac-
ter, 130.

Forfeitures for treason, 686.
Forster, condemnation of, for treason,

Fortification of our dockyards neg-
lected, 782.

Fosse road, 23 n.
Fotheringay Castle, the place of
Queen Mary's confinement, 485.
Fox, Charles, his contests with Pitt,
731; death of, 743.


through, ib.; distracted state of,
and Henry the Fifth's claims to the
sovereignty, 366; invasion of, 367;
battle of Agincourt, 368, 369;
Henry's second invasion of, 371;
Henry V. acknowledged as sove-
reign, 372; Henry VI. proclaimed
king, 375; military contests in, ib.;
the English expelled from, 382;
Henry the Eighth's campaign
against, 447; war with, temp. Mary,
470, 471; peace with, 475; com-
bines with Spain to exterminate
heresy, 481; affairs of, temp. Eliza-
beth, 491; Charles I. declares war
against, 589; despotic rule of, 545;
the Huguenots crushed, ib.; war
declared against, 652; at war re-
specting the Spanish succession,
669; her armies expelled from the
Netherlands, ib.; successes of, during
the absence of the English troops
from the Continent, 704; our naval
victories over, ib.; war with, 708,
735; enters into an alliance with
the North American colonists, 729;
war declared against, ib.; revolu-
tion of, 1789, 733, (see FRENCH
REVOLUTION); threatened invasion
from. 786; victorious career of the
republic, 738; renews the war
against England, 742; everywhere
successful by land, but defeated by
sea, ib.; her great power and ex-
tent under Napoleon, 747; march
of the allies into, and overthrow of
Napoleon, 749, 750, (see NAPO-
LEON I.); heavy impost levied on
her, 755; revolution of 1830, 778;
Charles X. driven from the throne,
778; to which Louis Philippe suc-
ceeds, 784; revolution of 1848, 797;
Louis Napoleon becomes Emperor,
800, (see NAPOLEON III.); in alli-
ance with England against Russia,

Fox, W. J., his efforts for repealing

the Corn Laws, 794.
France, sovereigns of, contemporary
with the different kings of Eng-
land, 90, 121 et seq., at the com-
mencement of each chapter;
invaded by William I., 117;
Henry I. of England at war with,
147, 148; contests with, temp.
Richard I., 223, 224; war com-
menced with, in 1201, when the
barons refuse to attend John in his
wars, 241; her fleets defeated by
Hubert de Burgh, 243; war with, in
1225, 245; English possessions in,
269; contests in, with Philip the
Fair, 271; peace with, 273; chi-
valry of, defeated by the Flemings
at Courtrai, 275; her alliance with
Edward 1., ib.; treaty of free trade
with, in 1325, 290; war with, temp.
Edward III., 297; her hostile pre-
parations against England under
Philip VI., 301; her fleet signally
defeated, 302; victorious career of
the English, temp. Edward III.,
315; her army defeated at Poitiers,
317; peace concluded with, 319;
her great concessions, ib.; civil war
in, 320; English invasion of, ib.;
war with, renewed, 322; Edward
III. proclaims himself king of, 323;
war with, temp. Richard II., 330;
insurrectionary struggles in, 356;
civil commotion and anarchy in,
358,359; contests of the Orleanists
and Burgundians, 359; interference
of the English, and march of troops

Francis, Duke of Tuscany, 698.
Francis I. of France, 429; his inter-
view with Henry VIII., 430, 431;
defeated at Pavia, and taken pri-
soner, 434.

Francis II. of France, husband of
Mary Queen of Scots, 478; his
death, ib

Francis II. of Germany relinquishes
the title of Emperor of Germany,


Franciscan friars, great number of,


Franklin, degraded condition of the,


Frederick of the Rhine crowned king
of Bohemia, 527; national agita-
tion respecting, 528.
Frederick II. of Prussia

Maria Theresa, 698; his alliance
with England, 709, 714.
"Free Companions," their defeat,

Free Trade supported by Mr. Hus-
kisson, 770; its prosperous results,
770, 771; with France, 815.
French, their evil influence in Eng-
land, temp. Henry IV., 247, 248;
ravage the Isle of Wight, and burn
our maritime towns, 329, 356; their
fleet destroyed in Milford Haven,
361; invade Scotland, 477; driven
from Flanders, Italy, Sardinia, &c.,
675; their successes, 714. (See

French Revolution of 1789, 733; its
sanguinary horrors, 734; the Reign
of Terror, ib.; the guillotine con-
stantly at work, ib.; the French
everywhere victorious, 735; their
landing in Ireland, and capture,
788; revolution of 1830, 778; re-
volution of 1848,797. (See FRANCE.)
Frobisher, Admiral, his gallantry
against the Spaniards, 489; his
capture of Brest, 492.
Frost, the Chartist, 798.
Fulk of Anjou, 146, 147; made king
of Jerusalem, 150.

Fulk de Breaute, 259.


GADENI, the, 94 n.

Gaels, the early, 3, 5, 161.

Gage, General, 726.

Galgacus, the Caledonian chief, 23.
Game laws, their severity under the
Normans, 131.
Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, a
fierce Romanist, 447; imprisonment
of, 457; made Chancellor, 462; his
persecutions, 466; his influence,
ib.; death of, 467.

Garnet, the Jesuit, 514; executed,

Gascony, vassals of, quelled by Ed-
ward I., 264.
Gates, General, 728.

Gaucourt, of France, 376.
Gaveston, Piers, his banishment, 280;
his execution, ib.
Geddes, Janet, 550.

General warrants declared illegal, 722.
Geoffrey, Archbishop of Rouen, aids
his brother John in deposing Chan-
cellor Longchamp, 215; is nomi-
nated in his stead, 216.

Geoffrey of Anjou, husband of Matilda,
subdues Normandy, 169; his son
Henry, ib.

Geoffrey Plantagenet married to the
Empress Matilda, daughter of
Henry I., 150.

Geoffrey, Prince, natural son of
Henry II., revolts against his father,

George, Sir Ferdinando, 495.
George, Prince of Denmark, 646.
George, Prince of Hanover (afterwards
George I.), 679, 680.

George I., reign of, 682-692. (See
Analysis, 682.)
George II., reign of 693-715. (See
Analysis, 693.)

George III., reign of, 716-762; (see
Analysis, 716); his hopeless in-
sanity, 755; his death and cha-
racter, 760.
George IV., reign of, 763-776. (See
Analysis, 763.)

German troops invade England under
Martin Swartz, 413; defeated, 414.
Germans of Auxerre, 37.
Germany, contemporary emperors of,
from the accession of the Tudors,
406 et seq., at the beginning of
each succeeding chapter; title of
emperor extinguished, 742.
Ghent, flourishing state of, in the four-
teenth century, 298, 299; Van
Arteveldt of, 299; insurrection in,
305; artisans of, 372.

Gibraltar, capture of, 670; invested,

Glanville's digests of the laws of Eng-
land, 210.

Glencoe, massacre of, 659.
Glendower, Owen, leader of the
Welsh, 354, 355; his fierce contests
with Henry IV.. 855, 356; de-
feated at Shrewsbury, 355; sup-
ported by the French, 856; his
final defeat, 358; his character, ib.
Gloucester, Duke of, uncle of Richard
II., 341; his dismissal from power,

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343; received into favour, 844;
seized and murdered, 345.
Gloucester, Duke of, married to
Jacqueline of Hainault, 380; his
contests with Cardinal Beaufort,
881; death of, 382.
Gloucester, Richard Plantagenet,
Duke of, 398; nominates himself
Protector of the kingdom, ib.; his
violent proceedings, 399; his exe-
cution of Lord Hastings and others,
ib.; his usurpation of the Crown,
400 (See RICHARD III.)
Goderich, Lord, Prime Minister, 776.
Godfrey de Bouillon, leader of the
Crusades, 133.

Godfrey, Sir C., murdered, 622.
Godolphin, Lord, made Treasurer,

Godwin, Earl, 78; his five sons, 79;
his revolt, and seizure of his estates,
83; his restoration, 85; his ill-
fated widow, 103.
Gold discovered in California, 797;
in British Australia, 797, 798.
Good Duke Humphrey, 382.
Gordon, Lady Catherine, married to
Perkin Warbeck, 418; seized by
the king, 419.

Gordon, Lord George, riots of, 761.
Grampound, bill for disfranchising,
rejected, 765.

"Grand Remonstrance" of the House
of Commons, 564.

Grasse, Count de, 730.
Graville, English defeated at, 375.
Great Britain (see BRITAIN), so called

after the Union with Scotland,
temp. James I., 516; her union
with Ireland, 739.

Greece, emancipation of, 773.
Greenway, the Jesuit, 514.
Greenwich Hospital, foundation of,


Gregory VII., Pope, 95.
Gregory XII., the rival Pope of Be-
nedict XIII., 358.


Grey, Sir John, widow of, married to
Edward IV., 392.

Grey, Thomas, Lord, trial and con-
demnation of, 508, 509.

Grey, Lord, retires from the Ministry,
782; made Prime Minister, 787.
Grim, Edward, 198.

Guido, the Gunpowder Plot conspi-
rator, 513.

Guienne taken from the English,


Gresham, Sir Thomas, 501.
Guy of Flanders, daughter of, 271;
regal competition for her hand, ib.
Grey, Lady Jane, daughter of the
Duke of Suffolk, married to Lord
Guildford Dudley, 458; proclaimed
queen by the Duke of Northumber-
land, 458, 460; want of enthu-
siasm in her favour, 460; her exe-
cution, 464.

Guise, Duke of, 470; captures Calais,

471; his violent persecutions, 477.
Gunpowder Plot, 512, 513; sangui-
nary laws passed against the pre-
sumed abettors, 514, 515.
Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden,

Guthrum, the Danish king, 56, 59.
Gwynne, Nell, 630.

Gwynneth, Owen, of Wales, 189.


Hacker, Colonel, 585.

Hadrian erects the Picts' Wall, 25.
Hainault, invasion of, 376.
Hainault, John of, 307.
Hal, our English, 429.
Halford, Sir Henry, 585.
Halidon Hill, battle of, 297.
Hamilton executed, 590.
Hamilton, Duke of, 673.

Hammond, governor of Carisbroke

Castle, 579.

Hampden, John, 538; his resistance
to ship-money, 549; his trial and
conviction, 551; accused of high
treason, 565; shot on the field of
battle, 569.
Hampshire, great part of, appropriated
to the New Forest, 120.
Hampton Court, religious conferences
at, 510; James First's speech at,

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his rise, 85; succeeds to the throne,
88,95; his preparations for resisting
the Norman invasion, 96; defeats
Tostig and Harold Hardrada, ib.;
defeated and slain at the battle of
Hastings, 99.

Harold Hardrada, defeated by Harold,


Harrison the regicide, executed, 609.
Harrison, John, Parliamentary grant
to, for his time-piece for discovering
the longitude, 761.

Harry of Monmouth, 859.
Hastings, battle of, 98, 99; reflections
on, and its consequences, 100; burnt
by the Spaniards, 329.
Hastings, Lord, executed by Richard
Duke of Gloucester, 399.
Hastings, Warren, impeachment and
trial of, 732, 733.

Havannah, capture of, 721.
Havelock, General, his heroism and
skill, 811.

Hawke, Admiral, 714, 715.
Hawkins, Admiral, 483;

his gal-
lantry against the Spaniards, 489.
Hawley, General, 702.

Hazlerig accused of high treason,

Heath, imprisonment of, 457.
Helie de St. Saen, 146.

Helvic, Sir, Lord de la Marche, 136.
Hengist and Horsa, 38.
Hennebon, castle of, besieged, 303;
relieved, 304.
Henrietta Maria of France affianced
to Charles, Prince of Wales, 531;
consort of Charles I., 534; re-
proaches her husband with cowar-
dice, 565; her flight, 572; visits
her son, Charles II., after his acces-
sion, 611.

Henry of Normandy at war with his
two brothers, 126.

Henry, Bishop of Winchester, 162.
Henry de Bohun slain by Robert
Bruce, 283.

Henry of Winchester gives in his ad-
hesion to the Empress Matilda,
167; he afterwards excommuni-
cates her, 168.

Henry de Trastamar, 322; assassi-
nates his half-brother, Peter the
Cruel, ib.

Henry, Prince of Scotland, 161.
Henry, Prince, son of Henry II., 203;
his revolt, ib.; defeated by his father,

204; obtains his forgiveness, 206;
again rebels, 208; his death, ið.
Henry I., son of the Conqueror, reiga

of, 139-155. (See Analysis, 139.)
Henry II. (Plantagenet), son of the
Empress Matilda, 170; his qualities
and influence, ib.; acknowledged as
Stephen's successor, 171; his reign,
172-210. (See Analysis, 172.)
Henry II., Emperor of Germany, ex-

torts a heavy ransom for the libera-
tion of Richard I. of England,
220; his baseness and treachery,


Henry III., reign of, 242–257. (See
Analysis, 242.)

Henry III. of France assassinated,


Henry IV., reign of, 350-361 (see
Analysis, 350); from him originates
the contests between the Houses of
York and Lancaster, 352.

Henry IV. of France assisted by
Elizabeth, 491; conforms to Ro-
manism, ib.; courts the assistance
of James I., 506.

Henry V., reign of, 362-373. (See
Analysis, 362)

Henry VI., reign of, 374-389 (see
Analysis, 374); imprisoned in the
Tower, 393; his death, ib.
Henry of Richmond seeks safety with
the Duke of Brittany, 395; after-
wards Henry VII., 406.
Henry VII. (Richmond), his reign,
406-422 (see Analysis, 406); his
character and political domination,


Henry VIII., reign of, 423-449. (See
Analysis, 423.)

Henry, Prince of Wales, son of James
I., death of, 522.

Heptarchy, the Seven States of the,
40; its annals confused, 45; its
termination, 47; different kingdoms
of the, 94 n.

Heretics, statute for the burning of,


Hereward, the Saxon patriot, 107.
Hesse, Prince of, 670.

Hesus, the Druidical deity, 17.
Hexham, battle of, 392.

High Commission abolished, 561.
Hildebrand, Pope, 95.
Hill, Abigail, triumph of, 676.
Hindostan, affairs of, 713; mutiny in,
810. (See INDIA.)

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